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Achelis, Dr. Th. Animal Worship. From the Standpoint of Ethnic Psy- 
chology 705 

Agrapha, The ; or, Unrecorded Sayings of Jesus Christ. Rev. Bernhard Pick, 

Ph.D., D.D. With a Fac-simile of the Newly Discovered Logia 525 

Alcott, Amos Bronson. Biographical Sketch. With Portrait 572 

Ancestors, The Religion of Our. Norse Mythology. Illustrated. Dr. Paul 

Carus 177 

Animal Worship. From the Standpoint of Ethnic Psychology. Dr. Th. 

Achelis 705 

Anti- Vivisection Movement, The Immorality of the. Dr. Paul Carus 370 

Avatars, The. Illustrated. Dr. Paul Carus 464 

Barrows, The Rev. Dr. John Henry. A Controversy on Buddhism 46 

Bierbower, Austin. Socialism and Births 750 

Brunetiere, M. , on Education. Theodore Stanton 509 

Buddhism, A Controversy on. Between the Rt. Rev. Shaku Soyen, 43; the 

Rev. Dr. John Henry Barrows, 46 ; and the Rev. Dr. F. F. Ellinwood, 46. 

Buddhism, Is there More than One ? In Reply to the Rev. Dr. Ellinwood. 

Anagarika H. Dharmapala 82 

Buddhists, The Sacred Books of the. An Open Letter to the King of Siam. 

Albert J. Edmunds 698 

Campbell, A. F. , Secretary Departmeiit of Police, Chicago. The Department 

of Police as a Means of Distributing Charity 333 

Cannon-Fire, The Ordeal of. Dr. Felix L. Oswald 150 

Canonisation, The, of Two New Saints. Prof. G. Fiamingo 513 

Cantor, Prof. Moritz. The Life of Pythagoras. With Portrait 321 

Carruth, W. H. See Luther, Cornill, and Rosegger 

Carus, Dr. Paul. Salutatory, i. — The Trinity Idea. Illustrated. 85. — Maz- 
daism. The Religion of the Ancient Persians. Illustrated. 141 — Schiller 
as a Prophet. With Portrait. 214— Is the Church Responsible for the 
Inquisition ? Illustrated. 225. — The Prophet of Pessimism. Illustrated. 
257. — Is Ethics Possible? Editorial Reply to Mr. Llano. 295. — The 
Immorality of the Anti-Vivisection Movement. 370. — Eschatology in 
Christian Art. Illustrated. 401. — The Avatars. Illustrated. 464. — The 
Migration of a Fable. Illustrated 504. — Philosophical Parties and their 
Significance as Factors in the Evolution of Thought. 564. — The Person- 



ality of God. Correspondence Between Pere Hyacinthe Loyson and Dr. 

Paul Cams. 6i8. — Death in Religious Art. Illustrated. 678. — The 

Christian Conception of Death. Illustrated. 752. 

Catholicism in Italy. Prof. G. Flamingo 412 

Chartists, The Last of the. George Julien Harney. His Eightieth Birthday. 246 
Chicago Seventy-six Years Ago. As it Appeared to a United States Senator. 

From the Diary of Col. Wm. H. Trimble of Hillsboro, 244 

Chicago and Its Administration. The Hon. Lyman J. Gage 193 

Commercial Morality. George Jacob Holyoake 249 

Conway, Dr. Moncure D. The Centenary of Theophilanthropy. 65. — The 

Evolution of Evolution 498 

Cornill, Carl Heinrich. Science in Theology. 35. — History of the People of 

Israel. 385, 483, 542, 585, 654, 733. 

Darrow, Emilie H. An Evening Prayer. Poem 312 

Death in Religious Art. Illustrated. Dr. Paul Cams 678 

Death, The Christian Conception of. Illustrated. Dr. Paul Cams 752 

Determinism and Monism Versus Morality. Antonio Llano. (With Editorial 

Reply) 440 

Developmental Ethics. Antonio Llano 162, 280 

Dharmapala, H., Anagarika. Is there More than One Buddhism. In Reply to 

the Rev. Dr. Ellinwood 

Dissecting-Room, In the. A Dialogue. Peter Rosegger 365 

Dove, The. A Fairy-Story. After the German of Albert Roderich 120 

Edmunds, Albert J. The Sacred Books of the Buddhists. An Open Letter to 

the King of Siam 698 

Ellinwood, The Rev. Dr. F. F. A Controversy on Buddhism 46 

Eschatology in Christian Art. Illustrated. Dr. Paul Cams 401 

Ethics Possible, Is ? Editorial Reply to Mr. Llano. Dr. Paul Cams 295 

Ethnological Jurisprudence, An Introduction to the Study of. The late Justice 

Albert Hermann Post 641, 718 

Euler, Leonhard. Swiss Mathematician. Biographical sketch. With Por- 
trait, T. J. McCormack 696 

Evolution of Evolution, The. Dr. Moncure D. Conway 498 

Fable, The Migration of a. Illustrated. Dr. Paul Carus 504 

Fiamingo, Prof. G. The Next Papal Conclave. 135. — Catholicism in Italy. 

412. — The Canonisation of Two New Saints. Illustrated. 513. 

Gage, Hon. Lyman J. Chicago and Its Administration 193 

God, The Personality of. Correspondence Between Pere Hyacinthe Loyson 

and Dr. Paul Carus 618 

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. A Characterisation. With Portrait 636 

Goeze, The Rev. J. M. and Lessing. With Portrait of Lessing 437 

Harney, George Julian. The Last of the Chartists. His Eightieth Birthday. 246 
Hayashi, D. The Man in the Well. A Parable Translated from a Chinese 

Sutra 503 

Hoenbroecht, Count 311 

Holyoake, George Jacob. Commercial Morality 249 

In Nubibus. The Cogitations of a Smoking Philosopher. Canon G. J. Low. 

116, 155, 424 
Inquisition, Is the Church Responsible for the ? Illustrated. Dr. Paul Carus 225 
Islam, The Religion of. Hyacinthe Loyson 449 



Israel, History of the People of. From the Beginning to the Destruction of 

Jerusalem. Dr. C. H. Cornill 385, 483, 542, 585, 654, 733 

Jeypore Portfolio of Architectural Details, The 443 

Jews, Historical Sketch of the, Since Their Return from Babylon. Illustrated. 

The Rev. Bernhard Pick, Ph.D., D.D 265, 337 

Johnston, Charles. Shankara, Teacher of India 559 

Lagrange, Joseph Louis, Mathematician. Biographical Sketch. With Por- 
trait. T. J. McCormack 764 

Lamarck, and Neo-Lamarckianism. Prof. A. S. Packard 70 

Lion, The, and the Ass. A Fable by Martin Luther. Translated by W. H. 

Carruth 221 

Llano, Antonio. Developmental Ethics 162, 280 

Low, Canon G. J. In Nubibus. The Cogitations of a Smoking Philoso- 
pher 116, 15s, 424 

Loyson, Pere Hyacinthe. The Religion of Islam. 449. — Biographical Sketch 
and Portrait. 507. — The Personality of God. Correspondence Between 

Pere Hyacinthe Loyson and Dr. Paul Cams 618 

Luther, Martin, Dr. On Trade and Usury. Translated by W. H. Carruth, 

16. — The Lion and the Ass. A Fable. Translated by W. H. Carruth. . . 221 
Mazdaism. The Religion of the Ancient Persians. Illustrated. Dr. Paul 

Cams 141 

McCormack, T. J. Leonhard Euler, 696. Joseph Louis Lagrange 764 

Mission Ruins of California, The. Illustrated. J. M. Scanland 602 

Municipal Life in New Zealand. The Hon. Sir Robert Stout, K. C. M. G. . . 577 

Ney, Elisabet. The Sculptress. Reminiscences 309 

Odgers, James. The Religion of Science : the Worship of Beneficence 671 

Oswald, Dr. Felix L. The Ordeal of Cannon-Fire 150 

Packard, Prof. A. S. Lamarck, and Neo-Lamarckianism 70 

Papal Conclave, The Next. Prof. G. Fiamingo 135 

Philosophical Parties and Their Significance as Factors in the Evolution of 

Thought. Dr. Paul Cams 564 

Pick, The Rev. Bernhard, Ph. D., D. D. Historical Sketch of the Jews Since 
Their Return From Babylon, 265, 337. — The Agrapha ; or, Unrecorded 
Sayings of Jesus Christ. With a Fac-simile of the Newly Discovered 

Logia 525 

Police, Department of, As a Means of Distributing Charity. A. F. Campbell, 

Secretary Department of Police, Chicago 333 

Post, The Late Justice Albert Hermann. An Introduction to the Study of 

Ethnological Jurisprudence.. . 641, 718 

Prayer, An Evening. A Poem. Emilie H. Darrow 312 

Prophet of Pessimism, The. With Five Portraits of Schopenhauer. Dr. Paul 

Carus 257 

Pythagoras, The Life of. With Portrait. Prof. Moritz Cantor 321 

Relics, A Buddhist Priest's View of. A Communication From the Rev, C. A. 

Seelakkhandha 122 

Religion of Science, the : The Worship of Beneficence. James Odgers 671 

Rosegger, Peter. In the Dissecting-Room. A Dialogue 365 

Rulison, Henry F. The Mechanism of Sympathy 99 

Salutatory, Dr. Paul Carus i 



Sandison, John. Professor Tiele on Christianity and Buddhism. Fifth and 

Seventh Gifford Lectures 129 

Scanland, J. M. The Mission Ruins of California. Illustrated 602 

Schiller as a Prophet. With Portrait. Dr. Paul Cams 214 

Schopenhauer. Prophet of Pessimism. With Portraits 257 

Science in Theology. Carl Heinrich Cornill. Translated by W. H. Carruth 35 
Seelakkhandha, A Communication from the Rev. C. A. A Buddhist Priest's 

View of Relics 122 

Socialism and Births. Austin Bierbower 750 

Soyen, The Rt. Rev. Shaku. A Controversy on Buddhism 43 

Stanton, Theodore. M. Brunetiere on Education 509 

Stout, The Hon. Sir Robert. Municipal Life in Newr Zealand 577 

Sympathy, The Mechanism of. Henry F. Rulison gg 

Theophilanthropy, The Centenary of. Dr. Moncure D. Conway 65 

Tiele, Professor, on Christianity and Buddhism. Fifth and Seventh Gifford 

Lectures. Reported by John Sandison i2g 

Trade and Usury, On. A Sermon by Dr. Martin Luther. Translated by W. 

H. Carruth 16 

Trimble, Col. Wm. H., From the Diary of. Chicago Seventy-six Years Ago. 

As it appeared to a United States Senator 244 

Vivisection from an Ethical Point of View. A Controversy. Prof. Henry C. 

Mercer, Amos Waters, Dr. R. N. Foster, C. Pfoundes, Mrs. Fairchild- 

Allen, Dr. Elliott Preston. (Editorial Rejoinder.) 686 


Adams, Brooks. The Law of Civilisation and Decay 254 

Americana Germanica 187 

American Journal of Theology 189 

Andler, C. Les origines du socialisme d'etat en Allemagne 701 

Bailey, G., and William Briggs. The Tutorial Chemistry 383 

Basch, V. Essai critique sur I'esthetique de Kant 701 

Battle Creek Civic and Philanthropic Conference 511 

Bibelot Series 576 

Biblical World, The 128 

Bilimoria, Nasarvanji F. Mazdaism or Zoroastrianism 377 

Bishop Thoburn on Infanticide Among the Hindus 320 

Bois, Jules. L'Eve nouvelle 575 

Boppe, C. Hermann. On God and Immortality 126 

Briggs, William, and G. H. Bryan. The Tutorial Statics 383 

Brocard, Victor. De I'erreur 381 

Brunschvig, L^on. La modalite du jugement 381 

Buddha's Birth, Anniversary of 3ig 

Buddhist Relics 511 

Cams, Paul . Nirvana 768 

Century, The 704 

Chabot, C. Nature et Moralite 701 

Charbonnel, Abb^ Victor. Congres universel des religions en 1900. Histoire 
d'une idee • 191 



Chinese Edition of The Gospel of Buddha 127 

Chinese Inscription at Buddha Gaya 512 

Christiansen. Elements of Theoretical Physics 382 

Christison, J. Sanderson. Crime and Criminals 574 

Cojazzi. Translation of Hermann Gruber's Book on Positivism 190 

Cope, Prof. Edward Drinker. Obituary 310 

Cresson Andre. La morale de Kant 382 

Critical Revieiv of Theological and Philosophical Literature 188 

Das, Nobin Chandra. A Note on the Ancient Geography of Asia 318 

Durkheim, E. Le Suicide 701 

Dyke, Henry Van. The Gospel for an Age of Doubt 62 

Eucken, Rudolf. Die Lebensanschauungen der grossen Denker 254 

Expositor, The 188 

Evans, Eliz. E. Ferdinand Lassalle and Helene von Donniges. A Modern 

Tragedy 446 

Evans, E. P. Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture 313 

Ferriere, Emile. La premiere cause, d'apres les donn^es experimentales 381 

Finkel, B. F. Mathematical Solution Book 702 

Forlong, Major J. G. R. Short Studies of the Science of Comparative Religions 576 

Freytag, Gustav. Martin Luther 60 

Gillispie, Henry L. F. Science and Universalism 191 

Good Times Prophesied 126 

Gospel of Buddha, the, Chinese Edition of 127 

Gould, F. J. Concise History of Religion 382 

Guthrie, K. S. Philosophy of Plotinos 446 

Hansei Zasshi 511 

Harney, G. J. , Illness of 640 

Hawkesworth, Rev. Alan S. De Incarnatione Verbi Dei 573 

Hinrichs, Gustavus Detlef. Introduction to General Chemistry 767 

Hoffmann, M. P. L'opinion publique en matiere de morale 186 

Hutchings, Emily S. Narcissus. A Poem 444 

Jainism, * ' the first and true religion " 188 

Johnston, Chas. From the Upanishads. Atraabodha 446, 447 

Joly, Henri. Psychologie des Saints 639 

Journal of Communicatioyi 187 

Karma, and the Ititernational Magazine 188 

Kheiralla, Ibrahim G. Bab-ed-Din, The Door of True Religion 511 

Klein, Felix. Famous Problems of Elementary Geometry 704 

Labor Exchange, The 255 

Levias, C. A Grammar of the Aramaic Idiom Contained in the Babylonian 

Talmud 447 

Lucas, Edouard. L'arithmetique Amusante 63 

Luqueer, Frederic Ludlow. Hegel as Educator 315 

Mach, Ernst. Contributions to the Analysis of the Sensations, 191. Popular 

Scientific Lectures, German Edition of 320 

Mach, Ludwig. Photography of Flying Bullets 188 

Maha-Bodhi Society's appeal for help 190 

Monado-Mononism. Rama-Chandra Sen 127 

Morgan, Augustus de , 186 

Morgan, C, Lloyd. On Habit and Instinct 383 



Moulton, Richard G. The Modern Reader's Bible 6i 

Narcissus. A Poem. Emily S. Hutchings 444 

Nashville Liberal Congress of Religion, 448 

Noble, Frederick A. , on current religious questions 60 

Odgers, James. ' ' In Nubibus " 379 

Ohne Staat 255 

Old South Leaflets 186 

Open Coiirt, Aim of The 64 

Pearson, Karl. The Chances of Death 575 

Perez, Bernard, L'education intellectuelle des le berceau 61 

Pf ungst, Arthur. Laskaris 384 

Philosophical Works, Recent French. T. J. McCormack 700 

Pillon, M. Hnnee Philosophique 700 

Prang, L. & Co. Easter Cards, 186. Christmas Cards 768 

Prince Prisdan Choomsai 1 89 

Ratto, Lorenzo. La Teoria Sociologica Dei Partiti Politici, 316. Rapporto 
tra i Partiti Politici e la Rappresentanza, 316. La Responsabilita dei Pa- 
droni per gli Infortuni del Lavoro 316 

Ratzel, Friedrich. History of Mankind 251 

Rays of Light 383 

R^cejac, E. Essai sur les fondements de la connaissance mystique 381 

Renaud, P. Precis de logique evolutionniste 700 

Revue de Metaphysique et de Morale 702 

Revue Philosophique 702 

Ribot, Th. La psychologic des sentiments 61 

Rigolage, E. La. Socologie de Comte 700 

Roberty, E. de. Le bien et le mal, 61. Le psychisme social 700 

Row, T. Subba. Lectures on the Study of the Bhagavat Gita 510 

Saunders, T. Bailey. Translation of Schopenhauer's Essays 383 

Schwartzkopff, Paul. Die Gottesoffenbarung in Jesu Christo 382 

Smith, Goldwin. Guesses at the Riddle of Existence 383 

Social DcTnocrat, The 255 

Strada, J. La Religion de la Science 701 

Strauss, David Friedrich 59 

Suttner, Baroness Bertha von. A Vindication of M. St. Cere 125 

Swaminathaiyer, C. V. Viveka Chintamani 448 

Tarde, G. L'Opposition universelle, essai d'une th^orie des contraires 380 

Verus, S. E. Vergleichende Uebersicht der Vier Evangelien 511 

Viallet, C. Paul. Je pense, done je suis 381 

Vierteljahj-sschrift Prize Problem 187 

Vivekananda, Swami. Yoga Philosophy 256 

Wagner, R. Pilgrimage to Beethoven 187 

Warren, President W. T. On Buddhism 448 

Waterman, A.N. "In Nubibus. " 378 

Welby, V. Grains of Sense 638 

Wells, Benjamin W. Modern French Literature 320 

Wenley, R. M. An Outline Introductory to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. 702 

Woman's South Side Study Club of Chicago 256 

Wundt, W. Outlines of Psychology 186 


tibe ©pen Court 


Devoted to the Science of Religion, the Religion of Science, and 
the Extension of the Religious Parliament Idea. 

Editor: Dr. Paul Carus, Aswciates- ^ ^- ^- ^egeler, 

Assistant Editor: T. J. McCormack. '^ ' ] Mary Carus. 

VOL. XI. (no. 1) January, 1897. NO. 488 


Salutatory. Editor i 

On Trade and Usury. A Sermon by Dr. Martin Luther. Translated by 

W. H. Carruth i6 

Science in Theology. Carl Heinrich Cornill, Professor of Old Testament 

History in the University of Konigsberg . . . . .. . e ^ a.,^. f .;. , . 35 

■' US V//- *'■•'• ■• 

A Controversy on Buddhism. 

The Rt. Rev. Shaku Soven, Kamakura, Japan 43 

The Rev. Dr. John H. Barrows, Chicago, III .-^^4^ 

The Rev. Dr. F. F. Ellinwood, New York City . . .., . h 46 

Notes and Book Reviews. 

David Friedrich Strauss, 59.— Gustav Freytag's Martin Luther, 60.— The Union Park 
Church Religious Discourses, 60.— Ribot's Psychologie des Sentiments, 61.— Perez's Educa- 
tion Intellectuelle, 6i.— E. de Roberty's Le Bien et le Mai, 61.— Moulton's Modern Reader's 
Bible, 61.— Van Dyke's Gospel for an Age of Doubt, 62.— "Lucas's Arithmetique Amusante, 
63. — The Open Court's Doctrine of Immortality, 64. 


The Open Court Publishing Company 

LONDON: 17 Johnson's Court, Fleet St., E. C. 
Annual subscription (United States and in the U. P. U.), post-free, $1.00. 

Copyright, 1897, by The Open Court Publishing Co, Entered at the Chicago Post Office as Second-CJass Matter, 

The Open Court 


Devoted to the Science of Religion, the Religion of Science, and 
the Extension of the Religious Parliament Idea. 

VOL. XI. (no. I.) JANUARY, 1897. NO. 488 



IN THE OLD SPIRIT, but in a new garb, in the shape of a 
monthly instead of a weekly, The Open Court enters upon the 
eleventh anniversary of its career, and both publisher and editor 
hope that the change will serve to extend its circulation and carry 
the message which it announces to the world, farther than before. 

The message of The Open Court, to state it briefly, is that sci- 
ence is a religious revelation ; science is the unfoldment of the 
spirit, and its truths (if they be genuine scientific truths) are holy. 
If God ever speaks to his creatures he speaks to them in the truths 
that they have learned from their experience, and when truths are 
systematised and formulated with exactness, which is the province 
of science, they do not become less divine, but more divine. There- 
fore the application of scientific exactness to the various problems 
of religion is a religious duty which, if obeyed, may destroy some 
errors that have become dear to us, but will in the end unfailingly 
lead to the most important religious reform. 

If science is applicable anywhere it is applicable with all the 
rigidity of the most searching critique to the problems of the des- 
tiny of man, his origin, and his future. What would be the use of 
science if it were not applicable to religion? Of what profit are the 
various conveniences of life and the material advance of the age if 
our soul is to be fed on the husks of tradition, which, unless we re- 
transform them and make them our own, are nothing but the leav- 
ings of the religious aspirations of previous periods. 

Science is the light of life; shall we not use it? Science is the 
bread of the spirit ; he who does not partake of its soul-nourishing 
gifts will spiritually die of starvation. 

Science should not be conceived as forming any contradictory 


contrast to religion. Woe to that religion which ignores or even 
antagonises science ! It is science that leads to new truths and re- 
veals to us more and more of the wonders of the universe. Thus 
if Christ's promise of the comforter^ is being fulfilled at all it is 
fulfilled in the evolution of science. 

If science is the Holy Spirit, if the truths of science are reli- 
gious revelations, how can religious people remain deaf to the voice 
of science? It is a sad fact, but it is true, that there are many 
Christians who look upon science as an enemy to their religion and 
harden their hearts against the results of scientific inquiry because 
it collides with their conceptions of God and of Christianity. The 
consequence of such a condition is the doom of degeneration. Un- 
intellectuality (especially if it be a wilful hostility to intellectual 
progress) is as much a sin as immorality ; error is as much a per- 
version of the soul as criminality. Error and stupidity are pun- 
ished with no less severity, nay, with more severity, than trespasses 
against the Ten Commandments. Indeed, the sin against the spirit, 
as expressly stated in the Scriptures, cannot be forgiven, and those 
who persist in it will be blotted out from the pages of the book of 

Considering the religious importance of science, we call a rec- 
ognition of the stern rigidity of scientific truth and of its indispen- 
sableness in all the domains of life, in the workshop as well as in 
the social relations of man to man, The Religion of Science. 

The Religion of Science is not a new religion, but simply a 
new interpretation of the old religions. Nor is it a new movement 
in the sense that it introduces a new motive into our religious and 
moral life ; it is simply a revised statement of the old faith, render- 
ing that clear which from the beginning of the religious evolution 
in the history of mankind lay always at the bottom of man's holiest 
aspirations. Therefore we claim that the Religion of Science does 
not come to destroy, but to fulfil. 

The Religion of Science combines in a consistent system the 
boldest radicalism with the most deliberate conservatism. It pro- 
poses to purify religion of the dross of error, but it would not re- 
ject the gold. It would retain of the old religions all that is true 
and good, and would add to the old truths a new significance by 
throwing upon them the bright light of modern science, which 
allows a clearer vision and gives a deeper insight than has hereto- 
fore been possible. 

The Science of Religion (that is to say, a scientific treatment 

1 " When the spirit of truth is come he will guide you into all truth." St. John, 17, 13. 


of the religious problems) leads to the Religion of Science, which 
is briefly the trust in truth ; and the Religion of Science is a prin- 
ple which, wherever recognised, will reconcile not only religion 
with science, but also the various religions with one another ; for 
on the basis of this principle a comparison is rendered possible, and 
this comparison will lead to a final settlement of the controversies 
of religions with the same necessity as the controversies between 
various schools of scientific theories are decided, not by any author- 
itative dictum, but by weight of evidence, by experiment, by argu- 
ment, by proof. 

* * 

The Open Court, with its message of the Religion of Science, 
has been criticised b}^ representatives of both extreme parties. 
Dogmatists of the old school condemn science as profane, and claim 
that it is untrustworthy as a guide in matters of morality and reli- 
gion, while the so-called freethinkers denounce our conservatism of 
retaining the words God, soul, and immortality as pouring new 
wine into old bottles. We reply to the latter, to the freethinkers, 
that the various terms of religion originated in response to definite 
needs and that their significance can be traced in the realities of 
life. If we abolish the traditional terms we should have to invent 
new terms. It will therefore be wiser to retain the old names and 
define their meaning with more exactness, always replacing hypo- 
thetical assumptions as much as possible by a definite description 
of facts. But to the former, the dogmatists, we say if Science and 
the Religion of Science "are the work of men, it will come to 
naught ; but if this council and this work be of God, ye cannot 
overthrow it." 

In propounding the Religion of Science, The Open Court has 
never identified itself with any party within or without the various 
churches ; it has kept aloof from both the liberals and the conserv- 
atives, and has delivered its message independently and fearlessly, 
neither for the love of nor in spite of any one ; but in doing so it 
has gained friends in all countries of the world, among the ranks of 
all churches, among the unchurched, and even among the devotees 
of various non christian religions. 

The Open Court is, in certain respects, at variance with both 
the liberals and the conservatives. It is dissatisfied with the con- 
servatives because they are not truly conservative, and with the lib- 
erals because they are not truly liberal. 

If a father wishes to preserve his children, he educates them 
and gives them all the chances of a mental and moral growth. For 


evolution is the law of life, and there is no better preservative than 
growth. As soon as the conservatives, for the sake of preserving 
certain truths or convictions or institutions, shut out progress and 
keep intellectual life in a stagnant condition, they cease to be 
truly conservative and virtually promote degeneration. Therefore 
he who is truly conservative is progressive ; he believes in growth 
and is willing to learn new truths. The Religion of Science, for 
the sake of conserving the advances already made, must encourage 
progress, and, in doing so, will be more conservative than the ultra- 
conservatives, whose conservatism practically consists in retrogres- 

The Open Court is conservative, but not stationary or reaction- 
ary ; it proposes to utilise the advances made in the past for further 
progress, and thus combines conservatism with progressiveness. 

The word "liberal" has two meanings. Firstly, when spelled 
with a small initial, it denotes a moral attitude. Liberal is he who 
shows a willingness patiently to listen to views which differ from 
his own and who weighs every opinion impartially and without 
resorting either to violence or to harsh words. Secondly, when 
capitalised. Liberal is used as a party-name to designate those who 
have cut themselves loose from authority of some kind. In this 
sense "Liberalism" denotes the surrender of traditions, doctrines, 
or old allegiances ; and the more a man has given up of his beliefs, 
the more Liberal he is accounted. Thus Liberalism as a party 
name has come to stand for negativism, and liberal religion is prac- 
tically used in the sense of looseness of religious conviction. 

The Open Court means to be liberal In the first sense ; but can- 
not properly be called "Liberal" in the second sense. Instead of 
surrendering the old religious allegiance to what in theological 
language is called God, it proposes to make this allegiance sterner 
and more earnest than ever. God is the God of truth, or he is not 
God at all. The various liberal movements of our age not only very 
frequently pursue an extremely narrow-minded policy, but they also 
exhibit reactionary tendencies which more than the dogmatism of 
the conservatives blockade the progress of mankind. This may be 
surprising news to many, but it is true, nevertheless, and we are 

ready to explain why it is true. 


* * 

' \ Liberals are negative spirits, who are characterised by a readi- 
ness to discard traditions of all kinds ; they attempt to reject the 
errors of the past, but in the vain hope of attaining infallibility 
themselves, they reject also the aspiration of having definite opin- 


ions. This tendency has bred the main disease of our age — agnos- 

Agnosticism is negativism with a vengeance, for agnosticism 
(as defined by its two greatest representatives Professor Huxley 
and Mr. Spencer) is that doctrine which declares that the main 
problems of philosophy, the problems of the existence of God, the 
nature of the soul with its immortality, and the basis of ethics are 
insoluble ; in a word, agnosticism identifies the unknown with the 
unknowable and makes of the most important questions on which 
the regulation of man's conduct in life depends, absolute mysteries. 
Such a philosophy is a more effectual check on religious and scien- 
tific progress than the methods employed by the Inquisition. The 
Inquisition had the power to put a few independent thinkers on the 
rack, and for a time gagged the others ; but agnosticism attempts 
to poison the minds of whole generations : it makes people drowsy 
and indifferent ; it makes them despair of the possibility of finding 
the right solution, and induces them to abandon the search for 

In religion, the Liberals show a strong inclination to reject 
the ritual and the doctrines of the past. They object to the sym- 
bolism of the Church, but also command advancing thought to halt 
before their negativism. Thus, the founder of the Societies for 
Ethical Culture dispenses with i-itual of any kind, he no longer 
uses the word God, but he also claims that science and philosophy 
cannot teach ethics; indeed, he is especially severe in denouncing 
the endeavor of founding ethics upon science, and he loves to dwell 
on the mysticism of the ought, which, according to him, does not 
develop naturally, but comes to us from spheres transcendental. 
His Liberalism carried him so far that he was accused of atheism, 
yet he retains the philosophical error of mysticism which is the root 
of innumerable superstitions. When he left the synagogue there 
were many rabbis remaining in their old vocation who were more 
progressive and philosophically further advanced than he, but they 
being more liberal as to ceremonies, felt no compunction in preach- 
ing in the synagogues and making use of the traditional phrase- 

A strange superstition of modern Liberalism is to spell energy 
with a capital E and speak of it in terms of awe and reverence. 
What is there venerable in energy that it should take the place of 
God? Energy is an abstraction of a high order, it is a term of very 
wide but very simple circumscription. Energy is capacity for work, 
either by reason of position or actual motion. The falling of the 


stone, the power of a cataract, the tension of a spring — all these are 
instances of energy, and all energy is measurable in footpounds. 
Energy becomes venerable only when it appears as moral purpose, 
that is to say, when it assumes that special form wherein it is com- 
bined with consciousness and directed by a right conception of the 
world. Energy is divine only when it appears as a will guided by 
the truth ; when it is an incarnation of duty bound to fulfil its mis- 
sion in life. 

The same that has been said of energy applies to the deifica- 
tion of matter. 

Less crude, but not less unphilosophical, is the deification of 
the First Cause, spelt with two capitals to do it reverence. While 
energy and matter are at least ideas possessing reality, a first cause 
is as much a self contradiction as a final effect. Every effect has 
its cause, and every cause its effect, every effect being the cause of 
the next following effect. By cause we understand that change in 
a given condition of things which introduces a new arrangement of 
its parts. The first cause in a longer chain of causes and effects 
has not the slightest higher dignity than any subsequent cause. 
The first cause in the creation of our solar system may, according 
to the Kant-Laplace theory, have been a disturbance of the dis- 
tribution of nebular substance, resulting of necessity in a rotation of 
its mass. Yet those who use the term do not mean the first cause 
in the sense of the incipient motion of the evolutionary process of 
our world- system, but the decision of God to create the world. 
Granted that God, like a master mechanic, had said to himself : 
" Let us create the heavens," his resolution would have been the 
product of a previous deliberation, and certainly he must have ex- 
isted before, and if he existed he must have been active, which 
means that there was in God's being a series of causes and effects 
prior to the first cause of the world's existence. There is no need 
of entering into further explanations of the self-contradictions of 
the notion of a " first cause," which originates through a confusion 
of the ideas " cause " and " raison d^etre ; " ^ but this much may be 
added, that the fallacy in question is the product of a materialistic 
view of causation, which regards a chain of causes and effects not as 
transformations, but as a series of objects following one another like 
the cars of a railroad train. A philosopher like David Hume, who 
adopted this conception of causation, is consistently driven to scep- 
ticism, or, as we now would say, agnosticism, which means a bank- 
ruptcy of philosophy and science. 

1 For details %e.& Fundamental Problems, pp. 79-109; and Prt?/ier 0/ Philosophy, pp. 137-172. 


The phrase First Cause was first used by Liberals who sought 
for a convenient word which might take the place of the term God ; 
but nowadays the word is used even in prayer. 

The Infinite, the Eternal Energy, the First Cause, are mere 
idols, but altars are built to them because they produce an astound- 
ing confusion in the minds of their worshippers. 

Mankind judges too much from externalities. Religion to the 
masses is identified with the observance of days, of pulpit-slang, 
of dressing in special vestments. But the main thing which is the 
underlying conception and interpretation of all these things, the 
philosophy of religion, is scarcely ever alluded to ; and yet it is the 
soul of it, on which everything depends. 

The same religion, in fact the same sectarian formulation of 
a religion may differ very much according as it is interpreted in the 
light of different philosophies. It may, under the guidance of a 
right interpretation, produce such noble men, martyrs, heroes, and 
conquerors, as were the Huguenots, who, when driven from their 
homes, arrived in foreign lands in abject poverty. Yet how quickly 
did they recover their loss ! What blessings did they spread by the 
example of their industry and moral earnestness ! And wherever 
they went they prospered and were respected and beloved by all 
with whom they had any dealings. But the same Calvinism, with 
the same confession of faith, the same sturdiness of purpose and 
sternness of determination, could under the sway of another philo- 
sophical interpretation (after the precedent of their leader) kindle 
the faggots and burn witches as well as dissenters ! 

Let us heed externalities only in so far as they directly and 
unequivocally express a definite interpretation of essentials ; other- 
wise, let us always go down to the significance of the doctrines. 
And it is strange that to discard established rituals or make inno- 
vations in the externalities of a religion is exceedingly difficult, but 
to introduce a new conception of both the old ceremonies and old 
doctrines is comparatively easy. The reason is here again that the 
masses being incapable of comprehending the philosophy of a reli- 
gion, judge from externalities and no one would take offence at the 
most radical Church reform, if only the clergyman would don the 
same gown and preserve the old liturgy. 

* * 

A prominent clergyman of the Church of England^ declared 

that while the Reformation of the sixteenth century had been a 

moral reform, the present need of the times was above all an intel- 

IRev. Dr. Haweis in an article published some time ago in The Conteviforary Review. 


lectual reform of the Church. This is very true, and what can the 
desire for an intellectual reform mean otherwise than a longing for 
the recognition of those principles which we define as the Religion 
of Science. Yet in spite of the great importance of emphasising the 
intellectual aspects of religion, our Liberals as a rule urge people 
to limit religion to practical issues to the neglect of theoretical 
questions. They drop theology and preach love, without being 
aware that love, be it ever so actively applied in practical life, with- 
out the intellectual guidance of theoretical principles, degenerates 
into sentimentalism. Clergymen who hold the dogma of eternal 
damnation in abhorrence are apt to pray with great unction. But I 
for one should find more edification in reading the sermon of a time- 
honored Presbyterian describing the horrors of Hell so vividly that 
we fairly smell the burning brimstone, than in listening to the 
prayer of such liberal pulpiteers, who sugar their theology over 
with the fictitious sweetness of a divine Father in Heaven. There 
is at least iron in the mental make-up of the old-fashioned believers. 
I grant the interpretation of their belief in Hell is out of date, but a 
new interpretation will find much truth in the dogma, for sin, if 
persisted in, leads irretrievably to eternal perdition, and no amount 
of the divinest love is able to prevent it. It is difficult to say how 
many Presbyterians, if there are any, still retain the literal belief in 
the lake of fire, as it is so drastically described in the Revelation of 
St. John ; but who can be so blind to the facts of life as to deny that 
there is in life an unspeakable abyss of sin and of the curses of sin, 
and that the doctrine of Hell symbolises a very obvious and very 
important truth ? How inconsistent is that kind of liberal religion 
which literally accepts the eternal bliss of a heaven-locality and 
ceases to retain its correlate symbol, the doctrine of the doom of 
error and sin ! 

* * 

At the latest Liberal Congress held in Indianapolis one of the 
speakers mentioned as the sources of religion "the awe of the mys- 
terious" and "the sense of absolute dependence." If such were in- 
deed the sources of religion, the scientist whose duty is to explain 
the mysterious, and the man of independent mind would be exces- 
sively irreligious. A religion that does not help us to do away with 
the mysteries of life and to make us more and more independent, 
is a false light ; and it seems to me that the success of Christianity 
in former centuries greatly depended upon its having made an im- 
portant step forward, a step away from the bondage of a religion of 


ceremonies, sacrifices, and codified law toward what Luther calls 
"the glorious liberty of the children of God." 

When Christianity made its first appearance in history, it an- 
nounced itself as the solution of the problem of life, and claimed 
to ransom, redeem, and liberate mankind. It was Schleiermacher, 
one of the best liberal theologians, who first pronounced the defini- 
tion of religion as "the sense of absolute dependence" (^as Gefiihc 
schl^chihinniger Abhangigkeit); and Schopenhauer spoke of Schleier- 
macher as "a veil-maker."^ Truly, if liberal theology cannot walk 
on the path of progress, it would be better to remain with the strict 
conservatives ; for it would not be wise to undo the advance that 
has actually been made. Otherwise we might tear down with the 
iconoclasts the whole fabric of religion and have to start the evo- 
lution of man from savage life on over again, after the fashion of 
the unschooled social reformers whose panacea as a rule consists 
in the abolition of civilisation involving a return to some primitive 
state of barbarism. 

* * 

While the Liberals upon the whole show an aptitude to retain 
the mistakes of the past, while they ignore or even antagonise the 
advances that have actually been made, the conservatives in their 
turn are beginning to imitate the faults of the Liberals. They ac- 
cept the main errors of Liberalism and parade them before their 
congregations as a sign of their readiness to progress with the 

Here are a few instances. 

The principle of agnosticism, which was invented for the 
purpose of keeping the claims of dogmatism in check, is now fre- 
quently pronounced from pulpits of all descriptions. The phrase, 
"The finite mind cannot grasp the infinite," wrong and nonsensi- 
cal though it be, is repeated ad nattseam. The phrase is used only 
by unclear thinkers, by men who may be very learned but who 
know nothing of exact logic and less (if that be possible) of mathe- 
matics. The infinite is by no means anything incomprehensible, 
indeed it is less incomprehensible than the finite, for the infinite is 
a simpler idea than the finite. It is true that God, the power that 
constitutes the order of the world and whose sway is the highest 
law of ethics, is infinite in his various dispensations ; but for that 

1 While criticising Schleiermacher's definition of Religion, I feel urged to say that I am not 
blind to the many noble thoughts which he has uttered in his sermons, especially his mono- 
logues on religion. 


reason the qualit}' of infinitude is not any more divine than the lim- 
itations which give definiteness to concrete things and events. 

The infinite is a quality involving an unlimited continuation or 
the capacity of an unchecked progress, or inexhaustible applica- 
tions and potentialities; it is a condition, but never a complete and 
concrete thing. Of course, it is a mistake to think of the unfinished 
as finished, of the incomplete as complete, of that which is in a 
state of becoming as rigid being, of that which moves as being at 
rest, of that which lives and develops as absolutely stable ; but 
those who try to conceive of the infinite as a finite object are be- 
wildered ; and in their confusion they imagine that infinitude must 
be something incomprehensible. 

The infinite as such is not God. Man, too, is infinite, for the 
potentialities of every soul are unlimited and illimitable. Nay, things 
less sacred are infinite; space is infinite; time is infinite, or, as we 
commonly express it, eternal ; i is infinitely large ; -^ is infinitely 
small ; and every mathematical line is infinite. Is there any mys- 
tery in infinitude ? Is there any holiness in it ? Is the notion of 
the infinite an idea of moral importance ? If it were, we should 
write that pretzel-like emblem (oo), which is the exactest expres- 
sion of the infinite, upon the altar of the church of the future and 
bow down and worship it. 

The interpretation of the traditional doctrines has slowly and 
almost imperceptibly been changed, but we find that at the same 
time the aspiration after catholicity and orthodoxy is being aban- 
doned. How often is the "spirit of orthodoxy" denounced on the 
groimd that orthodoxy is wrong in principle, which in other words 
means that truth is unknowable. 

Orthodoxy means rightness of doctrine, and catholicity means 
the universality of truth. What we need is not the abolition of 
orthodoxy, but genuine orthodoxy ; not the disavowel of catholicity 
or a peculiar and particular kind of catholicity, an Anglican, or an 
Italian, or a Russian catholicity, but true catholicity. We need 
rightness of doctrine and a truth that is universal. 

And how frequently is theology denounced, — not a special 
theology but theology in general. We hear sometimes voices that 
come from the conservative ranks clamoring for religion without 
theology. Theology is blamed for all the vices of heresy trials and 
witch-prosecution, while religion is extolled as being the sole thing 
needed. And yet theology is nothing but the old name for "the 
science of religion." It is now quite fashionable among conserva- 
tive clergymen to join in the hue and cry of the liberals which is 



raised against theology in favor of a mere sentimental practice of 
devotional religion, and which has contributed a great deal to pre- 
vent progress and to keep religious evolution upon a lower plane 
where the intellect is regarded with suspicion. 

What we need in religion is not less theology but more theol- 
ogy ; we need a thorougly scientific investigation of the religious 
problems. We need a radical and fearless application of the scien- 
tific spirit to religion. 

The Open Court does not belong to any party, but endeavors to 
form the third unpartisan party which shall unite the two extremes 
of the belligerents ; and the method to accomplish this end con- 
sists, briefly, in taking religion seriously. We should neither take 
the traditions of the churches simpl}' as a matter of course, nor ever 
surrender the hope of making headway in the comprehension of 
the religious problem. We should investigate boldly though rever- 
ently. We should seek the truth earnestly, assiduously, and with 
due discrimination, and cherish the confidence that if we seek in 
the right spirit with right methods we shall at last find the truth. 

The cornerstone of the aspirations of the Religion of Science 
is a trust in truth. We believe that truth can be found and that 
the truth, whatever it may be, will be the best, better than the 
dearest illusions of our fathers or of our own making. 

We should not conclude this review without at least outlining 
and recapitulating the solution which The Open Court offers in re- 
ply to the most important religious problems, the problems of duty, 
of the soul, of immortality, and of God. 

We endeavor in religion as well as in other domains of life to 
dig down to the facts from which our abstractions and generalisa- 
tions, direct and indirect, are derived and upon which our convic- 
tions rest. We propose in the science of religion, as well as in the 
various branches of natural science, to replace theories by simple 
statements of fact, which means we reduce our terms to the expe- 
riences which they are meant to embody. 

We have sense-impressions which cause our soul to respond 
in various reactions. Sometimes we feel pleasure and at other 
times come to grief. We encounter resistance and try to over- 
come it. We love and we hate. We struggle, and, when the 
hostile forces are too powerful, we combine for a more effectual 
struggle. There is struggle everywhere, even within us. Our will 
is not one and the same always ; we consist of various impulses 
which frequently come in conflict, and then the question arises, 


Which impulse shall have its way, and which one must be sup- 
pressed? The maxim which for such situations recommends itself 
is our conception of duty; and the conditions which demand an im- 
plicit obedience to duty, whether or not its performance be pleas- 
ant, is that power which since times immemorial has been called 
God. God is not anything unknown or unknowable ; his manifes- 
tations are nearer to us than our heart-beats ; he is knowable, and 
we can with the usual methods of science investigate the character 
of his dispensation. 

Besides the experiences in the domain of our aspirations, we 
face conditions that affect our sentiments. We grow old and die, 
and in the face of death we long for self-preservation. We become 
conscious of the fact that life is a fleeting phenomenon, and we seek 
for that which constitutes its permanence. We thirst for immor- 
tality. And here is the main problem of religion : Will our life ex- 
tend beyond the grave, and, if it will, what does the life to come 
consist in? 

In order to solve this question we must analyse our soul and 
trace its origin, for the origin of the soul teaches us its fate after 
death. Some claim that the problem of the soul is insoluble ; but 
have we not the records of history, can we not study biology and 
all the other sciences that explain to us man's being? Does sci- 
ence teach that the soul is an ephemeral phenomenon which did 
not exist yesterday and will be gone to-morrow? Impossible ! 
Here Ave are a living reality, and can our soul rise from nothingness 
simply to return again to nothingness ? What is the nature of our 
soul? How is it produced, how does it grow, and what are the 
moulds in which it is shaped? These problems clamor for a solu- 
tion that must be based upon a rigid and critical investigation. 

The main difficulties that encounter us here are the material- 
istic and sensualistic tendencies, which naturally present themselves 
first and commend themselves to superficial inquirers. The mate- 
rialistic view leads us to think that our self is the sum total of all the 
material particles of which we consist at a given moment, and the 
sensualistic view induces us to identify our soul with our feelings 
or with consciousness, yet both views neglect the paramount im- 
portance of form. That which constitutes our self in its peculiar 
idiosyncrasy is the form of our body and our sentiments. We are 
not vitality of a certain amount of energy, but a certain kind of 
vitality, a certain kind of consciousness ; we are a combination of 
definite impulses and aspirations, and that special form which gives 
a special character to our peculiar constitution is the most essential 


part of our existence. Our thoughts are not nerve-activity of a cer- 
tain quantity, but of a certain quality. The quality of our being is 
our self ; all the rest is of secondary importance. The matter that 
constitutes our body and the energy that is spent in the physiolo- 
gical functions of the brain are passing through our system in a 
rapid and constant change. They are going, always going ; they 
become mere waste material at the very moment when they do 
their work, while that which is characteristic of every action is pre- 
served as a peculiar formation or disposition which is the condi- 
tion of memory. Our bodily and mental make-up consists of in- 
numerable dispositions which are the product of functions. Our 
constitution, in all its parts, is memory, partly conscious, partly 
subconscious, partly unconscious ; and the functions which we per- 
form contribute their share in adding to or modifying the present 

This analysis of the soul shows the immortality problem in a 
new light. While the material frame of every organism is des- 
tined to be dissolved in death, its peculiar type continues to exist ; 
its soul reappears in new formations in a process of continuous 
growth. Bodily forms are transmitted to the new generations 
mainly by heredity, but the spirit of man has still other and higher 
avenues left to immortalise itself. Example and education insure 
the continuance of the most precious features of every life, pre- 
serving them in the same way that a thought which we have been 
thinking once continues to be a part of ourselves as an ever-present 
memory which, when not specially needed, slumbers in our sub- 
consciousness, but can at the slightest provocation be reawakened to 
the full blaze of conscious activity. My soul, in its peculiar idio- 
syncrasy, is the present phase of a definite life-evolution ; my soul 
not only existed before in various previous forms that contributed 
to shape its present incarnation, but it is ultimately conditioned in 
the cosmic constitution of the All which moulds its rationality and 
determines its ideals and moral aspirations. My soul is a more or 
less perfect incarnation of God. As the past generations, with all 
the special features that constitute their personal character, con- 
tinue to exist in the present generation, in the same way the present 
generation will live on in the future generations, preserving the iden- 
tity of all that is essential to their being. As the life-experiences of 
an individual man remain with him in the shape of his memory, in- 
creasing the proficiency of his work, so all the lives of the race are 
living stones that build up the temple of humanity and continue in 
it, in their personal and distinctive specificness as ever-present pres- 


ences which cannot be annihilated. The body may be destroyed, 
but not the soul. All the representatives of a new idea, of an in- 
convenient truth, of an unwelcome aspiration, may be burned, but 
ideas, truths, aspirations, cannot be burned. Our life may be cut 
short, but the spirit that stirs in us is indestructible. Considered 
as a combination of material atoms, man is mortal ; but that of 
man which has taken shape in his bodily system, that which consti- 
tutes his personality, his soul, is immortal. 

'X The problem of the soul stands in a close connexion with the 
problem of God. God is the creator ; God is the eternal mould 
which forms man's soul. God is the prototype and the norm of all 
those aspirations which lead to a higher and ever higher unfold- 
ment of life. God is the reality of which truth is the picture and 
at the same time the standard of righteousness, for righteousness is 
nothing but truth applied to practical life. 

The God of the Religion of Science is not a new God ; it is the 
same God who revealed himself with more or less perfection in all 
the prophets and moral teachers of the world. The newness of the 
conception consists only in being a new definition which is more 
guarded and avoids the contradictions into which some of the old 
definitions are apt to involve us. 

According to the Religion of Science, God is that authoritative 
presence in the All which enforces a definite moral conduct. God 
is that something which constitutes the harmony of the laws of na- 
ture ; God is the intrinsic necessity of mathematics and logic ; God 
above all is what experience teaches us to be the eternal lesson that 
leads to righteousness, justice, morality. This presence is both 
immanent and transcendent : it is immanent as the constituent 
characteristic of the law that pervades the universe ; it is tran- 
scendent, for it is the condition of any possible cosmic order ; and 
in this sense it is supercosmic and supernatural. 

We do not say that God is impersonal, for the word "imper- 
sonal " implies the absence of those features which constitute per- 
sonality ; it implies vagueness, indefiniteness, and lack of char- 
acter. God, however, as he manifests himself in the order of the 
universe, is very definite. He is not vague, but possesses quite 
marked qualities. He is such as he is and not different. His being 
is universal, but not indeterminable. His nature does not consist 
of indifferent generalities, but exhibits a distinct suchness. Indeed, 
all suchness in the world, in physical nature as well as in the do- 
main of spirit, depends upon God as here defined, and what is the 


personality of man but the incarnation of that cosmic logic which 
we call reason? God, although not an individual being, is the pro- 
totype of personality ; although not a person, thinking thoughts as 
we do, deliberating, weighing arguments, and coming to a decision, 
he is yet that which conditions personality ; he possesses all those 
qualities which, when reflected in animated creatures, adds unto 
their souls the nobility of God's image, called personality. There- 
fore we say that God is superpersonal. 

* * 

The Religion of Science re-establishes the ideals of orthodoxy 
and of catholicity upon a new basis ; it introduces into religion the 
principle of positivism, not of the Comtean positivism, which is 
agnostic, but of a new positivism which grounds itself vipon the 
rock of facts ; it embodies in its doctrine all the truth that the old 
religions can teach us and reads their sacred traditions in the light 
that a scientific world-conception affords. Above all, the Religion 
of Science emphasises that the doctrines of the churches as formu- 
lated in their symbolical books are symbols, and must be under- 
stood in their symbolical nature. 

Symbols are not lies ; symbols contain truth. Allegories and 
parables are not falsehoods ; they convey information ; moreover, 
they can be understood by those who are not as 3'et prepared to re- 
ceive the plain truth. Thus, when in the progress of science reli- 
gious symbols are recognised and known in their symbolical na- 
ture, this knowledge will not destroy religion but will cleanse it of 
error and fring us face to face, more intimately than ever, with that 
Divinity that shapes our ends, rough-hew them how we will. 

The Religion of Science does not reject tradition, it only re 
fuses to recognise tradition as an ultimate and infallible authority. 
We must judge the worth of doctrines, dogmas, scriptures, and 
practices according to their agreement with truth. We must prove 
all things and choose what is good. We must investigate and hold 
fast to the truth. In this way only can we ground our faith upon 
the foundation stone of the eternal logos that constitutes the irre- 
versible law of the moral world-order. 




THE HOLY GOSPEL condemns and points out all sorts of 
works of darkness, as Saint Paul calls them, Romans, 13, 12; 
for it is a bright light that shines for all the world, and teaches how 
evil are the works of the world, and shows the right works which 
one should do towards God and his neighbor. Wherefore certain 
among the merchants have aroused themselves and become aware 
that in their occupation many evil tricks and harmful practices are 
in use, and that there is fear, it is true here, as Solomon the 
preacher says, that merchants can scarcely live without sin. Yea, 
I believe the saying of St. Paul strikes here, I. Timothy, 6, 10: 

1 Martin Luther's address on " Trade and Usury " exhibits on the one hand his implicit faith 
in the Gospel, and on the other hand an unusual perspicacity and common sense. The way in 
which he reconciles the one with the other, where apparently they come into conflict, does honor 
to both his religious earnestness and his insight into the conditions and practical demands of 
life. Luther accepts Christ's ethics of non-resistance to evil, of lending where there is no hope 
of recovery, and of giving freely to those in need. These maxims, however, are practicable only 
in a society where all people are good Christians. If they were indiscriminately applied in this 
actual world of ours, which must be governed by a strong hand, the bad v/ould soon take advan- 
tage of the pious and presume upon their patience. Luther therefore comes to the conclusion 
that business should be conducted strictly on cash terms with a view to reasonable profits. How 
little Luther would have people yield to goodnaturedness or sentimentality appears from his 
condemnation of going surety as a foolish self-indulgence. At the same time he calls attention to 
the dangers of buying and selling on time ; he exposes the methods of fraudulent bankruptcy, of 
the artificial raising of prices by combinations, of cornering the market, and all other illegitimate 
business tricks which, it appears, were as common in his days as they are now. 

Luther speaks with authority, because he makes himself the spokesman of the nation's con- 
science ; and his sermon is remarkable for the loftiness of his conviction and the purity of his 
motive. Nevertheless, it contains some serious shortcomings which, even granting the divinity 
of Luther's mission, are due to the fact that the great reformer was after all a child of his age 
and limited by the narrow horizon of his time. In many respects he towered high above his con- 
temporaries, but like most German clergymen of the sixteenth century he had a child-like belief 
in the paternalism of the government, which was expected to right all the wrongs that originated 
through the vices of bad people. 

The pamphlet " On Trade and Usury " appeared in 1524 ; the same subjects in part had beeq 


"Greed is the root of all evil;" and again, verse 9, "Those who 
desire to become rich, fall into temptation and the toils, and into 
many vain and harmful desires which sink people into destruction 
and damnation." 

Now, although I think that this my epistle will be almost use- 
less, because the mischief has made such inroads and in all matters 
gained such headway in all lands, and since, moreover, those who 
understand the Gospel might themselves judge in their own con- 
science what is right and what is wrong in such simple and plain 
matters; nevertheless, I am admonished and besought to touch 
these practices and to bring some of them to daylight (although 
the mob does not desire it), so that certain of them, though but 
few, may be rescued from the jaws and gorge of greed. For, in- 
deed, it must be that certain are still to be found among merchants, 
as well as among other men, who cleave to Christ and would rather 
be poor with God than rich with the Devil, as the Thirty-seventh 
Psalm, verse 16, says: "A little with the just is better than great 
goods with the godless." 

Of Foreign Luxuries. — Well then, for the sake of these we 
must speak. But now, this cannot be denied, that buying and 
selling is a necessary thing which we cannot do without, and which 
can be used in a Christian manner, especially in those points serv- 
ing need and honor, for thus also the patriarchs sold cattle, wool, 
butter, milk, and other goods. They are gifts of God which he 
gives out of the earth and distributes among men. But foreign 
merchandise which brings from Calicut and India, and the like 
places wares such as precious silks, and jewels, and spices, which 
serve only love of show and no useful purpose, and drain the land 
and people of their money, should not be permitted if we had a 
government and princes. But I do not propose now to speak of 
these things ; for I think that these things will needs be dropped 
of themselves finally when our money is all gone, as well as the 

treated by Luther in his " Sermon von dem Wucher," 1519, and again in the [Grosser] " Sermon 
von dem Wucher," 1519, as well as in the great address "An den Adel," 1520. 

Our ancestors saw the world divided by a distinct line of demarcation into a material domain 
and a spiritual domain, and the dealings of the merchant still appeared to Luther to possess no 
aim beyond the satisfaction of bodily needs and the acquisition of wealth. Luther is not as yet 
conscious of the worldly importance of the duties of a clergyman and of the spiritual significance 
of worldly pursuits. This dualism, which began to break down on the day of Luther's marriage, 
was still lingering with him, being the reason why, upon the whole, the lesson which he taught 
in his sermon on "Trade and Usury" is still negative, why he lacks a positive appreciation of 
the nobility of commerce, and why he has not as yet comprehended the moral dignity of business 
life. Had he seen the solidarity of all human affairs, he would have recognised the spiritual 
significance of trade as a moral factor in the evolution of civilisation, and would therefrom have 
derived the positive duties of business men, the final purpose of their calling, and the part it 
plays in the general economy of society. — Editor's note. 


display and gluttony; indeed, no writing or teaching else will do 
any good until need and poverty force us. 

God has brought us Germans to that pitch that we must needs 
scatter our gold and silver into foreign lands, and make all the 
world rich and ourselves remain beggars, England should indeed 
have less gold, if Germany left her her cloth ; and the king of Por- 
tugal also would have less, if we left him his spices. Reckon thou 
how much money is taken out of German land without need or 
cause in one Frankfort fair, then wilt thou wonder how it comes 
that there is a penny left in Germany. Frankfort is the silver-and 
gold-hole through which everything that sprouts and grows among 
us, or is coined and stamped, runs out of German lands. If this 
hole were stopped, we would perchance not hear the complaint how 
on all hands there is naught but debts and no money, and all prov- 
inces and cities are burdened and exhausted by interest-paying. 

But let it go; it is bound to go so ; we Germans must remain 
Germans; we do not stop unless we have to. We propose to 
speak here of the abuses and sins of merchandising in so far as it 
touches the conscience. How it touches the loss to the pocket, as 
to that we will let princes and lords have care, if perchance they 
may do their duty. 

Of U7irighteous Prices. — In the first place, the merchants have 
a common rule among them, it is their motto and bottom of all 
their practices : I shall sell my ware as dear as I can. This they 
hold to be their right. But it means making room for greed, and 
opening the door and window for hell. What else is this than say- 
ing : I will give no heed to my neighbor, if only I may have my 
profit and greed full ; what do I care if it brings my neighbor ten 
ills at once? So you see how this motto goes so straight and 
shamelessly against not only Christian love, but against natural 
law as well. What good could there be in merchandising? What 
should there be in it but sin where such a wrong is the motto and 
rule? By this token merchandising can be nothing else than steal- 
ing and plundering others of their own. 

For on this ground, when the rogue's eye and the greedy-gut 
mark that any one must have their ware, or that the buyer is poor 
and needs it, they make their use and gain out of it, they look not 
at the worth of the ware, nor at the value of their service, nor their 
risk, but simply at the need and want of their neighbor, — not to 
help him, but to use these for their own advantage, and put up 
their ware which they would leave at low price if it were not for 
the necessity of their neighbor. And so through their greed, the 


ware must have a price as much higher as the need of the neighbor 
is greater, so that one's neighbor's need becomes the mark and 
price of the ware. Tell me, is that not unchristian and inhuman 
action? Is not thus the poor man's need sold to him together with 
the ware? For since he has to pay so much the more for the ware 
on account of his need, it is the same as though he had to buy his 
own need. For not the simple ware is sold him as it is in itself, 
but with the addition and increase wherewith he is distressed. Be- 
hold, this and the like abominations must follow when the principle 
stands : I will sell my wares as dear as I can. 

Of Righteous Prices. — It should not be: I will sell my wares 
as dear as I can or please, but thus : I will sell my wares as dear 
as I should, or as is right and proper. For thy selling should not 
be a work that is within thy power and will, without all law and 
limit, as though thou wert a god, bounden to no one ; but because 
thy selling is a work that thou performest to thy neighbor it should 
be restrained within such law and conscience that thou mayest 
practise it without harm or injury to thy neighbor, but heed rather 
that thou do him no injury which is thy gain. Yea, but where are 
such merchants? How few should there be of merchants, and how 
should merchandising fall off, if they would correct this evil law, 
and put it in just. Christian fashion ! 

Askest thou then : Well, how dear shall I sell it, then ? How 
shall I strike what is right and just so that I may not overreach 
my neighbor? Answer: That is indeed framed in no speech or 
writing; no one has yet undertaken to fix the price of every ware, 
and raise or lower it. The reason is this : wares are not all alike ; 
one is brought farther than another, one takes more outlay than 
another, so that in this matter all is uncertain and must remain so, 
and nothing can be fixed, as little as one can fix one certain city 
whence they shall be brought, or a set outlay for all, since it may 
happen that one and the same ware, from one and the same city 
and brought on the same road, may cost more to-day than a year 
ago by reason of the road and the weather being worse, or some 
other chance that causes more outlay than at another time. But 
it is right and just that a merchant should gain so much on his 
wares that his outlay, his pains, work, and risk shall be made 
good. For even a plowboy must have keep and wages for his la- 
bor. Who can serve or work for nothing? Thus saith the Gospel : 
"A laborer is worthy of his hire." 

A Commission to Fix Prices. — But, not to pass over the matter 
in silence, the best and safest way would be that worldly authority 


should appoint and ordain in this matter sensible, honest people 
who might consider all wares and the outlay upon them and set 
accordingly the mete and limit of their value, so that the merchant 
might then add his service and get his decent living from it ; as 
indeed in some places the price of wine, fish, bread, and the like 
is set. But we Germans are too busy with drinking and dancing 
to give heed to such control and regulation. Since, therefore, such 
regulation is not to be hoped for, the next best counsel is that we 
value the wares as the common market gives and takes, or as the 
custom of the country is to give and take ; for in this the saw holds 
good : "Do as others do, and thou'lt do no folly." What is gained 
in this wise I hold to be honestly and well earned, especially since 
there is a danger here that they may lose on the wares and the 
outlay, and are not likely to gain too richly. 

But where the price is not fixed, or where the ware is not cur- 
rent on the market, then must thou set a price. Verily, there is 
but one doctrine here, it must be laid upon thy conscience that 
thou examine, and overreach not thy neighbor, and seek not thy 
greedy gain, but only thy decent living. Certain ones have sought 
to set metes here, as that one might gain one half on all wares ; 
some, that one might gain one third ; and some otherwise. But none 
of these is safe or sure, unless it were established thus by worldly 
law and common right ; that would be safe. Therefore must thou 
determine in such traffic to seek naught but a decent living, and 
consider accordingly outlay, pains, labor, and risk, and then thy- 
self fix, raise, or lower the value of the ware, so that thou mayest 
have the reward of such pains and labor. 

Prices a Matter of Conscience. — But I would not in this matter 
so dangerously ensnare souls, nor enmesh them so tightly as to say 
that one must needs set the mete so closely that there should not 
be a farthing's error. For that is not possible, — that thou shouldst 
hit so exactly how much thou hast earned by said pains and labor; 
it is enough that thou endeavor with good conscience to strike the 
limit right, though the nature of trade is to make this impossible; 
the saying of the wise man will probably hold true in thy case : 
"A merchant can scarcely deal without sin, and a tavernkeeper 
may scarcely keep a righteous mouth." Now, if thou take unknow- 
ing, and not intending, a bit too much, let it go into the Pater 
Noster, where we pray: "Forgive us our debts;" for no man's 
life is without sin. And besides, it may come that thou take too 
little for thy pains, and let that make it quit and balance for taking 
too much. 


As, if thou hadst a trade that in the year amounted to one 
hundred florins, and thou shouldst take over and above the ex- 
pense and due pay for thy pains, labor, and risk, one, two, or three 
florins a year, I call that the error in trade that one cannot well 
avoid, especially spread out thus over a year. Therefore burden 
not thou thy conscience with it, but bring it to God in the Pater 
Noster, like any other unavoidable sin that cleaves to us all, and 
leave it with Him : for to such an error drives thee the need and 
nature of the work, and not wilfulness and greed ; for I am speak- 
ing here of goodhearted and godfearing men who would not will- 
ingly do wrong. Just as conjugal life cannot be without sin, and 
yet God tolerates it for the necessity of the work, since it must 
needs so be. 

But how high thy reward is to be set, which thou art to have 
from such trade and labor, this canst thou not reckon and judge 
better than by considering the time and the greatness of the labor, 
and taking comparison with a common day-laborer, who does any 
other work, see what he earns a day ; then reckon how many days 
thou hast spent in getting and fetching the ware, and how great 
labor and risk thou hast undergone, for great labor and much risk 
should have a greater reward. Closer and better and surer one 
cannot speak nor teach in this matter ; let him who is not pleased 
with this do better. Paul says : "Who keeps the flock shall drink 
the milk." Who can travel at his own charge and cost? Hast thou 
better reasons, I am pleased. 

Of Surety. — Secondly, there is another common fault which 
is a current custom not alone among merchants but in all the 
world, that one becomes surety for another. And though this 
seems to be no sin but rather a virtue of love, yet it commonly de- 
stroys many people, and brings them to irretrievable injury. King 
Solomon condemns and forbids it repeatedly in his proverbs, say- 
ing : "My son, if thou art become surety for thy neighbor and hast 
bound thy hand to a stranger, if thou art snared with the words of 
thy mouth and caught with the speech of thy mouth, then do thus, 
my son, and save thyself, for thou art fallen into the hands of thy 
neighbor : hasten, urge, and beset thy neighbor ; let not thine eyes 
sleep nor thine eyelids slumber ; save thyself as a roe from the 
hand of the hunter, and as a bird from the hand of the fowler." 
And again he says : "Take his garment from him that is surety for 
a stranger, and put him under pledge for the sake of the stranger." 
And again : "Be not one of them that bind their hands and are 
surety for debts." Behold how the wise king in the Holy Writ 


forbids so sharply and strongly to become surety for others. And 
the German proverb agrees with him: "Sureties shall be throt- 
tled." As though it would say : "It serves the surety right that 
he is pinched and has to pay, for he acts lightly and foolishly in 
becoming surety." So that this is the will of Scripture, that no one 
shall become surety unless he has the means, and is entirely will- 
ing to be debtor himself and to pay. Now, it seems strange that 
such an act should be wicked and condemned. For that it is a 
foolish act has been felt by many who have had to sweat heaviest 
for it. Then what is the reason that it is condemned? Let us see. 

Suretyship is an act that is too high for a, and not fit, for 
it clashes presumptuously with the work of God. For, in the first 
place, the Scripture forbids us to trust men, and rely on them, but 
only on God. For human nature is false, vain, deceitful, and fickle, 
as Scripture says and experience teaches daily. But he who be- 
comes surety trusts a man, and puts body and goods into danger 
and upon a false and fickle foundation, and hence it serves him 
right that he fall and fail, and through the danger perish. 

Again, he is trusting to himself and making himself a God, for 
that on which a man relies and trusts, that is his God. But inas- 
much as he is safe and certain of his life and goods no moment, 
still less of him for whom he has become surety, but all is in God's 
hand alone, whose will is that we shall not have power and control 
one hair's breadth in the future, or be sure and certain of it one 
moment, therefore he is acting unchristianly, and it serves him 
right, because he is pledging and promising that which is not in 
his power, but in God's hands alone. 

Such sureties act just as though they did not need to thank 
God or consider whether they would be sure of their life and prop- 
erty to-morrow, and even act without the fear of God as if they 
had life and goods from themselves, and could control them as 
long as they pleased, which is naught but fruit of irreligion. 

Four Fashions of Christian Dealing. — Sayest thou then. How 
then shall people deal with one another if suretyship is condemned? 
Many a man would needs fail who might otherwise get ahead. 
Answer : There are four ways in which to deal in outward Christian 
fashion with others. 

The first is that we let our goods be taken or plundered from 
us, as Christ teaches: "If any man take thy cloak, let him have 
also thy coat, and demand it not again from him." Now, this 
method is despised among merchants, and indeed it has not been 
regarded and preached as common Christian doctrine, but only as 


advice and good suggestion for clerks [clergymen] and perfection- 
ists, who, however, observe it less than any merchant. But real 
Christians will observe it, for they know that their Father in 
Heaven has promised them to give them their daily bread each 
day. And if this were done, not only would numberless abuses be 
avoided in all bargains, but many would not become merchants, 
because reason and human nature flee and shun such danger and 
harm most diligently. 

The Seco7id Fashion. — The second fashion is to give for nothing 
to everybody who needs, as indeed Christ teaches. This, indeed, 
is a high Christian work, wherefore it is not much esteemed among 
people, and there would be fewer merchants and less merchandise 
if this were set going. For he who would do this must indeed lean 
upon Heaven, and look ever to God's hands and not to his own 
stores or goods, knowing that God would and will feed him though 
every cupboard-corner were empty. For he knows that it is true 
what God said to Joshua: "I will not desert thee nor withdraw 
my hand from thee." As the saying is: "God has more than He 
has ever given." But this takes a real Christian, the rarest beast 
on earth, despised of world and nature. 

The Third Fashion. — The third fashion is lending or loaning, 
so that I give m}' property, and take it again in case it is brought 
back, and go without if it is not brought back. For Christ himself 
had in mind such lending when He said : "So lend, that ye hope 
nothing from it." That is: Lend and take the risk whether it 
come back or not ; if it come back, take it ; if it come not back, 
regard it as given. So that giving and lending according to the 
Gospel had no difference but this, that giving takes nothing back, 
but lending takes back if it comes, yet runs the risk of its being 
giving. For whoso lends, expecting to receive better or more, is 
an open and condemned usurer ; while not even those act as Chris- 
tians who lend expecting and demanding back just what they gave, 
instead of freely risking whether it come back or not. 

And as I think, when one considers the course of the world, 
even this is a high, rare, and Christian work, and would, if it came 
into practice, powerfully reduce and hold down all sorts of mer- 
chandising. For these three methods hold masterfully to the point 
of not presuming upon the future, and of not relying on oneself or 
other men, but of clinging to God alone, and in this way everything 
is paid for in cash, and recalls the word : "If God will, so be it," 
as James says. For thus we act with people as with those who 


may fail us and are uncertain, and give the goods for naught, or 
risk the loss of what we lend. 

Here it will be asked : Who, then, can be saved ? and where 
shall we find Christians? For in this fashion no merchandising 
would remain on earth ; every one would find his own taken or 
borrowed from him, and the door would be opened to the wicked 
and lazy gluttons, of whom the world is full, to take everything, 
cheat and steal. Answer : You see it is as I said, that Christians 
are rare people on earth. Therefore a stern, hard, civil rule is ne- 
cessary in the world, that will push and force the wicked not to 
take and steal, and to give back what they borrow (although a 
Christian should not demand it back), lest the world become wild, 
peace vanish, and commerce and common interests be destroyed, 
which would all come to pass if the world should be ruled accord- 
ing to the Gospel, and the wicked were not driven and forced by 
laws and constraint to do and permit what is right. 

Therefore the highways must be kept clear, peace maintained 
in the cities, and law administered in the land, and the sword be 
drawn promptly and unhesitatingly against violators, as St. Paul 
teaches. For this is God's will that the heathen be checked that 
they do no wrong, or no wrong without punishment. No one need 
think that the world can be ruled without blood; the civil sword 
shall and must be red and bloody, for if the world will and must 
be wicked, the sword of God is rod and vengeance against it. But 
of this I have said enough in my book on Civil Authority. 

Of Christian Borrowing.— ^o^, borrowing would be a fine 
thing if it were done between Christians, for every one would gladly 
repay what he had borrowed, and the lender would gladly go with- 
out if the borrower was unable to repay. For Christians are broth- 
ers, and one does not desert another ; nor is any one so lazy and 
shameless as to wish to depend without work on the goods and 
work of another, and live in idleness on the property of another. 
But where there are not Christians, there civil authority should 
drive the borrower to pay ; if it does not drive but is lax, then the 
Christian is to suffer the imposition, as Paul says: "Why do ye 
not rather suffer wrong ? " But let the heathen dun and demand, 
and act as he will, he cares for nothing because he is a heathen 
and heeds not the teaching of Christ. 

And then thou hast this comfort, that thou art not holden to 
lend, save what thou hast over and canst spare from thy needs ; as 
Christ says of alms: "What ye have to spare, that give as alms, 
and all things are clean unto you." Now, if so much were to be 


demanded of thee that, in case it were not returned, thou must 
needs perish, and thy necessities could not spare it, then art thou 
not holden to lend; for most of all thou art holden to furnish the 
necessities for thy wife, child, and household, and not to take from 
them what is due them from thee. Therefore is this the best rule : 
When the borrowing seems to be too much for thee, give rather 
something for nothing, or lend as much as thou wouldst gladly 
give, and take the risk even should it be lost. For John the Bap- 
tist spake not: "Let him who hath a coat give the same away;" 
but : "Let him that hath two coats give one to him that hath none, 
and him that hath food likewise." 

The Fourth Fashion. — The fourth fashion is buying and selling, 
and that with cash, or paying ware with ware. Now let him who 
would follow this fashion be prepared to depend upon nought in 
the future, but upon God alone, and to deal with men who err or 
deceive. Hence this is the best advice : that he who sells give 
nothing on credit, and accept no security, but take his pay in cash. 
But if he wishes to give credit, that it be to Christians ; otherwise 
that he take the risk of its being lost, and give credit no further 
than he would otherwise give and his necessities will permit; or, 
where civil law and authority will not help him to his own, that he 
call it lost, and take care not to become surety for any one, but 
rather give what he can. That would indeed be a real Christian 
merchant whom God would not desert because he trusts Him so 
fairly and deals so light-heartedly with his uncertain neighbor and 
takes the risk. 

Of Merchandismg. — Now if suretyship were not in the world, 
and free gospel lending were in vogue, and only cash or ready 
wares current in trade, the greatest and most harmful dangers, 
errors and weaknesses were out of merchandising, and it would 
be easy to be a merchant, and other sinful devices could be 
checked the easier. For if such suretyship and guaranteed lending 
were not, many a one would needs remain on the level and be con- 
tent with moderate living who, as it is, depends on lending and sure- 
tyship, and strives day and night to climb the height ; whence also 
it is that everybody wishes to become a merchant and grow rich. 
And thence follow of necessity such swindling, wicked tricks and 
wiles as now are found in troops among merchants, so that I have 
already despaired of its ever being corrected, but it has been so 
overladen with wickedness and deceit, that it cannot endure long, 
and must fall of itself. 

Hereby I wish to give to everybody a brief warning and in- 


struction in this great-tangled, far-reaching business of merchandis- 
ing. For if it were to be allowed to go and remain so that every 
one might sell his wares as dear as he could, and lending and bor- 
rowing for a consideration, and suretyship were conceded to be 
right, and yet we were to give counsel as to how any one is to be a 
Christian withal and keep a good and sound conscience, it were as 
much as if one would advise and teach how wrong could be right, 
how evil could be good, and how one could live and act according 
to Holy Writ and at the same time against Holy Writ. For these 
three errors : that one give his goods as dear as he please, and 
lending, and suretyship are like three springs from which all abom- 
inations, wiles, tricks, and wrongs flow so far and wide that if one 
would try to check the flow and yet not stop the springs his pains 
and labor would be lost. 

The Devices of Greed. — Therefore I propose here to enumerate 
some of these tricks and evil devices such as I have myself ob- 
served, or have been pointed out to me by good and pious hearts, 
whereby it may be felt and seen that my reasons and declarations 
above made are supported and must stand if there is to be any 
help and counsel for conscience in merchandising. And also that 
all the other evil devices not here enumerated may be known and 
estimated by these ; for how were it possible to number them all ? 
since through the three aforementioned sources doors and windows 
are opened to greed and to wicked, tricky, selfish human nature, 
and room and play given, power and permission to practise freely 
all sorts of cunning and deceit, and daily to devise more, so that 
the whole business reeks of greed, yea, is soaked and sunken in 
greed as in a second deluge. 

Of Time Sales. — In the first place, some make no bones of let- 
ting their wares go on time, and selling them thus dearer than for 
cash. Yea, some prefer to sell no wares for cash, but only on time, 
and that simply that they may make more money by it. Now, thou 
canst see that this performance is rudely in conflict with God's 
word, against reason and all justice, and from pure, unadulterated 
greed he sins against his neighbor, whose harm he nothing heeds, 
robs and steals from him his own, and seeks not his own just living, 
but only greed and gain. For in divine right he should not credit 
or sell on time dearer than for cash. 

Furthermore, this, too, has been done : some sell their goods 
dearer than they are worth in the general market, or in prices cur- 
rent, and thus raise the price of their wares for no other reason 
than that they know that there is no more of them in the land, or 


is not likely to come presently, and yet people must have them. 
That is the knavish eye of greed that considers only his neighbor's 
necessity, not to relieve it, but to profit by it, and to become rich 
through his neighbor's loss. Such dealers are merely public 
thieves, robbers, and usurers. 

Of '■^Corners.'' — Furthermore, there are some who buy up alto- 
gether the goods or wares of a certain kind in a city or country, so 
that they alone have such goods in their power, and then fix prices, 
raise and sell as dear as they will or can. Now I have said above 
that the rule is false and unchristian that any one sell his goods 
as dear as he will or can ; more abominable still is it that any one 
should buy up the goods with this intent. Which same, moreover, 
imperial and common law forbids and calls monopoly ; that is, sel- 
fish purchases which are not to be suffered in the land and city, 
and princes and rulers should check and punish it if they wish to 
fulfil their duty. For such merchants act just as if the creatures 
and goods of God were created and given for them alone, and as 
though they might take them from others and dispose of them at 
their fancy. 

Of Joseph. — And if any one were to cite the example of Joseph, 
how this holy man gathered all the grain in the land and after- 
wards, in the time of famine, bought therewith for the King of 
Egypt all the money, cattle, land, and people, which indeed seems 
as if it were a monopoly or piece of selfishness, the answer is this : 
That this purchase and bargain of Joseph's was no monopoly, but 
a fair bargain such as was common in the land. For he hindered 
no one from buying at the proper time. But it was his wisdom, 
given by God, that he gathered in the king's corn the seven years 
when harvests were good, while others were gathering nothing or 
little. For the text does not say that he alone gathered corn, but 
that he gathered it in the king's cities. If the others did not do 
this it is their own fault ; just as the average man is apt to live 
without forethought, or at times has not the wherewithal to gather. 

Just as we see still to-day, that unless princes or cities pro- 
vide themselves with supplies for the benefit of the whole land 
there is no provision in the home of the common man, or very lit- 
tle, for he is wont to consume his yearly income from year to year. 
And such gathering is not selfishness and monopoly, but good 
Christian foresight on the part of the community for the benefit of 
others. For it is not as though they took everything for them- 
selves, like these merchants, but from what the common market or 
the yearly harvest offers common to all, they gather the surplus. 


whereas others will not or cannot gather of it, but only supply 
their daily needs from it. Moreover, Scripture does not report 
that Joseph gathered the corn in order to sell it as dear as he 
pleased. For the text says clearly he did it not to satisfy greed, 
but in order that land and people might not perish. But our mer- 
chant sells as dear as he pleases, and seeks his own profit solely, 
without concern whether land and people perish. 

But that Joseph thereby brought all the money and cattle, all 
the fields and people under the king does indeed not seem to be a 
Christian action, since he was under obligation to give to the 
needy for nothing, as the Gospel and Christian love teach. But 
yet he did right and well, for Joseph was conducting the civil rule 
in the king's stead. Thus I have often read that one cannot rule 
the world according to the Gospel and Christian love, but by strict 
laws, with force and the sword, since the world is evil and accepts 
neither Gospel nor love, but acts and lives according to its fancy 
unless it is restrained by force. Otherwise, in case any one were to 
practise simple love they would eat and drink and live high from 
the goods of others, and no one would work, since every one would 
take from his neighbor what was his, and such a state of affairs 
would result that no one could live because of his neighbor. There- 
fore Joseph did right, because God so brought it about that by a 
fair bargain such as the times allowed he got control of everything 
and caused the people to submit to the constraint of civil law and 
sell themselves and all that they had. For in those lands there has 
always been a strict government, and the custom of selling people 
like other property. Besides, being a pious man, he doubtless let 
no poor man die of hunger, but as the text says, after he had up- 
held the king's civil rights and rule he gathered this corn for the 
use and benefit of the people and the land, and sold and disposed 
of it so. Therefore the example of the faithful Joseph is as far 
from the actions of faithless, selfish merchants as Heaven is from 
Hell. This much aside for this subject. But now let us return to 
the practices. 

Of "Bears.'" — Another one is that when certain ones are un- 
able to establish their monopoly and selfish purchases, because 
there are others on hand who have the same wares and goods, they 
proceed to sell these goods so cheap that the others cannot meet 
them, and thus force them either to stop selling or to sell as 
cheaply as themselves to their ruin. So they come after all to their 
monopoly. These people do not deserve to be called men or to 
live among people, nor do they deserve to be instructed or admon- 


ished, since envy and greed are so coarse and shameless in this 
case that the man brings harm to others through his own injury 
merely in order that he alone may hold the field. Here civil 
authority would do right to take from such all that they have and 
drive them out of the country. It might be unnecessary to enu- 
merate such performances, but I determined to mingle them with 
the others that it may be seen what great knavery there is in mer- 
chandising, and be brought to daylight for every one how it goes 
in the world, so that he may guard himself against such a danger- 
ous occupation. 

Of Futures. — Again, this is a knavish performance : when one 
sells to another in words the wares in his sack which he really has 
not. Thus to-wit : A strange merchant comes to me and asks 
whether I have such and such wares for sale. I say yes, though I 
really have none, and sell him such wares for ten or fourteen flo- 
rins, whereas they can be bought for nine or less, and promise to 
deliver them in two or three days. Meanwhile I go and buy such 
wares where I well knew beforehand that I could buy them cheaper 
than I sell them to him, and deliver the wares to him and he pays 
me for them, and thus I deal with the money and goods of other 
people without any risk, pains, or labor, and become rich. That 
is a cunning way of living on the street by other people's goods 
and money without needing to travel land and sea. 

Of Bearing a Market. — Again, this, too, is living on the street, 
when a merchant has a purse full of money and no longer wishes 
to undergo adventures with his goods over land and sea, but to 
have a sure deal ; so he remains ever in a great commercial city, 
and when he knows of a merchant who is being pushed by his 
creditors so that he must have money to pay withal, having none, 
yet plenty of good wares, then this man procures some one to buy 
the wares, and offers eight florins where they are usually worth 
ten; if the man is unwilling then he procures another person, who 
offers him six or seven, so that the poor man fears the goods are 
about to fall, and is glad to take the eight, so that he may obtain 
ready money and not incur too great loss and disgrace. It even 
happens that merchants in such need seek out such tyrants and 
offer them the wares for the ready money wherewith they may pay. 
In this case the latter hold stiff until they get the wares cheap 
enough, and then sell as they please. Such financiers are called 
throttlers, or cut-throats, but are considered important and shrewd 

Of Combinations. — Then again, this is another trick of selfish- 


ness, that three or four merchants have one or two sorts of wares 
in their control which other people have not or have not for sale. 
Now when they note that the said wares are worth much money 
and are daily growing dearer because of war or as result of acci- 
dent, they combine and allege to others that such wares are much 
sought and few have them for sale. But if there are some who 
have them, they put up a stranger to buy up all these wares. Then 
when they have the wares entirely in their hands they make a com- 
pact together in this wise : We will hold these wares at such and 
such a price because there are no more on hand, and if any one 
sells them cheaper he shall forfeit so and so much. 

This performance, as I hear, is carried on most grossly and 
frequently by English merchants in selling English or Dutch 
cloths. For it is said that they have a special council for this busi- 
ness, like the council in a city ; and all Englishmen who sell Eng- 
lish or Dutch cloths have to belong to it under some certain pen- 
alty. And by this council it is determined how dear they shall sell 
their cloth and what days or hours they shall offer the goods. The 
chief in this council is called the courtmaster, and is held not 
much lower than a prince ; behold in this what greed can do and 
dares propose. 

Of Forced Sales. — Further, I must note one more perform- 
ance : I sell to a certain person pepper or the like on six months' 
time, and know that he is obliged to sell the same immediately in 
order to get ready money. So I go myself, or accomplish it 
through others, and have the pepper bought from him again for 
cash, but so that what he bought from me at twelve florins on six 
months' time I buy from him at eight. Meanwhile the current price 
is ten. So I buy from him two florins cheaper than the market 
price, and he has bought from me at two florins dearer than the 
market offers. So I gain behind and before, and simply in order 
that he may get money and keep up his credit, lest he experience 
with shame that no one else would give him credit. 

Of Bankrupts. — As for those who manage or have to manage 
such devices as is the case with those who buy more on credit than 
they can pay, or when one has a capital of scarcely two hundred 
florins and does business to the extent of five or six hundred flo- 
rins, and cannot himself pay if his creditors do not pay, why here 
the mischief eats deeper and deeper, and one loss comes upon an- 
other the more such devices are practised, until I see that the gal- 
lows is in sight, and I must run away or sit in the tower. So I 
keep still and give my creditors good words, and claim that I will 


pay them honestly. Meantime I go and obtain as much more 
on credit as I can and turn this into money, or otherwise get 
money on my draft, or borrow as much as I can. Then when it is 
most convenient, or my creditors leave me no rest, I lock my 
house, arise and run away, hide myself in some monastery where 
I am exempt, like a thief or a murderer in a churchyard. Then 
my creditors are glad that I have not left the country and quit me 
every second or third penny [half or one third] of my whole debt, 
and I am to pay the rest in two or three years. They give me this 
under seal, and I come home again and am a merchant who has 
gained (by his getting up and running away) two or three thou- 
sand florins, which I could not have obtained otherwise in three or 
four years by running or trotting. 

Or where this will not work and I see that I must run away, I 
go to the Emperor's court or to one of his governors ; there I can get 
for one or two hundred florins a qutnque?ielle, that is, an imperial 
letter under seal to the effect that I may be free and do what I 
please two or three years for all my creditors, because according to 
my account I have incurred great damage ; as though the quin- 
quenelle had a nose and could find out whether the proceeding 
were right and godly. Yea, this is knavery. 

Of Interest. — Then another trick that is current in companies. 
A citizen deposits two thousand florins with a merchant for six 
years ; therewith he is to do business, gain or lose, and pay the 
citizen two hundred florins interest annually, and what he makes 
beyond this is his own. But if he does not gain he has to pay the 
interest just the same. And the citizen is doing the merchant great 
service in this, for the merchant expects with the two thousand to 
gain three hundred. On the other hand the merchant does the cit- 
izen a service, for his money would otherwise lie idle and bring no 
profit. That this common practice is wrong, and simple usury, I 
have sufficiently shown in the Sermon on Usury. ^ 

1 must tell one more thing as example of how false lending 
and borrowing leads to misfortune. There are some who, when 
they see that the buyer is shaky and does not come promptly to 
time get themselves paid most cunningly in this fashion : I put up 
a strange merchant to go to him and buy of his wares for a hun- 
dred florins or like matter, and say to him: "When you have 
bought all the wares, then promise him cash or refer him to a cer- 
tain debtor, and when you have the wares then bring him to me 

IThe " Sermon on Usury " was reprinted in the same volume with the address " On Trade 
and Usury." 


as that debtor, and act as if you did not know that he was in debt 
to me ; so I am paid and give him nothing." That is financiering, 
and means ruining the poor man together with those to whom he 
may be in debt. But that is what is to be expected when un- 
christian lending and borrowing is carried on. 

Of ^^ Deaconing.'' — Then again : They have learned to put or lay 
goods where they will increase, as pepper, ginger, or saffron, as in 
damp vaults or cellars, so that they gain in weight ; so, too, to sell 
woolen goods, silks, marten pelts, and sable in dark stores or 
booths, and to exclude the air, as is the custom everywhere, so 
that they have a particular sort of air for every kind of goods. And 
there is no kind of ware with which some advantage is not taken, 
be it measuring, counting, with yard-stick, bushel or weight, or 
giving it a color which it has not by nature, or they lay the best at 
top and bottom and the worst in the middle. Thus there is no end 
of such deception, and no merchant can trust another farther than 
he can see or feel. 

Of Robber Barons. — Now merchants are making a great out- 
cry against noblemen or robber knights, saying that they have to 
trade under great danger, and are liable to be caught, beaten, ran- 
somed and robbed. Forsooth, if they suffered this for righteous- 
ness' sake, the merchants would be saints. Although it may hap- 
pen that once in a while one suffers a wrong before God, and has 
to pay for the company he is in, and suffer for the sins of others, 
yet inasmuch as such great wrongs and unchristian thievery and 
robbery have been brought upon the world through merchants, 
and are even practised among themselves, what wonder is it if God 
brings it about that such great properties, gained wrongfully, are 
again lost or plundered and they themselves cracked over the head 
or imprisoned ! For God must exercise justice, since he declares 
himself to be a just judge. 

Not that I would have highway robbers and bushwhackers ex- 
cused or free to carry on their robbery. It is the duty of the rulers 
to keep the roads free, for the benefit of the bad as well as the 
good. It is the business of princes to punish such unrighteous mer- 
chandising with proper power, and to check it, so that their sub- 
jects be not so shamefully skinned by the merchants. Since they 
do not attend to it, God uses highwaymen and robbers, and 
through them brings punishment upon the merchants, as though 
they were his devils, just as he torments Egypt and all the rest of 
the world with devils, or ruins by enemies. So he chastises one 
knave through another without wishing it understood that the 


highwaymen are less robbers than the merchants, though the mer- 
chants rob the whole world daily, while a highwayman robs one or 
two persons once or twice in a year. 

Of Combinations. — Of combinations I ought really to say much, 
but the matter is endless and bottomless, full of mere greed and 
wrong, so that nothing can be found about it that can be pursued 
with a good conscience. For who is so stupid as not to see that 
combinations are mere outright monopolies? which even heathen 
civil laws condemn as a plainly harmful thing in all the world — I 
will say nothing of divine right and Christian law. For they have 
all wares in their control and manage as they please, and pursue 
the above-mentioned practices without shame, raising and lowering 
prices at pleasure, oppressing and ruining smaller dealers as the 
pike does smaller fish in the water ; just as if they were lords of 
God's creatures and free from all the laws and obligations of faith 
and love. 

Thence it comes that in all the world we have to buy spices as 
dear as they will. To-day they raise the price of ginger, next year 
saffron, so that the bend always fits into the angle and they have 
no loss, harm, nor risk ; but if ginger fails or is spoiled they make 
it good on saffron, so that they are sure of their profit. Which is 
contrary to the fashion and nature not only of merchandise but of 
all temporal goods, which God means to have subject to risk and 
uncertainty. But they have devised that through risky, uncertain, 
temporal wares they obtain sure, certain, and constant profit. But 
thereby all the world must be drained empty and all the money run 
into their funnel. 

Of Great Fortunes. — How should it come about rightly and 
with God's will that one man in so short a time should become so 
rich that he could buy out kings and emperors ? But as they have 
brought it about that all the world must deal with risk and loss, 
gain to-day and lose next year while they for ever and eternally 
win, or make good any loss with increased gains, what wonder is it 
that they gather in the goods of all the world ? For a perennial 
certain penny is better than a temporal and uncertain florin. Yet 
these combinations never risk their perennial and certain florins 
against our temporal and uncertain pennies. How then can there 
be any wonder that they become kings and we beggars? 

Of Great and Small Thieves. — Kings and princes should look 
into this, and prevent such performances by strict laws ; but I hear 
they have hand and part in it, and it goes as Isaiah says : "Thy 
princes have become the companions of thieves." Meanwhile they 


have thieves who have stolen one florin hung, and associate with 
those who rob the whole world and steal more than all the others ; 
that the proverb maybe approved: "Great thieves hang small 
thieves," and as the Roman senator, Cato, said : " Humble thieves 
lie in dungeons but public thieves go in gold and silk." But what 
will God say to it all at the end ? He will do as He promises through 
Ezekiel : " Princes and merchants, one thief with the other will he 
melt down like lead and copper, as when a city is laid waste with 
fire, so that there shall remain neither princes nor merchants," 
which state, as I fear, is at hand. For we have no purpose to bet- 
ter ourselves, however great the sin and wrong, and He cannot let 
the wrong go unpunished. 

Hence let no one ask how with good conscience he may have 
part in combinations. There is no other counsel than : Let it 
alone ; only wrong can come of them. If combinations are to re- 
main, right and honesty must go down. If right and honesty are 
to remain the combinations must go. The bed is too narrow, says 
Isaiah, one must needs fall out, and the cover is too short, it can- 
not cover both. I know, indeed, that my writing will please them 
ill, and they will haply throw it all to the wind and remain as they 
are. But I am unburdened, and have done my part, so that when 
God comes with His rod we may see how fairly we have deserved 
it. If only I have instructed herewith one soul, and saved it from 
the pit, I shall not have labored in vain, though I hope, as I said 
above, that it has grown so high and heavy of itself that it cannot 
go longer and will have to be given over. In fine, let every one 
look to himself. Let no one abstain from these practices for love 
or service of me, nor let any one adopt or keep them for spite and 
harm of me. Thou art to decide, not I. God illumine us, and 
strengthen us to do his good will. Amen ! 



GENTLEMEN : — Allow me to begin with the conscientious as- 
surance that I should have been heartily glad if I had been 
spared the necessity of speaking on this matter; but since the "Mo- 
tion Against the Professors" has been made and opened for discus- 
sion, I may not, being the only professor of theology present, — I 
must not keep silence, for to do so would be, not evidence of a peace- 
able and conciliatory spirit, but cowardice and a denial of the sta- 
tion and calling in which God has placed me. Therefore I must 
speak, and prepare the way only by saying that as I belong to no 
faction or fraction of this synod, neither do I speak in the name or 
under commission of any fraction, but solely in my own name and 
that of my calling. 

To be sure, when I consider the letter of the motion before us, 
which refers to "appointment in evangelical-theological faculties 
of such professors only as stand within the confession of the 
Church," it might appear doubtful whether I really am called on 
to speak, for personally I do not feel that the letter of the motion 
touches me at all. Gentlemen, I stand within the Confession of 
the Church, this I can say unhesitatingly. For I stand firmly and 

1 By the courtesy of Dr. C. H. Cornill we are favored with advance proofs of his address on 
the Professorenantrag, or Motion Against the Professors, given on the 30th of October before the 
sixth session of the Fourth West Prussian Provincial Synod, as prepared by him for publication 
in the Danziger Zeitung, No. 22,281. Von Puttkamer-Plauth, who advocated the motion, had 
preceded Dr. Cornill, and though speaking in a conciliatory tone, and denying any purpose to 
assail free research, had declared that the advocates of the measure distinguished between 
freedom of research and freedom of instruction; no one would think of restricting research, but 
it was a menace to the Church, and not to be permitted, that the professors of theology should 
forthwith teach their results, and announce to the young theologues as accepted scientific truths 
undemonstrated hypotheses on which the Church had not yet passed judgment. Dr. Cornill's 
high standing as an investigator, his position in the University of Konigsberg, and the fact that 
he spoke as delegate of the theological faculty of Konigsberg, lend interest to the views ex- 
pressed. He resolutely places theology among the sciences, and denies its subordination to the 
Church. This address has been translated by W. H. Cs.\x-a.\h.— {Editor .^ 


clearly upon the foundation of the Apostles' Creed, — the Apostles' 
Creed without higgling and haggling, without distortion and subtil- 
ising. And in case this does not suffice, and you demand a more 
specific sectarian confession, — well and good, as a genuine old Hu- 
guenot, in my whole church feeling and consciousness I belong to 
the strict Reformed^ Confession. If there were in this synod a 
group of the Reformed Church, I should have felt constrained to 
ally myself with it, and should have done so as flesh of my flesh 
and bone of my bone. 

But despite this, I may say without presumption or conceit 
that wherever the Motion Against the Professors is discussed by 
those who are acquainted with current theological literature, my 
name and person will not be among the least. For indeed, I am 
considered in the widest circles as an especially wicked and danger- 
ous specimen of the species of professor against whom this motion 
is directed. 

This is to me the clearest proof that your motion goes farther 
than the letter of it says, and that it is in reality directed against 
theological science and free investigation. This "wicked criti- 
cism" is to be stifled and driven out of the Church. Hence you 
must permit me to treat your motion from the point of this its ulti- 
mate aim ; and I wish to show you that your motion begins with a 
wrong premise, that it seeks its end in a wrong way, and that, even 

if it is carried, it will do no good, but rather infinite harm. 


Your motion starts from a wrong premise. Expressed or sup- 
pressed, it is based on the theory that science has a tendency to 
systematically assail and deliberately undermine church doctrine. 
But this premise is entirely erroneous. 
\/ Science .has_np tend enc^^ solely the search for 

truth . To find the truth, or at least to seek it, is its only aim, and 
for the attainment of this sole aim it has for means and ways the 
approved method of scientific research. Whither this search shall 
lead, it never knows in advance, and is therefore not answerable 
for the results. A problem arises ; it must be solved. If we can 
assure ourselves that this solution was reached by the path of 
strictly methodic research, we must submit to the result, and sub- 
mit unconditionally, whether or not it be agreeable to us person- 
ally. And, gentlemen, this truth which science discerns, or thinks 

IThe Presbyterians or Calvinists call themselves Reformed in Germany. The members of 
the synod are Lutherans; but both confessions, Lutherans and Presbyterians, are united in the 
State Church, officially known as Die Evangelische Kirche, having a common church govern- 
ment, under which, however, both parties enjoy a perfect freedom of worship. — \Editor.\ 


she discerns, it is my solemn duty, as a servant of science, to pro- 
claim. I will not quote here the familiar student song about him 

"Who knows the truth and hides its light, 
[He is a pitiful cowardly wight.]." 

But this much I must say : if the commission to teach were lim- 
ited by such a condition, then as an honest and — pardon the 
harsh word — a decent man, nothing would be left for me but to re- 
sign my professorship. To say to us : you professors may investi- 
gate as much as you will, but you must keep the results of your 
investigation to yourselves, that is to forbid us to teach what we 
have perceived to be the truth, — this amounts simply to forbidding 
us to lecture, if we wish to keep our self-respect. We never will 
and never can agree to that. It is our sacred right to announce the 
truth which we know, even before our students ; we shall not let it 
be taken from us; with that we stand or fall. But if a divine power, 
which has for goal solely the search for truth, is to be suspected 
and crowded out of the Church, it looks indeed just as if the Church 
had reason to shun the truth, and could not endure it. But this is 
quite inconceivable. 

Jesus Christ called himself the truth and the king of truth, 
born and come into the world to bear witness to the truth, and his 
greatest apostle writes : "We can do naught against the truth." 
No truth, not even scientific truth, is a menace to the Church of 
Jesus Christ, the King of Truth. He, in whose mouth was no 
guile, promised his Church that not even the gates of Hell should 
prevail against it. And in the face of such a promise you fear that 
what the gates of Hell can not achieve might be done by a few pro- 
fessors of theology? No, gentlemen, I think higher of the Church 
of Jesus Christ, and more modestly of us professors. 

The Church must be able to bear every and any truth, and in- 
deed it can. I would remind you of the time when the Copernican 
cosmogony was appealing ever louder and more urgently to hearts 
and minds. Many serious and pious Christians believed then that 
if Copernicus and Galileo were right, it was all over with the Scrip- 
tures and the Church for all time. But the Church has endured 
the Copernican cosmogony, for it is the truth, and stands to-day 
unmoved and unmovable. 

Moreover, the way in which you propose through your ?noiion to 
attain your end is ?iot the right one. I know and recognise how 
delicate and questionable a proceeding it is to apply the words of 
Jesus to oneself and one's own circumstances, but even at the risk 


of being misinterpreted I must confess that in the face of the Mo- 
tion Against the Professors the saying keeps coming into my mind : 
" If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil, but if well, why 
smitest thou me?" Yes, gentlemen, if we have spoken evil, prove 
that it is evil. Science is a spiritual power which can be met only 
with spiritual weapons, and not with laws and police regulations. 
Science, too, is a manifestation of the spirit of which Paul the 
Apostle writes to the Thessalonians : " Quench not the Spirit." 

This spirit, it is true, sometimes cuts strange capers, and in 
science, too, there are not alone gold, silver, and precious stones, 
but also wood, hay, and stubble. But even if the spirit manifests 
itself in a way to rouse apprehension, and if you consider it harm- 
ful and dangerous, remember the parable of the wheat and the 
tares, "let both grow together until the harvest." And this you 
can do with all confidence, for this harvest and the judgment in 
general do not wait until the Last Day, but are being accomplished 
even now. Science bears its own corrective within itself. In sci- 
ence, too, "the dead ride fast" — terribly fast. And precisely the 
extreme and unsound tendencies are the ones which experience 
shows to have had a particularly swift decline. 

It is exactly twenty-four years since The Old and the New Faith, 
by D. F. Strauss, appeared. You will all recall the tremendous 
excitement which it caused at the time ; and where is it to-day, 
after twenty-four years? Submerged and forgotten. I think even 
the most innocent small-beer Philistine would be ashamed and feel 
antiquated in culture if he caught himself quoting or mentioning 
this book. And to cite a more significant and thoroughly serious 
scientific manifestation : Thirty-six -years are fled since the death 
of F. C. Baur, the head of the "Tubingen School." For a whole 
generation it was believed that the Tubingen School would anni- 
hilate Church and Christianity, and where is it now? Dissolved in 
smoke and wind, while the church of Jesus Christ remains. Not in 
vain, indeed, did Baur and his Tubingen School labor and investi- 
gate, but that the foundation theory of Baur was wrong, and his 
inferences therefore unsound, is recognised to-day frankly and un- 
reservedly by the most critical investigators. Science has passed 
by him to the " order of the day." Therefore leave science without 
anxiety to the ordeal of history. Without the aid of us weak men 
to turn the cranks, God's mills grind surely, and in this field, per- 
haps, more swiftly than elsewhere. 

But, you will reply, until such a tendency has run its course it 
may do infinite harm, confuse minds and poison souls. Let me an- 


swer this objection with a bit of personal experience. When I be- 
gan my instruction in Konigsberg ten years ago with a course of 
lectures on Genesis, I had among my hearers a young man, the son 
of a well-known clergyman. At the end of the semester the young 
man gave up the study of theology and turned to jurisprudence. 
Thereupon I was taken to task, not indeed by the father of the 
young man, but by the most authoritative person at that time in 
the East-Prussian provincial Church, as being to blame, and hav- 
ing by my lectures on Genesis unsettled the young man's faith and 
driven him away from theology. My reply was : "If this is really 
true, which, however, I will not believe until I have it from the 
young man himself, then I think I have done a service to theology 
and the Church ; for one who is unsettled in his faith in all Chris- 
tianity and the Church by the fact that Moses did not write Gene- 
sis, will be of no use to us in this fearfully serious and trying 
time." The ultimate development of the affair, which brought me 
a complete vindication, I have thought and still think it indelicate 
to report, because I regard it as a sacred personal secret between 
the young man and myself ; but this much I may say, that the late 
General Superintendent of Prussia, after I had had a thorough un- 
derstanding with him in the matter, became and remained to me 
until his death a truly paternal friend. 

No, gentlemen, in a time of combats in all directions, such as 
Church and theology have to wage, we have no use for semi-inva- 
lids and cripples, but only for strong, whole, thoroughly tried men. 
A wavering reed that is blown hither and thither by the wind may, 
if God will, become anything, only not a theologian, and if we help 
such to a clear perception of the fact that they are not fitted to be 
theologians there is no harm done. 

And even if you carry your motion you will not attain the end in 
view. Even if you succeeded in shutting out from theological 
professorships all scientific investigators you have not thereby 
stifled scientific research itself. For we shall investigate afterwards 
as before, and will publish the results of our researches, and is it 
likely that the printed word will have less effect than that spoken 
from the chair? Then you would needs suppress the printing of 
books ; and consider well, even our laymen read scientific books, 
and, as a result of the widespread efforts at popularising science by 
lectures, journals, and books for the masses, laymen become ac- 
quainted with the results of scientific research. 

And now suppose the case, that such a layman, interested in 
science, has read a book or hears a lecture, and comes to his pas- 


tor and asks for instruction and explanation: " My dear pastor, 
how is this? I have read and heard thus and so, and in Bible his- 
tory we learned quite a different story." What shall the pastor do 
with such a layman? Shall he simply fall back on the dogma of in- 
spiration and answer the layman : ''Friend, that doesn't concern 
me, and needn't concern you, for ' it is written,' " etc. ? If he acted 
thus he would, to speak frankly, play a miserable part, and hope- 
lessly compromise himself and the church. At every turn he finds 
himself face to face with modern science, and it is a power once for 
all against which the tactics of the ostrich will avail nothing. 

It is wholly impossible to shield young theologues from contact 
with modern science ; it simply cannot be done in this day and age 
of the world. 

In the First Epistle of Peter it is said : "But be ever ready to 
give account to every one who demands a reason for the hope that 
is in you," and this apostolic admonition applies especially to the 
theologian, the clergyman. But in order to be ever ready to give 
account to every one the clergyman must know modern science, he 
must have assimilated it and inwardly taken position regarding it. 
And if this is his most sacred duty to himself and his office, if on 
this very account he must know science and dare not abstain from 
intimate acquaintance with it, well, then it is by all means best that 
he make this acquaintance through authorised servants and repre- 
sentatives, from whom he will receive the impression that the chief 
concern here is not frivolous mockery, not satanic delight in nega- 
tion and destruction, but serious wrestling and striving for truth. 

This measure, therefore, will not only do no good, but will do 
infinite harm. For organisations are sustained only by the powers 
which gave them birth. 

Repeated reference has been made to-day to Luther and the 
reformers. Those, too, were professors ; they searched in the Scrip- 
tures and the history of the Church, and when this research had 
led them to the conclusion that the Church of that day did not cor- 
respond to the norm of the Gospel, they did not keep this revelation 
to themselves because the Church of the time had not yet approved 
it, but they proclaimed it loudly and freely to the benefit of millions 
and millions of truth-seeking souls. The right of free research, 
limited only by God and the conscience, made the evangelical 
Church : to banish from it the right of free research is giving up 
the palladium of the Reformation, and forcing the Church back to 
the point from which our divinely favored reformers, by their la- 
bors as professors, happily freed it— and then rather let us simply 


return to the fold of St. Peter ; for the Catholic Church knows how 
to get rid of science and bridle its professors : through the close- 
laid walls of that gigantic structure flows no breath of freedom and 

Up to this point I have treated the matter altogether nega- 
tively and on the defensive ; but I cannot close without adding a 
positive word. For it is a necessity and a pleasure to me to speak 
of it : At the bottom of your endeavors there is a justifiable mo- 
tive. That the Church shall exercise an influence, and that a de- 
cisive and determinative influence upon the training of its future 
servants is not merely a proper demand, it is a necessity. But let 
it be done in the right way and in the right place. Precisely as 
professor of theology, I feel obliged to confess that the simple 
academic instruction is not sufficient for the training of theologians, 
but that it absolutely needs a supplement which only the Church 
can give. It is not important whether a man knows a few Hebrew 
vocables more or less, or a few dates more or less in Church his- 
tory, but that he can preach and minister to souls. And precisely 
in this most important matter academic instruction fails us. Even 
assuming the greatest excellence in the professor of practical theol- 
ogy — by two or three sermons given in the homiletic seminary, with 
his fellows and the critical professor for congregation, a student can- 
not learn to preach, and for practice in parish duties the university 
as such offers him no opportunity at all. There is a proper idea in 
the plan which formerly was in vogue at Giessen, where practical 
theology was excluded from the university on principle and left to 
the ministers' seminary in Friedberg, which every young theologue 
was required to attend. Here at this most important point the 
Church must enter the breach ; here it has a sacred duty and an 
inalienable right. If you would all apply the strength and energy, 
the activity and persistence which have been expended upon the 
ill-fated "Motion Against the Professors," to agitating for more 
ministers' seminaries, at least one for each province, and the re- 
quirement that every theologue, without exception, undergo a term, 
and not too short a term, as curate, then indeed you would be work- 
ing in the interest and for the benefit of our beloved Evangelical 

And be assured that under this banner you would be followed 
enthusiastically by all who bear the evangelical name ; then you 
would find even the heretical professors shoulder to shoulder with 
you in the front rank. I can confidently assure you of this, not only 
for myself but also in the name of all my colleagues, for we, too, 


wish nothing more urgently than a clear-cut and peaceful division 
and a co-operation based on mutual respect and recognition be- 
tween science and the Church. 

'''^ As men of science, we must demand that to science be given 
what to science belongs ; but we are just as ready to give to the 
Church what is the Church's. You introduced your motion from 
highly worthy motives and as earnest Christian men forced in con- 
science by the motto, Videant constdes ne quid detrimenti ecclesia 
capiat. But in the same spirit you in turn must permit me, without 
any personal consideration and purely from love for the Church, 
which I, too, love truly and with faithful heart, to beg this honora- 
ble synod not to make this motion its own. For with this proposal 
our Church would come upon an inclined plane ; but if the ball 
once begins to roll, it will roll in obedience to the law of gravity, 
irresistibly and ever swifter — downwards. And as the end of this 
inclined plane I see a condition described by the fearful phrase 
— Culture paired with unbelief, Christianity with barbarism ; and 
from that may God in mercy guard and defend His Church. 



RT. REV. SHAKU SOYEN, of Kamakura, Japan. 

REV. DR. JOHN H. BARROWS, of Chicago, III. 

REV. DR. F. F. ELLINWOOD, of New York City. 

J^ez'. Dr. John Barrows, Chicago, 111. 
Dear Sir : 

Friends in America have sent me a number of the Chicago 
Tribune, dated Monday, January 13, 1896, which contains the re- 
port of your second Haskell lecture, delivered at the Kent Theatre 
in the Chicago University. The subject is "Christianity and Bud- 
dhism," and I anticipated a friendly and sympathetic treatment of 
Buddhism at your hands, for I do not doubt that you desire to be 
just in your judgment. Your utterances are of importance because 
they will be received as an impartial representation of our religion, 
since you, having been Chairman of the Religious Parliament, are 
commonly considered to have the best of information about those 
religions that were represented at this famous assemblage. I was 
greatly disappointed, however, seeing that you only repeat those 
errors which are common in the various Western books on Bud- 
dhism. You say, "The goal which made Buddha's teachings a 
dubious gospel, is Nirvana, which involves the extinction of love 
and life, as the going out of a flame which has nothing else to feed 
upon." Now the word Nirvdna means "extinction" and it means 
the eradication of all evil desires, of all passions, of all egotism, so 
that the flame of envy, hatred, and lust will have nothing to feed 
upon. This is the negative side of Nirvana. The positive side of 
Nirvana consists in the recognition of truth. The destruction of 
evil desires, of envy, hatred, extinction of selfishness implies char- 


ity, compassion with all suffering, and a love that is unbounded 
and infinite. Nirvana means extinction of lust, not of love ; ex- 
tinction of evil, not of existence ; of egotistic craving, not of life. 
The eradication of all that is evil in man's heart will set all his 
energies free for good deeds, and he is no genuine Buddhist who 
would not devote his life to active work, and a usefulness which 
would refuse neither his friends nor strangers, nor even his very 

You say that "human life does not breathe, in Buddhism, the 
atmosphere of divine fatherhood, but groans under the dominion 
of inexorable and implacable laws." Now I grant that Buddha 
taught the irrefragability of law but this is a point in which, as in so 
many others, Buddha's teachings are in exact agreement with the 
doctrines of modern science. However, you ought to consider that 
while the law is irrefragable, no one but those who infringe upon it 
groan under it. He who understands the laws of existence and 
especially the moral law that underlies the development of human 
society, will accommodate himself to it, and thus he will not groan 
under it, but in the measure that he is like Buddha he will be en- 
lightened, he will be a master of the law and not a slave. In the 
same way that the ignorant savage is killed by the electric shock of 
lightning, while an electric engineer uses it for lighting the halls 
and streets of our cities, the immoral man suffers from the moral 
law, he groans under its inexorable and implacable decree, while 
the moral man enjoys it, and turning it to advantage glories in its 
boundless blessings. 

This same moral law is the source of enlightenment and its 
recognition constitutes Buddhahood. This same moral law we call 
Amitabha-Buddha, the boundless light of Buddhahood which is 
eternal, omnipresent, and all-glorious. We represent it under a 
picture of a father, and it was incarnated not only in Gautama-Bud- 
dha, but also in all great men in a higher or lesser degree, foremost 
among them in Jesus Christ, and, allow me to add, in George 
Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and other great men of your coun- 
try. Allow me to add, too, that Buddha's doctrine, far from being 
scepticism, proclaims the doctrine that man can attain enlighten- 
ment and that he attains it not only through study and learning, 
which, as a matter of course, are indispensable, but also and mainly 
through the earnest exertions of a life of purity and holiness. 

There are many more points in your lecture which I feel 
tempted to discuss with you, but they refer more to Christianity 
than to Buddhism, and may imply a misunderstanding of Christian 


doctrines on my part. I am anxious to know all that is good in 
Christianity and the significance of your dogmas so that I may 
grow in a comprehension of truth, but IJiave not as yet been able 
ta see that mankind can be benefited by believing that Jesus Christ 
performed miracles. I do not deny the miracles nor do I believe 
them ; I only claim that they are irrelevant. The beauty and the 
truth of many of Christ's sayings fascinate me, but truth does not 
become truer by being pronounced by a man who works miracles. 
You say, "We can explain Buddha without the miracles which 
later legends ascribe to him, but that we cannot explain Christ — 
either his person or his influence — without granting the truth of his 
own claim that he did the supernatural works of his father." We 
may grant that Jesus Christ is the greatest master and teacher that 
appeared in the West after Buddha, but the picture of Jesus Christ 
as we find it in the Gospel is marred by the accounts of such 
miracles as the great draft of fishes which involves a great and use- 
less destruction of life (for we read that the fishermen followed 
Jesus leaving the fish behind), and by the transformation of water 
into wine at the marriage-feast at Cana. Nor has Jesus Christ at- 
tained to the calmness and dignity of Buddha, for the passion of 
anger overtook him in the temple, when he drove out with rope in 
hand those that bargained in the holy place. 

How different would Buddha have behaved under similar con- 
ditions in the same place. Instead of whipping the evil-doers he 
would have converted them, for kind words strike deeper than the 

I do not dare to discuss the statements you make about Chris- 
tianity for fear that I may be mistaken, but I am open to convic- 
tion and willing to learn. 

I hope you will not take offence at my frank remarks, but I 
feel that you, if any one in Christendom, ought to know the real 
teachings of Buddha, and we look to you as a leader who will make 
possible the way for a better understanding between all the religions 
of the world, for I do not doubt that as you unknowingly misrepre- 
sent the doctrines of the Tathagata, so we may misunderstand the 
significance of Christianity. We shall be much obliged to you if in 
justice to the religion of Buddha you will make public this hum- 
ble protest of mine, so that at least the most important misconcep- 
tions and prejudices that obtain among Christians may be removed. 

I remain with profound respect 

Your obedient servant, 

Kamakura, Japan. Shaku Soyen. 



Rev. Shaku Soyen, 
My Dear Brother : 

Your interesting letter of March ist has been sent to me from 
Chicago. I am to be here for the next six months. In December 
I go to India and I expect to spend next April in Japan, where I 
hope to meet you and the other friends who came to the Parliament. 
I send you a pamphlet giving a little sketch of my tour. 

Your letter I will send to-day to a friend in America, asking 
him to have it printed in an important journal so that you may give 
American people the opportunity of your views. 

I have been looking over the lecture to which you refer. Only 
a small part of it was printed in the Tribune. If you had read it all 
you would have found it full of appreciation both for Buddha and 
his ethical system. My interpretation of Nirvana is that of some 
of the most friendly students of Buddhism who have gained their 
views from reading the Buddhist Scriptures. But if modern Japa- 
nese Buddhism teaches conscious personal life after death and be- 
lieves in a personal Heavenly Father, full of love, its divergence 
from Christianity is not so marked as we had supposed. 

What you write about Christianity would require much more 
time for a proper reply to it than I can possibly give it at present. 
I am on the point of going to Paris to deliver an address on " Re- 
ligion, as the Unifier of Humanity." I think that the work that 
was done in Chicago shows how religion may help to draw men to- 

Will you remember me very kindly to the Buddhist friends 
who came with you from Japan. How pleasant it would be to meet 
again in Paris in 1900 ! 

Very faithfully yours, 

GoTTiNGEN, Germany. John Henry Barrows. 


Rev. Shaku Soyen. 
Dear Sir : 

I have been asked to reply publicly to a letter addressed by 
you to Rev. John H. Barrows, D. D., of Chicago, under date of 
March i, 1896. I have not seen Dr. Barrow's answer to you, but 
I have consented to reply to some of the points in your letter to 
him. , 


I have been pleased with the courteous spirit of your commu- 
nication no less than with your admirable use of the English lan- 
guage. Though firmly believing with Dr. Barrows (if I may judge 
from an address which I heard from his lips on the eve of his de- 
parture for India) that Christianity is the only religion that is adap- 
ted to the universal wants of mankind, and the only one that offers 
real salvation, yet I have long cherished and widely advocated a 
tolerant spirit toward other faiths, and have endeavored to give 
full credit to the ethical or religious truths which they inculcate. 
But since the close of the Parliament of Religions in Chicago I 
have realised more than ever the need of candid and accurate lan- 
guage in speaking on this subject, instead of giving way, either to 
hasty and ignorant denunciation, or to lavish expressions of ap- 
proval for courtesy's sake which might be construed as a surrender 
of one's own opinions. Our American hospitality toward the repre- 
sentatives and the religious systems of other lands was carried to 
such a degree by large numbers in the Parliament, that statements 
soon came back to us from Japan that the delegates from that coun- 
try had reported on their return that Buddhism had triumphed 
over Christianity on its own soil. 

The New York Independent published a letter reporting the 
proceedings of a meeting held under the auspices of the Buddhist 
Young Men's Association of Yokohama, and which was addressed 
by yourself, Mr. Yatsubuchi, and others. 

From one of these addresses these words are quoted : "The 
Parliament was called because the Western nations have come to 
realise the weakness and folly of Christianity, and they really 
wished to hear from us of our religions and to learn what the best 
religion is. The meeting showed the great superiority of Buddhism 
over Christianity, and the mere fact of calling the meetings showed 
that the Americans and other Western peoples had lost their faith 
in Christianity and were ready to accept the teachings of our supe- 
rior religion." 

If such were the impressions which you received from the 
courtesy of Dr. Barrows and others, it is not strange that you were 
disappointed when you read his real estimate of Buddhism in the 
published address to which your letter refers. 

Turning to what seems to be the chief point of difference be- 
tween you and Dr. Barrows, — viz., the meaning of Nirvana as 
taught by Buddhist philosophy, — I may say that I should as a rule 
be inclined to accept every intelligent man's statement of his own 
belief and the belief of his countrymen, or at least of his particular 


sect. But when we come to speak of a system which has under- 
gone many and radical changes in the course of the ages, and a 
system which has presented important modifications in different 
lands even in the same age, we can hardly make any one broad as- 
sertion which shall cover the whole ground. 

Buddhism is one thing in Ceylon, quite another in Thibet, and 
still another in China and Japan, where we find at least a dozen 
more or less divergent sects. Buddhism in its beginnings is gener- 
ally supposed by Western scholars to have been atheistic or at 
least agnostic; in Nepaul it became theistic, holding, according to 
Hodgson's Sanskrit translations, that Adi Buddha is ''self-exist- 
ent," ''the source of all existence in the three worlds," the "omni- 
present who is one and sole in the universe," the "Creator of all 
the Buddhas." "He is the essence of all the essences." "He is 
the author of virtue, the destroyer of all things." Those types of 
Buddhism which pay divine worship to Gautama, or Amitabha, or 
Quanyin, I should call quasi theistic or demi-theistic, while some 
of the Japanese sects, as described by Rev. Bunyiu Nanjio, Oxon, 
seem to be pantheistic. The promised joys in Amitabha's Paradise, 
as described in Max Miiller's translation of a Sanskrit manuscript, 
part of which had been sent him from Japan, would indicate an 
immortal blessedness of a real soul and without further rebirth, 
while Subhadra's Catechism of Buddhism, "compiled from the 
sacred writings of the Southern Buddhists for the use of Euro- 
peans," declares that "Buddhism teaches the reign of perfect good- 
ness and wisdom without a personal god, continuance of individu- 
ality without an immortal soul, eternal happiness without a local 
heaven," etc. 

It would be difficult, therefore, to give one all embracing char- 
acterisation of Buddhism, and when one speaks of the meaning of 
Nirvana we must first ascertain his point of view. There are as 
many different conceptions of Nirvana as there are Buddhisms. 

I agree with you entirely in your definition of Nirvana as the 
"eradication of all evil desires, of all passions, of all egotism, so that 
the flame of envy, hatred, and lust will have nothing to feed upon." 
All scholars are agreed, I believe, that the word Nirvana properly 
means an attainment to be realised in this life. I grant you also 
that "the positive side of Nirvana," speaking from the Buddhist 
standpoint, "consists in the recognition of truth." Buddha is sup- 
posed to have attained Nirvana at the time of his illumination un- 
der the Bo-tree, and for forty-five years thereafter he illustrated 
this positive side of it in his efforts for the good of men. I think 


that Dr. Barrows would agree with you so far. But the real ques- 
tion between you lies farther on. It is this : What becomes of the 
possessor of Nirvana when he dies? If Nirvana cuts off rebirth in 
this world or any other, what follows the final dissolution of body 
and mind ? And what did Buddha mean when he said to his fol- 
lowers : "Mendicants, that which binds the teacher to existence is 
cut off (he has attained Nirvana), but his body still remains. While 
his body shall remain, he will be seen by gods and men ; but after 
the termination of life, upon the dissolution of the body, neither 
gods nor men shall see him " ? 

And what, accordingly, is meant by the Pali term parinibbana, 
or in Sanskrit parinirvdna} I find no other meaning for this word 
than total extinction. It follows the Nirvana as a natural con- 
sequence of the cutting off of Karma and rebirth. Professor Rhys 
Davids expresses the distinction exactly when he says : "Death, 
utter death, with nothing to follow, is a result of, but is not Nir- 
vdna.^^ It is parinirvana. 

If I am asked concerning the meaning commonly given to Nir- 
vana in the Mahayana literatures of Northern Buddhism, I must 
declare my belief that it means a state of blessedness here and 
hereafter, but if by Buddhism is meant the system which Buddha 
taught and which is preserved in the earlier and canonical litera- 
ture of Ceylon, then I must give a very different answer. 

Professor Rhys Davids has illustrated very fully the great 
change which came over the Buddhism of the canonical Pitakas of 
the South as it was gradually developed into the "Great Vehicle" 
of the North. The whole emphasis of the system was changed 
from the ideal of Arhatship to that of Bodisatship, Even in the 
South, and before Buddha's death, the real logic of the Tathagata's 
teachings was felt to be depressing. "Existence in the eye of 
Buddhism," says d'Alwis, "was nothing but misery. . . . Nothing 
remained then to be devised as a deliverance from this evil, but 
the destruction of existence itself." It was an impracticable doc- 
trine, and Davids declares that "though laymen could attain Nir- 
vana, we are told of only one or two instances of their having done 
so: and though it was more possible for the members of the Bud- 
dhist order of Mendicants, we only hear after the time of Gautama 
of one or two who did so. No one now hears of such an occur- 
rence." The more practical races of the North desired something 
more available and more hopeful. A Bodisat submitting to suc- 
cessive rebirths for the sake of service to mortals, came to be more 
highly appreciated than an extinct Arhat. The Northern litera- 


ture came at length to even disparage Arhatship, while Bodisats 
like Avolokitesvara, and Amitabha rose high in popular esteem 
Davids tells us that the Lotics of the True Law, one of the Sanskrit 
books of Nepaul, and widely accepted in China and the North, 
openly disparages Arhatship and presents Bodisatship "as the 
goal at which every true Buddhist has to aim ; and the whole ex- 
position of this theory, so subversive of the original Buddhism, is 
actually placed in the mouth of Gautama himself." 

Professor Davids, in alluding to the accounts given of Nir- 
vana by Rev. Zitsuzen Ashitzu at the Chicago Parliament, says : 
"It shows how astounding is the gulf on all sides between popu- 
lar beliefs and the conclusion of science." (American Lectures, p. 
208.) He states that two forms of Nirvana which Ashitzu as- 
cribes to the Southern literature cannot there be found, and that 
the two which he ascribes to the Mahayana school are (strangely) 
ascribed to the immediate disciples of Buddha. The Nichiren sect 
of Japan, according to Nanjio, get around this chronological diffi- 
culty by the theory that Nichiren, living far on in the Christian era, 
was an incarnation of an ancient Bodisat who was instructed by 
Buddha in a "Sky Assembly" on a certain celestial mountain. 

This change from Arhatship to Bodisatship was unconsciously 
promoted by the introduction of fanciful Jatakas or stories of Bud- 
dha's pre-existent lives as a Bodisat. The claim that Buddha, 
though inconsistently with the whole drift of his teaching concern- 
ing the one supreme end, — had waived Nirvana and submitted to 
rebirth hundreds of times for the salvation of all beings, changed 
the emphasis of his whole system. It showed from his own exam- 
ple that to be reborn again and again as a Bodisat was far better 
than to end a useful existence in Parinirvana. The practical na- 
tions of the North espoused this new doctrine warmly, and both 
Beal and Edkins have described the luxuriant development of this 
tendency in the Mahayana School. Bodisats, past, present, and 
to come, were multiplied. Even before Asanga of Peshawar had 
introduced his ruinous compromise between Buddhism and Hindu 
Saktism, Hindu deities had begun to be admitted as Bodisats 
into the Buddhist pantheon. The bounds of the universe were en- 
larged to furnish an adequate field for their divine energies. At 
least five world systems, each with a trinity of Bodisats were rec- 
ognised, each trinity embracing a Dhyana or Celestial Buddha, of 
whom Amitabha seems to have been the most popular. 

The old theories of a real and conscious soul for which Bud- 
dha had substituted the doctrine of an impersonal Karma, had 


again crept into Buddhism with these and other Hindu elements, 
and with them the notion of continued and conscious existence and 
a changed Nirvana or Moksha. In Nepaul a positive doctrine of 
absorption into Adi Buddha (following the Hindu theories) is 
plainly taught. 

"The Buddhism of Thibet," says Davids, "is the very re- 
verse of the old Arhatship." It is a form of Bodisatship which 
renders very substantial every-day service as a semi-political force. 
The practical and helpful ministry of Quanyin in China and Japan 
is also an illustration of Bodisatship. 

But altogether the most striking departure from the original 
Arhat doctrines of the South is seen in the teachings of the Shin 
Shu sect of Japan. As described in Rev, Nanjio's little volume, 
also in Max Miiller's translation above referred to, and still more 
clearly in a Shin Shu tract, a translated copy of which may be 
found in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vol. 
XIV., Part I, June, 1888, this sect comes nearer to the doctrines 
of the Apostle Paul than to those of Shakya Muni. It presents a 
mediator between Karma and the sinner, a salvation not by the 
"eightfold path," but by faith, a righteousness not by personal 
merit, but by imputation, a renunciation of all trust in works as 
being "useless as furs worn in summer," and, like Christianity, it 
enjoins a consecrated service, not as compensation but from love. 
The heaven promised is called "Nirvana," but it is something ex- 
ceedingly attractive to the Buddhist masses. The tract approves 
of the marriage of priests and of all rational ways of living, and 
condemns the asceticism of the other sects as not only uncalled for 
but as a dismal failure in point of fact. 

If, then, we are to decide upon the meaning of Nirvana, or 
Parinirvana as taught by Buddha, we must turn back from all these 
Northern developments to the older canonical teachings. 

Burnouf maintained that the canon of Ashoka's Council must 
be the final authority, just as the four Gospels must be accepted as 
the doctrines of Christ. If the preponderating verdict there given 
is not decisive, then why might we not adopt any theory concern- 
ing Buddha's teachings which our presuppositions might require ? 
There was indeed in Ashoka's time an endless variety and chaos of 
traditions and theories. The two intervening centuries had been 
prolific. Tissa, a prominent member of the Council, arraigned and 
refuted no less than two hundred and fifty heresies. (See Rhys 
Davids's American lectures.) But if after all this careful sifting the 
Pitakas are not authoritative then we are at sea concerning the 


original doctrines of Buddhism. Moreover, these Pali scriptures 
are buttressed, so to speak, by Cingalese versions which are said to 
have been translated from the Pali two centuries B. C. by Ma- 
henda, the devout son of King Ashoka. These were at a much 
later day retranslated into Pali by Buddhagosha. The Pali and Cin- 
galese have therefore corroborated each other for centuries and 
rendered modification doubly difficult. 

If we may believe Prince Chudhadharn of Siam, who pre- 
sented a paper in the Parliament of Religions, the Siamese Bud- 
dhism (also of the Southern school) corroborates the testimonies of 
Ceylon. He said : " The true Buddhist does not mar the purity 
of his self-denial by lusting after a positive happiness which he 
himself shall enjoy here or hereafter. . . . What is to be hoped for 
is the absolute repose of Nirvana, the extinction of our being, noth- 

Professor Max Miiller, in an article published in the London 
Times and republished in his Science of Religio7i, takes the ground 
with Burnouf, Bigandet, Saint Hilaire, Rhys Davids, Childers, 
Spence Hardy, and others, that the philosophic teaching of the Pita- 
kas represents Nibbana or Parinibbana as equivalent to extinction. 
He declares that "no careful reader of the metaphysical specula- 
tions in the canon (on Nirvana) can reach any other conclusion than 
that of Burnouf," though in h.\s Buddhist Nihilism he seems inclined 
to think that the canon may have done injustice to the real teachings 
of Gautama. He finds inconsistencies in the statements of the 
canon, and he gives Buddha the benefit of the doubt. And on gen- 
eral principles he concludes that the great teacher could not have 
maintained "that Nirvana, instead of being a bridge from the 
finite to the infinite, is only a trap-bridge hurling man into an abyss 
at the very moment when he thought he had arrived at the strong- 
hold of the eternal." This seems to me, however, a clear case of 
special pleading. On the same principle we may go back of the 
New Testament history and build up any modified theory of the 
doctrine of Christ. Professor Oldenberg, an acknowledged Pali 
scholar, after a careful study of the alleged dialogues of Buddha 
with his more thoughtful disciples, as to whether his own ego 
would survive after death, reaches the conclusion that he left no 
decisive answer on one side or the other. "The question was 
treated as of no practical importance to one seeking deliverance 
now and here." Neither the Hindu philosophers who cross-ques- 
tioned him as the Pharisees questioned Christ, nor even his faith- 
ful but perplexed disciple, Malukya, obtained any but an evasive 


answer, coupled with exhortations to gain deliverance now and 

Personally I believe that Gautama had taught Parinirvana in 
the sense of extinction (he was so understood by his followers and 
by the opposing Hindus, who nicknamed the Buddhists "nasta- 
kas," i. e., "believers in destruction or nihilism), but that after 
seeing the perplexity and depression which the doctrine produced, 
he became reticent and refused to commit himself. Nevertheless, 
his more thoughtful disciples in carrying out the general drift of 
his teaching to its logical conclusions, established the doctrine of 
Parinibbana as Burnouf, Saint Hilaire, Childers, Spence Hardy, 
and d'Alwis, have found it expressed in the canonical Pitakas. 

But altogether the most decided position taken by any Pali 
scholar in reference to Parinibbana is that of Rhys Davids, par- 
tially quoted above. He says : "Stars long ago extinct maybe 
still visible to us by the light they emitted before they ceased to 
burn, but the rapidly vanishing effect of a no longer active cause 
will soon cease to strike upon our senses ; and where the light was 
will be darkness. So the living, moving body of the perfect man 
(Arhat) is visible still, though its cause has ceased to act : but it 
will soon decay and die and pass away, and, as no new body will 
be formed, where life was will be nothing. Death, utter death, with 
no new life to follow, is then a res2ilt of, but is not, Nirvdna. The 
Buddhist heaven is not death, and it is not on death, but on a vir- 
tuous life here and now, that the Pitakas lavish those terms of 
ecstatic description which they apply to Nirvana as the fruit of the 
fourth path of Arhatship." 

This statement occurs in his small volume entitled Buddhism, 
and is fully corroborated in the lectures delivered in America 
1894-5. Those passages in the Dharmapada which are supposed to 
indicate a continued and blessed existence after death, he regards 
as figurative expressions, applicable to the state of Nirvana in this 
life, and he quotes from the Parinibbanti Anasaba this clear state- 
ment : " Some people (at death) are reborn as men : evil doers in 
hell ; the well-conducted go to heaven, but the Arhats go out alto- 
gether. " There is nothing figurative here, nothing could be plainer. 
He adds that in the later Sanskrit books the notices of Nirvana 
" are so meagre that no conclusion can be drawn as to the views 
of their authors, but it is clear that they use Parinibbana in the 
sense of death, with no life to follow." 

Aside from these opinions of the highest authorities, I think 
that the Buddhist metaphysics, carried out logically, militate 


against any theory which supposes a continued and conscious bles- 
sedness to follow the extinction of Karma and the end of rebirth. 
It is difficult to see how there can be any conscious enjoyment of 
any kind where there is really no soul. Buddhism recognises no 
transition of a soul from one state of being to another. There are 
instead five skandas, partly physical, partly intellectual, and these 
produce the phenomena which others than Buddhists ascribe to an 
abiding, personal, conscious, and responsible soul. But according 
to Buddhist philosophy there is only a succession of thoughts and 
emotions proceeding from the interaction of the skandas, just as a 
flame proceeds from the combustion of the chemical elements in a 
candle. The flame is not the same in two consecutive moments, 
neither is the soul. The only permanent element remaining when 
the body with its skandas dies is the Karma. But if, as in the case 
of the Arhat, even the Karma is cut off, what can be left but ex- 
tinction ? Professor Oldenberg, with his metaphysical acuteness, 
and with a more than willingness to find something in the Bud- 
dhist philosophy less doleful than extinction, seems to suppose 
a sort of substrate of being which antedates this world of form 
and change, and therefore may survive it. He finds a passage 
in the Pali scriptures, and Max Miiller makes reference to the 
same, which reads as follows: ''There is an unborn, unbecome, 
not created, not formed. But for this unborn, unbecome, not 
created, not formed, there would be no way out of the world of 
the born, the become, the created, the formed. . . . The wise ones 
who do no harm to any being, who keep their body ever bridled, 
they go to the eternal place. He who arrives there knows nothing 
of pain ; but the monk, penetrated by goodness, who holds to the 
Buddhist doctrine, let him turn to the land of peace, where the 
transitory find rest." Of this passage Oldenberg says : "One who 
clearly and decidedly rejected an eternal future would not speak in 
this way." But this comes far short of a positive doctrine of 
conscious Nirvana. And besides, what is that essence of being 
which antedates and follows conscious existence here? 

The raison d^etre of the doctrine here expressed is the sup- 
posed metaphysical necessity for some antithesis for the born, the 
become, etc. This can be found only in the unborn and the unbe- 
come. Therefore the unborn and the unbecome must actually exist 
as the only way of getting out of the world of the born, etc. But I 
do not see how anything can be predicated of a state of existence 
only arrived at by such a process. I think it fair to Buddha to as- 


sume that this fine piece of dialectics was due not to his practical 
mind, but to some one of his speculative followers. 

In the paper which you read in the Chicago Parliament of Re- 
ligions you stated that the world is governed by one universal law 
of cause and effect, that "there is no cause which is not an ef- 
fect and no effect which has not also a cause." This theory, of 
course, excludes the idea of a Great First Cause. This is to West- 
ern minds unthinkable, as was illustrated in the same Parliament 
by Father Hewitt of the Paulist Brothers of New York in his paper 
on the Being of God. He used the illustration of a train of cars in 
which the last car is drawn by the one before it and that by an- 
other. In his view such transmitted motion would be impossible 
unless there could be found at the head of the train, an engine 
having power in itself. Your theory seemed to involve the suppo- 
sition that an infinite number of cars on an infinite circular track 
might move without an engine. But the point which I would make 
just here is that your theory appears in itself to exclude the idea of 
a conscious and blessed Nirvana beyond this life. It deals with 
such causes as we find in this world, which in your view includes 
all things past, present, and future ; and it ought to note only such 
effects as are seen in this world as Buddhism conceives it. Every- 
thing must move in the circle of being if it moves at all. Men and 
gods are born and die and are reincarnated either on the earth or 
in heaven or in hell, where also they will die again : all is change ; 
but according to the idea of Nirvana as a changeless future exist- 
ence, it is a breaking out of the circle. It belongs to the world of 
being, and yet it does not so belong. It is an eternal standstill, a 
rest, not of a soul, not of the skandas, not of Karma, but of a 
something which produces no longer the old effects, and which 
therefore does not belong to your -world of invariable causality. 
Perhaps you can remove my difficulty. 

I shall welcome any further light which may be thrown upon 
this subject, and I assure you of my belief that good will come 
from a full and fair elucidation of all those facts and principles 
which belong to Buddhism or any other religious system. I have 
a profound respect for the searchings of earnest men of all ages in 
reference to the great things which concern our highest destiny. 

There are two or three things in your letter in regard to which 
I will add a single word. Referring to the life of Christ, you speak 
of the miraculous draft of fishes as an indication of a lack of proper 
regard for animal life on his part. I do not propose to enter into a 
defence of Christianity, but I would only say that you seem to me 


to miss the true import of the passage when you assume that Christ 
and his disciples went away and left the fishes to decay upon the 
shore. We might as well suppose that they left their boat to drift 
about on the waves. The true meaning is simply that three men, 
mentioned byname, etc., left the business of fishermen and became 
disciples. The narrative states that there was another boat in 
partnership. Even though there had been no partners or servants 
to look after the fish, there was never lacking a crowd in the foot- 
steps of Jesus, to whom they could have been given. A multitude 
is here mentioned. A general Gospel injunction was, — sell all thou 
hast and give to the poor and follow me. 

With regard to animal life, I know that it is often claimed that 
Buddha was more compassionate than Jesus. I think he was less 
discriminating. Jesus had a tender regard for all animal life, and 
taught that even the sparrows were the subjects of his Father's 
care ; but nevertheless he believed that men were in God's sight of 
" more value than many sparrows." He rebuked the stiff conserva- 
tism of the Pharisees, which would have forbidden the finding of 
a lost sheep on the Sabbath, or the rescuing of a dumb beast from 
suffering. Buddhism is perhaps much more particular in avoiding 
the destruction of insect life than Christianity, but on that score I 
think Buddhism has yet to reckon with the modern science of Bac- 
teriology, and the question whether the living germs of disease 
shall destroy or be destroyed, and whether it is less merciful on the 
whole that animals and fishes shall be food for each other and for 
man than that myriads of living microbes shall destroy them by the 
slow torture of disease. Life and death are shown by science to 
be so balanced that in the total of existence death is as beneficent 
as life. The economy of the sea is one of constant carnage and so 
also with the earth ; but for this the sea would soon become a solid 
mass of suffering, living forms, and the earth would be uninhabit- 
able by men. Christian precept is humane but it is discriminating. 
It would destroy the wolves and serpents of India rather than allow 
them every year to destroy thousands of the people, and it would 
allow the Esquimaux to feed on fish rather than suffer the extinc- 
tion of their race. 

The other reference in your letter was to Christ's anger and 
violence in driving men as well as oxen from the temple. Two 
kinds of argument are used in such a case, one is a whip or a cane, 
which even without actual blows is the common persuasive used 
with dumb beasts, and the other, adapted to men, is remonstrance ; 
and Christ used both of these. There were probably two occasions 


on which this thing occurred, and all the evangelists speak of such 
an incident. Only in the passage in the Gospel of John is there 
any reference to a whip of small cords, and in this there is no indi- 
cation that the whip was designed for any but the beasts. In the 
New Version, translated by the most able Greek scholars in this 
country and Great Britain, the conjunctives, there more properly 
used, are "both — and," — "And he drove them all out, both the 
sheep and the oxen, and poured out the changers' money and over- 
threw the tables, and he said unto them that sold doves, etc." 

You speak of the miracles of Jesus. From a materialist this 
would not be surprising, but Buddhism like Christianity has opened 
to men the world of the spiritual and the supernatural. The great- 
est miracle in the New Testament is the Incarnation, but that is no 
greater departure from the common law of heredity than the incar- 
nation of an old Karma in a new being wholly distinct from his 

And if we are to speak of the miraculous in Buddhism — pass- 
ing in silence the marvellous legends — I should ask whether any 
mere human being, sitting under a tree, could without a miracle 
raise himself per saltuni into intellectual omniscience, — and also 
into an absolute freedom from all the appetites and passions of our 
common humanity? That Buddha gained a victory over them I 
can well believe, but if you leave out the miracle — I speak of course 
from your standpoint — you must suppose that like the equally con- 
secrated Paul of Tarsus, he found that when he would do good 
evil was present with him and that the warfare had to be waged to 
the end. 

This accords with the universal experience of mankind, and it 
is the teaching of the Shin Shu tract which I have quoted above. I 
have never seen the moral disability of sinful men and their need 
of a Divine and therefore supernatural salvation more strongly set 
forth in any Christian treatise than in this tract where it speaks of 
those "who attempt the holy path as failing in every particular" 
and of their perishing need therefore of relying upon what Nanjio 
calls "the vicarious Power of the Original Prayer" of Amitabha. 

In closing I should like to express my appreciation of some of 
those high ethical teachings of Buddhism of which Rev. Dharma- 
pala spoke so intelligently and eloquently in the Parliament, but 
that my paper is already too long. 

Let me add that practically the millions of Buddhists are not so 
helpless of the future as many have supposed, and simply for the 
reason that they disregard Nirvana and look forward to a happy 


transmigration, and many of them, in earth or in heaven. Even the 
devout pilgrim, Hioun Zsang, prayed on his death-bed that he 
might be born in a Buddhist heaven. 

Assuring you that I aim to be an earnest student of whatsoever 
things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things 
are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, 
whatsoever things are of good report, wheresoever they may be 

I remain sincerely yours, 

F. F. Ellinwood. 

New York City. 



Every period of transition is a time of struggle, and it is natural that the lead- 
ing spirits who seek to be pathfinders of new truths or perhaps also of old truths in 
a new light, have to pass through many errors which sometimes lead them to the 
very verge of despair. As an instance of such tragic experiences we may cite David 
Friedrich Strauss, the author of The Life of Jesus and The Old and New Faith. 
Finding the old faith self-contradictory and full of problems revealing the unten- 
ableness of the old interpretation of church dogmas, Strauss's life was devoted to 
a clarification of the writings of the New Testament, and there can be no question 
but the higher criticism of the present day owes more to him than perhaps to any- 
body else. Spinoza was the originator of Bible criticism ; and after Spinoza 
"The WolfenbUttler Fragments," published by Lessing, made the greatest stir in 
the theological world ; but David Friedrich Strauss dashed the idol of literal in- 
spiration to pieces. His work of rescission was formidable, but he was unable to 
put anything in its place. He was a negative spirit, and heavily was his sensitive 
mind weighed down by the curse that attaches to the desolation of destruction. 
Unhappily his family relations were very sad, and he saw himself in the name of 
honor and self-respect necessitated to seek a divorce from his wife. It was as if 
the dreariness of his religious agnosticism had intruded itself upon the sacredness of 
his matrimonial life, and, at the close of his career, this unusually gifted man sank 
into the grave almost without a comfort, for to him there seemed to be no purpose 
in life, and all he could say of his aspirations was that he did not know whether 
they had been genuine ideals or the flickerings of an igttis fatuus. "Was there any 
reality in his ideal of truth to which he had devoted his life unflinchingly and 
against the most sacred illusions of his youth ? He had sternly obeyed the call of 
duty, but his domestic experiences, his doubtful relation to his children, and his 
religious piety which had indignantly shattered the idol of his early faith, left his 
heart cold, and he felt as if his days had been a dream oppressed by a nightmare. 

His life-experiences are condensed in a little Sinngedicht, whose constant re- 
frain "I know it not" characterises the disposition of his mind. It was published 
not long ago by Edward Zeller in a volume containing selected letters of David 
Friedrich Strauss, and reads in an English translation as follows : 

" I started on a journey, but I did not leave. 
And whether I shall stay, I know it not. 
That I am here a stranger, this is certain ; 
But where my home is, O, I know it not. 


I thought, I'had once two beloved children, 
But whether 'twas a dream, I know it not. 
A wife discarded I. If love to hatred, 
If hatred turned to love, I know it not. 
'Tis said I've written books, but whether 
'Tis truth or mockery, I know it not. 
An infidel, I'm told, the people call me ; 
I'm rather pious, but I know it not. 
Of death I never was afraid, but whether 
I'm living still, truly, I know it not." 

What a terrible desolation in the soul of a man who in many respects was vic- 
tor in the battles of science ! He certainly conquered that old conception of tradi- 
tional religion which is now abandoned even by the most reactionary representa- 
tives of dogmatism, but he did not enjoy his victory. The end of his life exhibits 
a terrible dissatisfaction. His strength was exhausted, and he bleeds to death from 
the wounds received in the battle of life. He was one of the St. Johns of the religious 
reformation that is now preparing itself. He was one of the Moseses who led the 
children of Israel out of the bondage of Egypt, but he was not permitted to see the 
promised land. His life's work was in the desert, and 't was in the desert, too, that 
he found his grave. P. c. 

Too late for the Christmas market, but not too late for those readers who are 
interested in the most important religious movement that has stirred mankind since 
the foundation of Christianity, Gustav Freytag's historical sketch of Martin Luther 
will be published simultaneously with the first number of the monthly Open Court, 
or at the latest two or three days after its appearance. The articles constituting the 
book were translated for the first time by H. E. O. Heinemann and appeared in 
The Open Court during the last year. Judging from letters received from our read- 
ers, they were greatly appreciated, and we can, without fear of contradiction, say 
that no better and more condensed statement of Luther's life has ever been written 
than that of Freytag. The Open Court Publishing Co. has published the book 
in handsome form, large octavo, gilt top, and bearing Luther's coat of arms in gold 
on the cover. A great number of choice illustrations will help to make this book 

Mr. Frederick A. Noble, the enterprising pastor of the Union Park Church. 
Ashland and Washington Boulevards, Chicago, has arranged for a series of dis- 
courses on current religious questions, to be delivered at his church on Sunday 
evenings instead of the traditional sermons. The value and character of these dis- 
courses may be gathered from the following list, beginning with February 14 and 
concluding on May 9. (i) "Philosophical Basis of Theology," by James Lewis 
Hobson ; (2) "Evidences of a Personal God," by George B. Foster ; (3) " Higher 
Criticism and the Pentateuch," by Edward Thompson Harper; (4) "Credibility 
of the Historical Books of the Old Testament," by Augustus Stiles Carrier; (5) 
" Prophecy : Object, Scope, and Use," by Samuel Ives Curtiss ; (6) " Inspiration : 
How to Be Defined and Accepted," by Andrew C. Zenos ; (7) "Place of Christ in 
Modern Thought," by Charles Joseph Little : (8) " How Far Apostolic Interpreta- 
tion of Christ Is Authoritative," by Milton Spencer Terry; (9) " New Testament 
Interpretation as Affected by Recent Studies and Investigations," by Clyde Weber 
Votaw : (lo) " Evolution Theories and Christian Doctrine," by William Douglas 
Mackenzie; (11) " Systematic Theology : Is There Still Need of It?" (12) "The 
Teaching of Jesus in Regard to the Hereafter," by George Holley Gilbert. 


Three important works in the domain of psychology and ethics have been re- 
cently issued from the press of Felix Alcan of Paris. The first is by M. Th. Ribot, 
the acknowledged leader of the modern psychological school in France, and is enti- 
tled La Psychologie des Seniimettls, which means ' ' The Psychology of the Emo- 
tions and Passions." M. Ribot's careful psychological methods, his keen vision 
for facts, his horror of metaphysical theories, combined with rare lucidity and con- 
ciseness of expression, have united in making his works the most satisfactory exist- 
ing compendiums of the subjects of which they treat, and the same qualities are 
displayed in his present work on the Psychology of the Emotions, different as opin- 
ions may be regarding the tenability of certain theories advanced in it. M. Ribot 
contests the doctrine that emotional states are functions of consciousness and has 
adopted the physiological theory agreeably to which they are primitive and autono- 
mous, the direct expression of the vegetative life of the organism. M. Ribot's art 
is always most tellingly displayed in his analysis of psychological problems by the 
methods offered in Nature's own laboratory, namely, by the methods of degeneration 
and disease, and these methods he also employs with success in the present work. 

The second work is L^ Education intellectuelle des le Berceaii, by Bernard 
Perez, one of the pioneers in the study of child psychology and the author of many 
works upon the subject. That his book should contain much of value was to have 
been expected, and both the professional educator and parent will find ingenious 
observations and wise counsels for the instruction of children in M. Perez's work. 
The subjects treated are the education of the senses, of memory, attention, the 
logical, intellectual, and aesthetical faculties, etc. 

The last work is on ethics, Le Bien et le Mai, by E. de Roberty, Professor in 
the New University of Brussels, a profound philosopher and indefatigable author. 
M. de Roberty's work is not light reading, except to persons thoroughly acquainted 
with French and philosophy, and we can do no more here than to refer to it as an 
able discussion of its subject and as occupying an important place in M. de Rober- 
ty's system. \iKpK. 

The Modern Reader's Bible. A Series of "Works From the Sacred Scriptures 
Presented in Modern Literary Form. Edited, With an Introduction and 
Notes, by Richard G. Moiilton, M. A. New York : The Macmillan Company. 
1896. Price, each, 50 cents. 
We have already referred to some of the numbers of this Series in the weekly 
Open Court, and to some also in The Monist, but its importance renders repeated 
reference to it desirable. Apart from his introductory criticism. Professor Moulton 
has simply sought to remodel the outward literary shape of the books of the Bible 
exactly as the Hebrew writers themselves might have remodelled them had they 
written their books to-day with our knowledge of literary morphology. There has 
been no attempt at a reconstruction of the literature of the Old Testament accord- 
ing to the methods of the higher critics. For example, in the historical books, con- 
sisting of Genesis, Exodus, Judges, Kings, and Chronicles, Professor Moulton has 
given us the history of the people of Israel exactly as it was presented by themselves ; 
for to "appreciate the history of a great people as they themselves understand it, 
is an interest of universal literature," and literature here is our chief concern. The 
rehabilitation of the preceding historical books, therefore, has touched but three 
main points. What we nowadays should throw into footnotes and appendices, the 
Hebrew writers threw indiscriminately into the text. This material consists of gene- 


alogy, statistics, documents, etc., all of which greatly bores the modern reader, and 
has contributed more than anything else to making the Bible a comparatively un- 
read book. This matter Professor Moulton has distinguished by using different- 
sized type. The second point is that of the separation of epic narrative from his- 
torical narrative. To the former has been given, consonantly with its character, a 
poetical form. The third point is the adjustment of Scripture to the outer form of 
modern books, which has been done by division into chapters, sections, etc., so that 
the reader may gain at once a synoptic, analytic, and mnemonic view of the whole. 

One of the most beautiful of the recent numbers is that of Biblical Idyls, con- 
taining the Song of Songs, Ruth, Esther, and Tobit. We should specially like to 
call attention to Professor Moulton's Introduction to the Idyls, where he has ad- 
vanced certain critical and literary considerations that heighten considerably our 
appreciation of Solomon's Song. We refer especially to the distinction between 
imagery and symbolism. Such criticism quite deadens the blow to our aesthetic 
sense which we experience on reading much of Hebrew poetry. We cannot, in 
fact, quit this subject without referring to the high character and value generally 
of Professor Moulton's introductions, which evince not only a grasp of literature, 
but also a broad comprehension of philosophy and history. 

The Wisdom Series, containing the ethical and philosophical tetralogy Prov- 
erbs, Ecclesiasticus, Ecclesiastes, and the Book of Job, is now complete. Besides 
the numbers already mentioned in this notice. Exodus and Deuteronomy in the 
History Series have already appeared, Judges, Kings, and Chronicles are rapidly 
to follow. The Prophecy Series, containing Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the 
minor prophets, still remains. The volumes themselves are in small i8 mo. pocket 
form, printed on good paper, and serviceably and tastefully bound. T. J. McC. 

The Gospel for an Age of Doubt. The Yale Lectures on Preaching, 1896. By 
Henry Van Dyke. New York and London : Macmillan & Co. 1896. Pages, 
457. Price, $1.75. 
Dr. Van Dyke has departed in the present work from the custom which has 
hitherto prevailed in the preparation of the " Yale Lectures on Preaching, " and 
waiving his privilege of instructing the Yale students of divinity in homiletics, or 
in the art of how to preach, has substituted for that theme a discussion of the 
deeper and broader question of what to preach. The word of spiritual life and 
power for the present age must, he contends, be a "real gospel, a word of glad- 
ness and a word of God." Traditions and dry systems of dogma are powerless. 
The preacher's message must come from a heavenly source, it must be fresh, vivid, 
and new, and yet be (^A/ and not out of touch with the past. "An altogether new 
religion can hardly be an altogether true religion." The solution of the apparent 
difficulty involved in this reconciliation of the old and the new, lies, according to 
the author, in a personal view of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Christianity is not a 
complex system of doctrine, it is a spiritual life. Christ is Christianity. ' ' To preach 
Him, in the language of to-day, to the men of to-day, for the needs of to-day, is to 
preach a gospel as new and as old as life itself." Christianity has a Person at the 
heart of it — this is its distinctive trait wherein it differs from all other religions. 
Recognising this, we have no need of the confusions of theology. "Our central 
message is not the gospel of a system but the gospel of a Person." 

We may gather from the foregoing abstract of Dr. Van Dyke's Preface, the 
prevailing trend of his thought. His book is an eloquent one and breathes the 
buoyancy and fervor of a deeply religious mind, while his aspirations are distinctly 


such as spring from an enlightened culture. Nevertheless, we cannot help thinking 
that in many cases his revivifications of the dogmas which he would reject for the 
living Christ, differ from the old only in being more suffused with ardor and senti- 
ment, and not in being more rational. For example, it is the impassioned plea of 
a preacher, poet, and lover that we have in Lecture VI, in behalf of absolute per- 
sonality, and in Lecture VIL in behalf of God as creator and ruler of the world — 
not the arguments of a philosopher. Correct though we may regard Dr. Van 
Dyke's conclusions to be, if not taken too literally, they are yet the imaginative 
fruit of associations woven in the Christian mind by the religious longings, litera- 
ture, and sestheticism of centuries, and not the reasoned verifiable results of me- 
thodically conducted thought. But it has not been Dr. Van Dyke's aim to produce 
a bald, rational apology of Christianity. On the contrary, he has rather designedly 
sought to touch emotional chords. It is on this side — as a religious tonic quicken- 
ing the imaginative and emotional associations of the Christian mind — that the 
main value of the book is to be sought, although we should be far from denying to 
it sterling intellectual qualities in the discussion of subsidiary points. Significant 
as the abrupt recent reaction from materialism to religion has been, the significance 
of the opposite forward movement of orthodox religion towards science has been as 
momentous and will bear lasting fruits. ///cp/c. 

L'Arithmetique Amusante. 'Qy Edouard Lucas. Paris: Gauthier-Villars et fils. 
1895. Pages, 266. 

It is rare to meet with so entertaining a work as the present little Arithmitique 
Amusante of the late Edouard Lucas, which has been very tastefully printed by 
the old and famous mathematical publishing house of Gauthier-Villars et fils of 
Paris. Lucas was Professor of mathematics at the Lycee Saint-Louis and author 
of perhaps the completest series of works on mathematical recreations to be found. 
The present volume which has been compiled from manuscripts left unpublished at 
the author's death, is intended as a sort of introduction to the Recreations, and has 
the eminently practical aim of teaching young children and grown up persons the 
art of arithmetic by unconscious and pleasurable forms of acquisition. The book 
is fragmentary, yet none the less fascinating on that account. In all its features 
it is one of the good fruits of that practical reform in education which proceeded 
from the founding of the Ecole poly technique. 

"Permit me to offer to you," says the author, "a bit of advice dictated by a 
"ripe experience. Develop in your child from the start a taste for drawing and 
"arithmetic. Children should learn to count at least as high as twenty when quite 
"young, to play with dominos, lotto counters, pebbles and sticks of wood, or bet- 
"ter, with small cubes of wood or stone of the same size; for it is imperative 
"above all things to develop along with writing and reading a quick facility in 
"mental arithmetic. In no case, however, should the scholar learn tables of ad- 
"dition and multiplication by rote, or any results whatever in this manner with- 
"out having first obtained them directly. The child should be taught to find them 
"himself, for his mind is a latent power on which it is merely necessary to impress 
"the right movement." And again upon the propriety of attaining this end by 
means of recreation, he says : "Instruction in science should be joyous, lively, 
pleasing, and full of entertainment, and not cold, majestic, or funereal. Keep your 
solemnities for your university festivals." 

The first chapter is devoted to entertaining problems in elementary arithmetic 
culled from all times and nations, and interspersed with a good deal of information 


on the history of arithmetic. We have instructions even as to how children should 
be taught to write figures. 

The second chapter is devoted to the mastery of rapidity in calculation. We 
have first a few anecdotes of great arithmeticians and lightning calculators. There 
is one incident of the author's own son who had been taught, when quite a baby, 
to construct his own multiplication tables, and who having been forgotten con- 
tinued his constructions as far as thirty times thirty and one day quite astonished 
his father by proposing to him a difficult sum in multiplication of two figures. His 
progress was so rapid that his father had soon to stop his little mathematical games 
lest he should become what he wittily calls a megalocephalic arithmetical ma- 
chine {line machine arithmetiqtie a grosse tete). The remainder of the chapter gives 
a number of abbreviated methods of multiplication and division which have been 
known to mathematicians for a long time but do not seem to have yet found a gen- 
eral footing in practical mental life. 

Chapter III. is on the subject of arithmetical progressions. Chapter IV. on 
geometrical progressions. All these important subjects are inculcated by curious 
and entertaining examples taken from history, literature, folklore, and games of all 
kinds. Lucas devoted a life-time to examining and simplifying arithmetical com- 
binations and to the invention of practical mechanical devices for automatically re- 
cording arithmetical results. He has been long an acknowledged master in this do- 
main, and his labors in the field of mathematical recreations have not had in view 
intellectual entertainment alone but also the rapid and sound acquisition of elemen- 
tary mathematical methods, and especially the utilising of the plays and games of 
children towards the attainment of solid knowledge and intellectual power. He 
speaks of the common methods of inculcating arithmetic as nothing less than an 
"interment " of the mathematical faculties. His idea is that the ways of learning 
science should be so far as possible ways of joyous progress and not of solemn and 
dismal difficulties. His simple, practical views on learning arithmetic cannot be too 
widely diffused. T. J. McC. 

The aim of The Open Court has been from the beginning the propagation of 
the immortality idea, as characterised in the following quotations : 

' ' Mind, or Soul, is not a mystical something, a bodiless essence, a spiritual hob- 
goblin : It is the form-structure of our brain produced by our education, in the 
widest sense in which that term is used. This structure of form is not mere nothing- 
ness. The idiot does not possess it. The special form is here a more important 
part of reality than the substance that has taken the form. In the Sistine Madonna 
of Raphael, the form in which the colors have been distributed upon the canvas is 
the principal thing and not the color taken from the painter's palette. In a ball 
of lead that which we call the ball is as real as the lead. 

"The form-structure of the human brain, the soul of man, is the result of the 
work and struggle of the living world on earth for millions of years. To preserve 
this work-of-art of nature's making, and to develop it to a higher form in the rising 
generation, constitutes the main duty of our life. // is the content of all morals. 
And the mightiest instigation to such a preservation of the soul is the conviction 
that we thereby again build up ourselves." 

" It is of the utmost importance to retain of the belief in the immortality of the 
soul or the mind, and to guide into the right channels, that thereof which is true. 
The true belief in the immortality of the soul is the highest of the ideas that jointly 
constitute the soul, and the strongest factor in its struggle for existence. "^ — The 
Open Court, Vol. III., No. 127, p. 2068. 



Devoted to the Philosophy of Science. 

Editor: Dr. Paul Carus Associ t s\ Edward C. Hegler 

Assistant Editor: T. J. McCormack a e ^ Mary Carus 


On the Principle of the Conservation of Energy. By Prof. Ernst Mach. 

The Present State of Mathematics. By Prof. Felix Klein. 

Pathological Pleasures and Pains. By Prof. Th. Ribot. 

Germinal Selection. By Prof. August Weismann. 

Are the Dimensions of the Physical World Absolute ? By the late Prof. J. Delboeuf. 

The Unseen Universe. By Sir Robert Stawell Ball. 

On the Part Played by Accident in Invention and Discovery. By Prof. Ernst Mach. 

The Logic of Relatives. By Charles S. Peirce. 

Notion and Definition of Number. By Prof. Hermann Schubert. 

Nature and the Individual Mind. By Prof. Kurd Lasswitz. 

Philosophical Terminology and Its History. By Prof. Rudolph Eucken. 

On the Origin and Import of the Idea of Causality. By Prof. F. Jodl. 

The Darwinism of Darwin, and of the Post-Darwinian Schools. By the late G. J. Romanes, 

F. R. S. 
Science and Faith. By Dr. Paul Topinard. 

Criminal Anthropology Applied to Pedagogy. By Prof. Cesare Lombroso. 
Naturalism. By Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan. 
Bonnet's Theory of Evolution. By Prof. C. O. Whitman. 
Outlines of a History of Indian Philosophy. By Prof. Richard Garbe. 
Modern Physiology. By Prof. Max Verworn. 
Our Monism. By Prof. Ernst Haeckel. 
Psychology of Conception. By James Sully. 
The Principles of Welfare. By Prof. Harald Hoeffding. 
On Thought and Language. By Prof. Max Mueller. 
Chinese Philosophy. By Dr. Paul Carus. 
From Animal to Man. By Prof. Joseph Le Conte. 
Arrested Mentation. By G. Ferrero. 

Correlation of Mental and Physical Powers. By J. Venn. 
The Nervous Centre of Flight in Coleoptera. By Dr. Alfred Binet. 

Price, 50 cts. ; Yearly, $2.00. In England and U. P. U., 2s. 6d. ; Yearly, ps. 6d. 


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pensive editions now publishing in this country." — The Book and Newsdealer. 

The Religion of Science Library. 

A Collection of standard works of The Open Court Press, issued bi- 
monthly. Yearly, ^1.50; single numbers, 15, 25, 35, and 50 cents, accord- 
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The Religion of Science Library, by its extraordinarily reasonable 
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ON JANUARY 16, 1796, the Theophilanthropists held their 
first public meeting. It was in the chapel of an ancient hos- 
pital (St. Catharine), which stood at the corner of St. Denis and 
Lombard street, Paris. Early in the Revolution a part of the hos- 
pital had been assigned to penitent "Magdalens" (so miscalled), 
and another part to the blind. The teacher of the blind was a 
Catholic of Russian origin named Haiiy, and it was he who made 
arrangements for the Theophilanthropists, whose first public meet- 
ing seems to have been addressed by Thomas Paine. There, amid 
the blind and the ostracised, was cradled this religion of blended 
love for God and Man. 

After the reign of terror was passed, after the tempest, and 
earthquake, and fire, this still small voice made itself audible. In 
the two previous years there often met in a small caf6 a little com- 
pany of leading men who during the terror had tried to stem the 
bloodshed ; they had now come from their prisons and refuges to 
find most of their old homes and haunts empty, their friends dead 
or dispersed. Like survivors from a foundered ship, stranded on 
some strange island, they made more intimate acquaintance, and, 
with whatever differences of opinion, were united by memories of 
a common martyrdom, and by their common love of humanity. 
There was the long-imprisoned Thomas Paine in close friendship 
with the democratic Bishop Gregoire, and the devout Bernardin 
St. Pierre heart to heart with the rationalist Dupuis, the socialistic 
nobleman De Bonneville, the poet Mercier. Their old theologic 
and other partition walls had crumbled under the revolution. Their 
common enthusiasm was now for the religion of humanity, and this 
was diffusing itself among many families. But meanwhile parents 


were lamenting that they had no church in which their families 
might cultivate the higher religion. This want led to several gath- 
erings in private houses, in September 1796, and in that month a 
Manual of Theophilanthropy was compiled by M. Chemin-Depontes. 
This was followed in the autumn by a small book of hymns and 
canticles. The first hymn — I must translate in prose — begins : 

" O God, whose bounty and greatness the Universe proclaims, 
Thou who hast given us life, receive the incense of our hearts." 

This is followed by a canticle beginning, "Descend from the Heav- 
ens, Divine Tolerance," whose closing lines are: 

' ' Never hate ; for hatred is grievous, 
It poisons and withers our spirit. 
If the terrible tongue of an evil man 
Sows thy days with thorns and vexations, 
Lower not thy generous soul. 
Though reason permits thy scorn." 

In an original copy before me, evidently used by one of the Society, 
this last line permitting scorn is cancelled by a pen, and there is 
written under it in French : "Show a good heart even to thy ene- 

The third canticle invokes the "God Creator, Soul of Nature," 
and a verse says : 

' ' While blaming error, let us plead with the offender : 
Heaven alone has the right to punish him ; 
With the sweetness that mingles love with instruction 
Forgive, without malice : 
The art of being happy is to love thy kind : 
Ah, what duty is more sweet to fulfil ! " 

In other hymns are such expressions as "Father of the Uni- 
verse, Supreme Intelligence !" — "Embrace us with thy love," etc. 
From the Manual I translate two extracts : 

' ' Our opinions depend on so many circumstances of which we are not the 
masters, that the Theophilanthropists are persuaded that God, just and good, will 
not judge us after our opinions, nor after our different forms of worship, but from 
the sincerity of our hearts and from our actions." 

"What God is, what is the soul, how he rewards the good and punishes the 
evil, Theophilanthropists attempt not rashly to penetrate into. They feel that 
there is too great a distance between God and the creature that it should try to 
comprehend him. They are content with the knowledge, from the magnificence and 
order of the universe, from the testimony of every people, and of their own con- 
science, that there exists a God ; that they cannot conceive a deity without the idea 
of every perfection ; that, consequently God is good, is just, and therefore virtue 
will be rewarded and vice punished." 


The private houses having become too small for the numbers 
interested, it was resolved that Theophilanthropy should appear as 
a public movement, and so it happened that on January i6, 1797, 
this name, combining God, Love, Man, appeared on the door of 
St. Catharine's chapel. As a gesture in the same direction the 
"Philadelphians," who founded in London what is now the South 
Place Society (February 14, 1793), might claim precedence, but 
these, though bolder in negation, were not of equally wide views. 
While Elhanan Winchester, who founded the London "Philadel- 
phians," was publishing his reply to the Age of Reason, the Theo- 
philanthropists were welcoming the author of this temple-shaking 
book as an inaugurator, though they probably pruned his address of 
some aggressiveness. The Philadelphian "love of the brethren" 
was not up to the "love of man," and Theophilanthropy merits 
homage as the first church in Christendom to place man by the 
side of God, — man as man, without regard to race or creed. 

As an indication of the catholicity of this movement it may be 
mentioned that its meetings were fixed at an hour which would not 
bring them in conflict with the hours of other religious assemblies. 

The ancient crucifix and other symbols of St. Catharine's altar 
had been cleared away by the Revolution, but the altar remained, 
— an altar naked and desolate, the primal foundation of all temples, 
laid deep in the sacred longing to sacrifice something, now await- 
ing the next offerings. These came in the form of flowers. Every 
one who entered laid thereon a flower, or a bunch of flowers : these 
were the only sacrament. In the Agni Purana it is written : "The 
Lord of Life [Vishnu] should not be worshipped with flowers that 
have faded : those that grow in thine own garden are best : with 
the flowers must be reverence, itself a flower. " This I remembered 
when seeing the Buddhists in Ceylon carrying flowers to their tem- 
ples, and from the same garden — the human heart — came the flow- 
ers which the Theophilanthropists, also the blind and the outcast, 
laid on the ancient altar of St. Catharine, denuded of crucifix. Ma- 
donna, and host. And with the flowers came more spiritual roses, 
lessons read from Jesus, Buddha, Zoroaster, Confucius, Epictetus, 
Aurelius, the Psalms. The lecturer for the day wore a pure white 
robe while speaking. There was never any regular Minister. There 
was a simple form of marriage, and the birth of a child was cele- 
brated, though without any kind of christening. In their Manual 
were warnings against ceremonies, and the temple must have no 
ornament representing the deity, nor any of his attributes, nor any 


figure representing a virtue or any person. There must be no par- 
ticular holiday, but celebrations harmonious with the seasons. 

Above the flower-laden altar the decalogue was replaced by 
five inscriptions : 

" I. We believe in the existence of God, and in the immortality of the soul. 

"2. Worship God, cherish your kind, render yourselves useful to the country. 

"3. God is everything which tends to the preservation or the perfection of 
Man ; Evil is everything which tends to destroy or deteriorate Man. 

"4. Children, honor your fathers and mothers; obey them with affection, 
comfort their old age. Fathers and mothers, instruct your children. 

"5. Wives, regard in your husbands the chiefs of your houses. Husbands, 
love your wives; and both render yourselves reciprocally happy." 

The Theophilanthropists were especially careful not to censure 
the beliefs of others ; everj' lecture had to undergo the revision of 
a committee to see that it contained no such criticism. In his open- 
ing address Paine said, "The views of this society extend to pub- 
lic good as well as to that of the individual, and .... its principles 
can have no enemies." So indeed it seemed. The expansion of 
the society in its first public year exceeded anything known in re- 
ligious history. Several statesman who had been apprehensive 
that Catholicism would reoccupy the vacancy left by its overthrow 
favored the new movement. The first Minister of France, Lare- 
velliere-Lepeaux, in an address on Public Instruction, extolled 
Theophilanthropy, though he never ventured to its meetings, and 
this raised the movement to national importance. Twelve parish 
churches were allotted to Theophilanthropy in Paris, and it spread 
through the provinces. It is wonderful to recall that this new re- 
ligion, of which Paine was one founder, for years held possession 
of Notre Dame cathedral itself ! 

The Theophilanthropists tried to bring flowers in their season. 
But what was to symbolise the divine love and loveliness when 
winter came? During all their summer of success a priestly winter 
was waiting and watching to wither all their flowers of hope and 
humanity. Their very success proved a fatal success. A sullen 
priesthood was not to be conciliated by permission to conduct their 
tolerated functions in a country where for ages they had reigned, 
with right to suppress all rivals. Their authority had deep roots 
in popular superstition, and indeed in something deeper : the plain- 
ness of Theophilanthropist worship could not compete with beauti- 
ful images, pictures, shrines, nor nature's smile in flowers make up 
for the lost smile of the Heavenly Mother. 

Priesthood could not yet come out in the open, but it worked 
in secret, — circulating leaflets accusing the Theophilanthropists of 


secret orgies, of political intrigues, and an intention to make Lare- 
velliere-Lepeaux Pontiff ! When Bonaparte arose, the cynical 
Bishop Talleyrand was made his chief Minister. Larevelliere- 
Lepeaux tried to interest Talleyrand in Theophilanthropy, but the 
Minister answered, "All you have to do is to get yourself crucified 
and buried, and rise the third day." The creeds had long become 
to Talleyrand a joke, but none knew better than he the tremendous 
machinery at hand in the Church. 

Bonaparte easily took his hints. The wily Corsican said to 
Dupuis, "As for myself, I do not believe that any such man as Jesus 
Christ ever existed, but the people are inclined to superstition, and 
I do not think it right to oppose them." This involved the resto- 
ration of the Church, and it could not coexist with Theophilan- 
thropy. In the first year of this century Theophilanthropy was 
crushed under that spurred heel which presently tried to crush 
Europe. Theophilanthropy has the honor of being the only religion 
which the nineteenth-century war-god found it necessary to sup- 
press. I heard Victor Hugo say that Bonaparte fell because "he 
troubled God"; but the God of Theophilanthropy had troubled 
Bonaparte with peaceful ideals before he retaliated. 

The history of Theophilanthropy has never been written. The 
account given of its rise by Paine ("Letter to Erskine") is the 
best, but most of this history I have had to pick out of old French 
pamphlets, journals, and manuscripts. 

I have not dwelt on the limitations of Theophilanthropy, the 
chief one being its failure to grapple with any of the great problems 
besetting the human mind. To Catholic definiteness it opposed in- 
definiteness. On this account Paine who believed clear negations 
essential became somewhat alienated from it, and he with Elihu 
Palmer inaugurated a similar but more vigorous movement in New 
York which but for the death of both might have come to some- 
thing. After Paine's death some of his last religious writings were 
published in a New York magazine called The Theophilanthropist. 
Eighty years ago there seems to have been a "Society of Theophi- 
lanthropists " in Glasgow, with a good hymn-book and a doxology 
which strikes an ethical note : 

" The man whom virtue does not bind 
No lasting pleasure knows ; 
Nor e'er enjoys that peace of mind 
Which innocence bestows." 



WHO WAS LAMARCK, and what work did he accomplish ? 
Was he merely a compiler like Buffon or the author of the 
Vestiges of Creation^ If we look for an answer in Darwin's im- 
mortal work The Origin of Species, we shall find that for once this 
otherwise invariably candid writer, so prone to give the fullest 
credit for aid to his contemporaries, in referring to his great French 
predecessor, whose eminence as a philosopher he did not at all ap- 
preciate, sets aside his theories and speaks of "the views and 
erroneous grounds of opinion of Lamarck " as having been largely 
anticipated by his grandfather Erasmus Darwin. It is question- 
able whether Darwin ever carefully read through Lamarck's Zoologie 
Philosophique, or the other writings of the French zoologist. We 
have heard a young but distinguished English zoologist call La- 
marck's "a bad book," probably meaning that it was not sound 
from the Neo-Darwinian point of view. Ray Lankester writes of 
Lamarck in Nattire, as if the doctrine of the inheritance of acquired 
habits were the sole, or at least the most characteristic, contribu- 
tion Lamarck had made to the theory of descent. It is evident 
that these English writers have not carefully read all that Lamarck 
has written, while they do not give him that credit for the clearness 
and fulness of his views, which Haeckel and others in Germany 
have done. It should be here said that Lamarck's lucubrations 
on chemical and physical as well as physiological subjects are 
worthless, and his lack of caution in publishing them is deplorable. 
At the same time it should be said that, when a young man, in 
studying the clouds he was led to believe that weather forecasts 
could be made, and in geology he anticipated the uniformitarian 
views of Hutton and of Lyell. 

After thirty years experience as a systematic botanist, his Flore 



Fran^aise being the standard French work for many years, Lamarck 
at an age when many other men of science cease to be productive, 
was transferred to the new chair of invertebrate zoology in ihe/ardin 
des Plantes. The industry, toil, and productive thought of another 
period of thirty years, resulted in his placing the zoology of the 
lower animals in a clearer and better defined light than ever before. 
This zoological expert wrought most important changes and re- 
forms. He separated the Crustacea from the insects. He established 
the class of Arachnida, separated the Annelida from other worms, 
and showed the distinctness of Echinoderms from polyps, thus 
anticipating Leuckart, who established the groups of Coelenterata 
or polyps nearly half a century later. He founded the class of In- 
fusoria. When a boy we used to arrange our shells by the Lamarck- 
ian system, which was universally used in the second quarter of 
the century, and great reforms in the classification of the Molluscs 
were wrought by him. He was called the French Linnaeus, but his 
work was greatly in advance over that of Linnaeus, being that of a 
skilful, profound systematist, who based his system on the facts of 
anatomy and structure. 

As a zoological philosopher no one of his time approaches La- 
marck, and indeed he lived fifty years ahead of his age, as the 
times were not ripe for the hearty and general adoption of the the- 
ory of descent. As in the animal world we have here and there 
prophetic types, anticipating in their generalised, synthetic nature 
the incoming, ages after, of more specialised types, so Lamarck an- 
ticipated by more than a half century the principles underlying the 
present evolutionary views, although owing to the sneers and crit- 
icisms of Cuvier and others his views were neglected and almost 
forgotten for a generation. 

Let us compare the factors of Lamarck and of some of his 
contemporaries with those of Darwinism as such. The factors of 
Buffon who lived from 1707 to 1788 were three: climate, food, and 
domestication, and he insisted that there was a balance in nature. 
The factors of Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), in his poem entitled 
"Zoonomia," were the reactions of the organism to the action of 
external surroundings, while use and effect were vaguely insisted 
on. He suggested that all the forms of life originated from a single 
filament, but as he had little practical skill as a systematist he did 
not suggest or construct a phylum. 

Let us now compare first the general principles insisted upon 
by Lamarck, and then enumerate the Lamarckian factors. He in- 
sisted on the great length of time during which life-forms had ex- 


isted, the gradual, uniform action of physical and biological forces, 
and the absence of catastrophies, thus anticipating the uniformi- 
tarian views in geology of Hutton and Lyell. He claimed that the 
lower forms arose by spontaneous generation, and are being so pro- 
duced at the present day. He believed in progressive develop- 
ment, also insisting that many forms, whole orders and classes, 
were the result of retrogressive development and degeneration. 
He explained rudimentary structures as remains of parts which had 
been actively used by the ancestors, but which have become atro- 
phied by disuse. He very clearly states that development goes on 
from the simple to the complex, and that the animal kingdom is like 
a tree, with wide gaps between the branches. He fully appreciated 
the fact of variation, as what botanist or zoologist does not, — and 
Lamarck worked over fifty years handling and examining the lower 
organisms. He intimated, for instance, that specific characters 
vary most, and that the peripheral parts, as the legs, mouth-parts, 
antennae, etc., are first affected by the causes which produce varia- 
tions, while he distinctly states that it required a longer time for 
variation to take place in the internal organs. He also recognises 
the great fact of adaptation to needs. Lamarck has given us the 
best definition of species we have been able to find. Unlike Buffon, 
he is never self-contradictory or ironical, and maintained his views 
without modifying them till the end of his life. 

Lamarck's factors of organic evolution were seven, as follows : 

1. Change of environment, both direct and indirect in its ac- 
tion on the organism ; these include change of habitat, of climate, 
soil, food, temperature. 

2. Needs, new desires, appetites, not so much mere mental 
desires as the necessities of the entire organism, physical and men- 
tal, due to changes in the surroundings. Lamarck's use of the word 
need or necessity {besoiti) has been greatly misunderstood and 
caricatured. By such changes animals are subjected to new needs. 
Lamarck gives as an instance the birds driven by necessity {besoui) 
to obtain their food in the water, who gradually assumed characters 
adapting them for swimming, wading, or for searching for food in the 
shallow water, as in the case of the long-necked kinds. Snakes lost 
their limbs in becoming adapted for gliding through brush or grass 
or such places. His best examples are the giraffe, kangaroo, and 
the ai, the lemur of Madagascar, so wonderfully adapted for' an 
arboreal life. The acquisition of new habits or usages through 
necessity {besoiti), owing to a change in surroundings, is much dwelt 
upon. He claims : "// est facile de dcmontrer par V observation qtie 


ce sont usages qui ont donne lieu aux formes,^' which is another ex- 
pression for Geoffroy St. Hilaire's "C^est ia function qui cree for- 

By many, including Wallace, Lamarck's views under this head 
are not fairly stated. It is evident to any one who will carefully read 
what he says of '' besoins " that he does not refer so much to mental 
desires as to those needs thrust upon the animal by change of cir- 
cumstances. Wallace in his classical essay which appeared in 1858 
inaccurately states Lamarck's views when he represents Lamarck 
as sa)'ing that the giraffe acquired its long neck by desiring to reach 
the foliage of the more lofty shrubs, and constantly stretching its 
neck for the purpose. What Lamarck does say is that "the giraffe 
lives in dry, desert places, without herbage, so that it is obliged to 
browse on the leaves of trees, and is continually forced to reach up 
to them. It results from this habit, continued for a long time in 
all the individuals of its species, that its fore limbs have become 
longer than its hind ones and that its neck has become so elongated 
that the giraffe, without raising itself erect on its hind legs, raises 
its head and reaches six metres high (almost twenty feet). We 
submit that this mode of evolution of the giraffe is quite as reason- 
able as the one insisted upon by Mr. Wallace. Quatrefages has 
also protested against the way Lamarck's views have been carica- 
tured, although he was not himself an evolutionist. 

3. Use and disuse. While the continual use or exercise of or- 
gans develops them, as in the case of birds, giraffes, and kangaroos, 
the second of these principles was illustrated by the case of the 
mole, the spalax, the whale-bone whales, whose rudimentary teeth 
exist in the embryo, the ant-lion, the blind Proteus of caves, the 
eyeless bivalves, and the snakes, whose limbs he claimed have dis- 
appeared from disuse. 

4. Lamarck frequently refers to the precautions that nature 
has taken to place limits to the too great increase in individuals, 
and consequent overcrowding of the earth. The stronger and bet- 
ter armed, he says, devour the weak, the large animals devour the 
smaller. The multiplication of the smaller species is so rapid that 
these smaller species render the earth inhabitable for others, but 
their length of life is very short, and nature always preserves them 
in just proportions not only for their own preservation, but also for 
that of other species. The larger species, however, multiply slowly, 
and thus is preserved the kind of equilibrium which should exist. 
These views are of the same general scope as Darwin's law of 
struggle for existence, and imply Spencer's principle of the survi- 


val of the fittest. Lamarck does not, however, bring out clearly 
the fact of competition, a cardinal doctrine of Darwinism. 

5. Lamarck's characteristic doctrine is the inheritance of char- 
acters, including those acquired during the lifetime of the individ- 
ual. But this was also held by Darwin and all evolutionists until 
called in question by Weismann. The doctrine of heredity itself 
he recognised as a fundamental principle in biology. 

6. The effects of crossing were considered by Lamarck, and, 
what has been overlooked by commentators, he clearly insists on 
the swamping effects of crossing, saying: "If, when any peculiari- 
ties of form or any defects whatsoever are acquired, the individ- 
uals in this case always pairing, they will reproduce the same pe- 
culiarities, and if for successive generations confined to such 
unions, a special and distinct race will then be found. But per- 
petual crosses between individuals which have not the same pecu- 
liarities of form, result in the disappearance of all the peculiarities 
acquired by particular circumstances." Here we have anticipated 
a great deal of what we find in the writings of Darwin, Romanes, 
and others. 

7. Another principle, much insisted on by evolutionists, and 
especially by Wagner in 1868, is the principle of geographical iso- 
lation. It is this which underlies Gulick's principle of segregation, 
and Romanes's similar doctrine of physiological selection. This 
was anticipated by Lamarck, who at the close of the paragraph we 
have just quoted, and which has been overlooked by commenta- 
tors, goes on to say: "Were not men separated by distances of 
habitation, the mixtures resulting from crossing would obliterate 
the general characters which distinguish different nations." {Phil. 
ZooL, p. 262.) He does not, however, specifically apply this prin- 
ciple to other animals than man, but the principle stated by Dar- 
win and other writers is the same. 

If we now turn to Darwin's Origin of Species it will be seen 
that the fundamental doctrine of his work is Natural Selection, 
based on the principle of competition. His book, however, writ- 
ten as it was in the fifties, and packed with facts drawn from em- 
bryology, morphology, and paleontology, those sciences having 
been founded and developed after Lamarck's time, accomplished 
the gigantic labor of convincing and converting the scientific 
world. Darwinism is popularly synonymous with evolution. It is, 
however, obvious that without the action of the Lamarckian fac- 
tors, we should have had no assemblages of plants and animals to 
afford a field for the play of competition and natural selection. It 


should be borne in mind that Darwin starts with the tendency to 
variation, which he assumes. It is obvious that the Lamarckian 
factors as a whole started the ball in motion and laid the solid foun- 
dations on which natural selection rests. Meanwhile the competi- 
tive and selective principles have been operating throughout the 
entire period since organisms came into existence in any number 
or variety. It is therefore well to insist that in discussing the ori- 
gin of the doctrine of evolution, due and full credit should be 
given to the great French naturalist and philosopher, who a half 
century in advance of his time very clearly and explicitly formu- 
lated the primary laws of organic evolution. 

It should also be explicitly understood that natural selection is 
not an active factor, or a vera causa. It simply expresses the results 
of the operation of a series of factors, those factors having been 
previously worked out, or at least suggested and supported by a 
few examples, by Lamarck. 

Now to this Lamarckism, as we have represented it in its 
modern form, supported and broadened by the facts of modern 
morphology, embryology, physiology, the study of geographical 
distribution and the facts of variation, and more especially by the 
wonderful genetic series revealed by the labors of paleontologists — 
all of which were unknown to Lamarck — to this modern phase of 
Lamarckism, we have given the name of Neo-Lamarckism, since 
it stands for Lamarckism plus the additions to our knowledge 
made since the date of Lamarck's works. 

One of the most important treatises on these Neo-Lamarckian 
lines is the recent work of Prof. E. D. Cope, The Primary Factors 
of Organic Evolution.^ In a logical way, abundant facts support- 
ing the principles advanced, this prominent naturalist treats first of 
the nature of variation ; second, of the causes of variation, and, in 
the third part, of the inheritance of variation. The whole argu- 
ment and the mode of stating and illustrating it is clear, compact, 
and strong. It forms an admirable digest of some of the phases of 
the subject of organic evolution. One feature of it is the concise- 
ness of style, being free from the verbiage which weakens much 
of Romanes's writings. So far as we have observed the facts are 
reliable, and are to be accepted as true. The force, clearness, and 
compactness of the style are the result of years of anatomical and 
systematic work plus a good deal of hard, logical thinking. It is 
safe to say the book and its views will never be superannuated or 
placed on the retired list. It may be hard reading for the layman, 

1 Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Co. 1896. 12 mo, pp. 547, cuts, 120. Price. $2.00 net. 


but the working evolutionist, the student of variations and of their 
causes, will find it most suggestive and indispensable. 

It is written, however, from the point of view of the author's 
own lines of study, which have been in vertebrate paleontology. 
So many-sided is the theory of descent that no single book pre- 
sents all sides in equal proportions. Many books on evolution are 
written entirely from the side of Darwinism or natural selection 
as such ; others, like Semper's Animal Life and Eimer's Organic 
Evolution, as well as the works of St. George Mivart, Haeckel, 
Perrier, and others, are cast in a broader mould and are more 

It is evident that the most productive line of investigation in 
the future is a study of variation and its causes, particularly the 
latter. Darwinians insist that variations have been indefinite, acci- 
dental. Most Neo-Lamarckians hold on the other hand that they 
are not fortuitous but definite, along certain lines, the proof being 
that evolution has proceeded along certain definite lines, ending in 
this or that order or class. The problem now is to ascertain the 
physical causes of variation, and why, for example, evolution has 
followed this or that definite path, tending on the whole upwards, 
and ending in the eight branches of the tree of animal life, with 
their lesser branches and twigs, the classes, orders, families, genera, 
and species. These lines, as regards the vertebrates, are very 
clearly defined by our author. The recent carefully detailed work 
of Bateson, Materials for the Study of Variations, not only makes no 
attempt to discover the causes, but is simply a collection of cases 
of abnormal sports and variations, the author actually stating that 
it is "hard to see how the environmental differences can thus be in 
any sense the directing cause of specific differences." On the con- 
trary we hold, with Herbert Spencer : "The direct action of the 
medium was the primordial factor of organic evolution." And it is 
vastly more broadening and informing instead of merely collecting 
and cataloguing sports and variations at least also to attempt to 
examine into the changes in temperature, climate, soil, and in the 
biological environment, which have in many cases clearly enough 
produced the variations — whether useful or not to the animal. Re- 
garding the last subject, a great deal of tedious verbiage and weari-, 
some discussion has been going on in the English journals, with no 
definite results. 

Concerning the causes of variation much might have been said 
by our author as to the effect of changes in temperature, light, food 


climate, but space hardly permitted, and Semper's work, to which 
he refers the reader, has adequately covered the ground. 

Considerable space is given to the subject of parallelism. This 
section is interesting, since it restates in a detailed way the fact 
worked out by Von Baer, Agassiz, and Vogt, and brought by 
Profs. Hyatt and Cope into relation with the doctrine of evolu- 
tion. Parallelism, however, appears to express a result and is not 
an active factor in evolution. Yet the general parallelism existing 
between taxonomy, ontogeny, and phylogeny is of great interest, 
and in this chapter the author shows admirable power of gener- 

The causes of variations Cope divides into two classes : the 
physico-chemical (molecular), and the mechanical (molar). To 
these two types he gives the names Physiogenesis and Kinetogen- 
esis. In this section also is discussed the principle of inheritance 
of characters. The portion on physiogenesis is short with but few 
cases mentioned compared with the many which might be brought 
forward, for which, however, he refers the readers to Semper's An- 
imal Life. 

To dynamic evolution or kinetogenesis the author devotes 
nearly a third of the book. And here Dr. Cope, who has given 
much time and thought to the subject, is at his best. Kinetogen- 
esis is but a newly-coined word for a study of the effects of use and 
disuse of the different organs of the individual. A great deal has 
been said about structures or peculiarities in the organisation which 
are useless to their possessors. These parts are classified by Cope, 
who, with others, regards them as brought about by disuse. Such 
are the vestigial legs and digits of numerous lizards, the mammae of 
male animals, and the vestigial structures found in many highly 
specialised animals, notably in man where some seventy such ves- 
tiges exist to prove his descent from the lower Primates. The ex- 
istence of some of these has been explained by Darwin by the ac- 
tion of natural selection, through "his unwillingness to look to 
disuse as the cause of the conditions he describes." The instances 
Dr. Cope quotes in illustration of kinetogenesis are taken from 
American authors, and indeed in the labors of the late Prof. Ryder, 
Cope, Dall, Hyatt, Jackson, Osborne, and others in this country, 
and of Hiitter, Henke, Reyher, Fick, Tornier, and others in Eu- 
rope, including Herbert Spencer, who really was the first to start 
this kind of inquiry, we have the first attempts to explain by the 
effects of impacts, strains and stresses, and other movements of the 
muscles and other soft parts on the hard parts (as shells, the ar- 


thropod crust, and the teeth and bones), the origin of joints, seg- 
mental parts, and differences in form of the parts of the skeleton. 
There has thus been opened up a distinct department of dynamic 
evolution, the study of which promises the most fruitful results. 
Cope's discussion of this whole matter is ingenious ; his arguments 
appear to us to be solid and logical, and the objections of the Neo- 
Darwinians have been amply met. 

The treatment of the principle of natural selection is fair. Its 
inadequacy as a primary factor or as the efficient cause of all varia- 
tions, so clearly proved by Herbert Spencer and others, is here 
fully insisted upon. 

Under this head also we have a brief, terse discussion of isola- 
tion, though it was first suggested by Lamarck, as we have already 
seen, and is by no means a part of the theory of natural selection, 
and might well have been allowed more space, since it is, though 
a passive agent or principle, one of universal occurrence, and of no 
little importance in the preservation of variations and their final 
elaboration into specific characters. 

We have never regarded protective mimicry as a genuine ac- 
tive factor in the production of specific characters, and with the 
extreme views of Wallace, Poulton, and others we have been un- 
able to agree, and we coincide with Cope, that to ascribe such color 
and form-characters to natural selection as a cause, is clearly 
impossible. The cases of mimicry are often due to the direct or 
indirect action of light, and other factors, and the supposed agency 
of natural selection in the matter is a fallacy. Many examples are 
cases of convergence. Into some cases the selective principle ap- 
pears to enter, but the last word, it seems to us, has not yet been 
spoken on this intricate subject. 

No one interested in the subject of heredity — and who is not ? 
— can well afford to pass by the third part of this book in which the 
inheritance of variations is discussed in a fair and comprehensive 
way. Because perhaps from quite independent points of view the 
reviewer's opinions are in harmony with those of Cope, he is led 
to endorse, with little fault-finding, all that is here said in favor of 
the principle of the inheritance of characters acquired during the 
life-time of the individual, and against the extremely hypothetical 
views of Weismann. The very strong and apparently well-proved 
cases, quoted from Brewer, of the inheritance of characters due to 
nutrition, to use, as in the example of the evolution of the trotting 
horse, and particularly the inheritance of characters due to mutila- 
tion and injuries and those due to regional influences appear to be 


Strong proof that in these days such inheritances may at times oc- 
cur, though in earher geological times the)^ must have been more 
frequent and normal. With little doubt in the near future this dis- 
cussion, which, as Cope states, is "sometimes a logomachy de- 
pendent on the significance which one attaches to the term "ac- 
quired characters," will gradually close, by the abandonment by 
both parties in the controversy of extreme views on the subject. 

The discussion under the head of " The Energy of Evolution " 
is suggestive, though there is a tendency to the multiplication of 
newly coined terms which may seem, for the sake of clearness, to 
be necessary, but which will repel the lay reader. Again, return- 
ing to the consideration of the dynamics of organic evolution, and 
to prove the inadequacy of the claims of natural selection, the 
author, probably quite unconsciously, follows in a general way the 
Lamarckian argument. Natural selection. Cope well maintains, 
"cannot be the cause of those alternatives from which it selects. 
The alternatives must be presented before the selection can com- 
mence." Darwinians imagine that here and there a useful varia- 
tion or sport has been preserved or eliminated, and has been, so to 
speak, nursed and petted and cared for until it became a varietal 
and ultimately a specific character. But, as suggested by the 
critique in the North British Review for 1867 (attributed to Fleem- 
ing Jenkin), the objector to natural selection requires that useful 
variations should, in order to be preserved, arise in an enormous 
number of individuals " all having a little improvement in the same 
direction." And this is distinctly what Lamarck has said. In his 
case of the birds evolved by necessity into swimming or into wad- 
ing forms, he does not intimate, as generally supposed by those 
who carelessly read him, that a single bird, by simply wishing or 
willing, gradually acquired webbed feet, or longer necks or longer 
legs, but he says, speaking of a supposed bird wishing to prevent 
its body from sinking in the water, "it makes every effort to extend 
and elongate its feet." ^^ II en resulte que la longue habitude que cet 
oiseau et tous ceux de sa race contractent d'etendre et d^allonger con- 
tinuellement leurs pieds,'''' etc. ; and in the next case of the bird 
wishing to fish without wetting its body and which " makes con- 
tinual efforts to lengthen its neck, the necessity of adopting this 
new habit or means of obtaining its food, is not restricted to a sin- 
gle individual, but to all those of its race." In other words, we 
have here suggested that the variations were common to the spe- 
cies en masse and were induced by a change in the physical or bio- 
logical environment which drove all or large numbers of the indi- 


viduals of a species to the necessity of adopting new habits, and 
thus to transform from one species into another. It is the great 
weakness and inadequateness of Darwinism as such that individual 
or chance variation or sports, which the whole course of nature 
tends to wipe out by crossing or by the death of the unfit individ- 
ual, are suffered to be the ancestors of species. This, it is true, 
may sometimes happen, but it is an exception which proves the 

Dr. Cope then enters into a discussion of the energy of growth 
and evolution as distinguished from that displayed by non-living 
bodies. The former he calls Anagenesis and the latter Catagene- 
sis. His anagenetic class "tends to upward progress in the or- 
ganic sense ; that is, towards the increasing control of its environ- 
ment by the organism, and towards the progressive development 
of consciousness and mind." He well criticises Herbert Spencer's 
definition of evolution as a process of "integration of matter and 
dissipation of motions," claiming, correctly, we think, and with 
much originality, that such a definition only applies to inorganic 
bodies, that in organic progressive anagenesis there is absorption 
of energy. "In the anagenetic energies, on the other hand, we 
have a process of building machines, which not only resist the ac- 
tion of catagenesis, but which press the catagenetic energies into 
their service. In the assimilation of inorganic substances they ele- 
vate them into higher, that is, more complex compounds, and raise 
the types of energy to their own level. In the development of mo- 
lar movements they enable their organisms to escape many of the 
destructive effects of catagenetic energy by enabling them to change 
their environment, and this is especially true in so far as sensation 
or consciousness is present to them." 

All this prepares the way for the reception of the view ex- 
pressed in the final chapter, entitled " The Functions of Conscious- 
ness." Here the author steps on less certain, because meta- 
physical, ground, whither many will not care to follow him, and 
although Lamarck has attributed the movements of animals to 
their needs, which we interpret to mean bodily necessities as much 
as mental volitions, Professor Cope goes farther than the French 
philosopher, and attributes consciousness to all animals. "What- 
ever be its nature," he says, "the preliminary to any animal move- 
ment which is not automatic is an effort ;" hence he regards effort 
as the immediate source of all movement ; that the control of mus- 
cular movements by consciousness is distinctly observable ; that 
reflex acts are the product of conscious acts. He concludes, then, 


that " consciousness has been essential to a rising scale of organic 
evolution. In the long run the most intelligent have survived ; 
hence he postulates a primitive consciousness which he has called 
Archaesthetism, which "maintains that consciousness as well as 
life preceded organism, and has been the primum ?nobile in the cre- 
ation of organic structure." 

Finally, in approaching an explanation of the phenomenon of 
anagenesis, our author asks : "Why should evolution be progres- 
sive in the face of universal catagenesis ? No other ground seems 
discoverable but the presence of sensation or consciousness, which 
is, metaphysically speaking, the protoplasm of mind. The two 
sensations of hunger and sex have furnished the stimuli to internal 
and external activity, and memory, or experience with natural se- 
lection, have been the guides. Mind and body have thus devel- 
oped contemporaneously and have reacted mutually. Without 
the co-operation of all these factors, anagenesis seems impossible." 

This is certainly very suggestive, and will commend itself to 
those who, taking for granted the Darwinian view that all variation 
is fortuitous and indefinite, and all evolution purely material and 
mechanical, reject it because they suppose that evolution is purely 
materialistic and excludes mind from creation ; whereas it is not at 
all improbable nor unthinkable, even, from a scientific standpoint 
such as that taken by our author, that mind and consciousness are 
immanent in each operation of the laws underlying the evolution, 
not only of life on our globe, but also of the earth itself and of the 
universe of which it forms a part. 


BV H. dharmapAla, anagArika. 

I HAVE READ with interest the controversy between therRt. 
Rev. Shaku Soyen, Dr. Barrows, and Dr. F. F. Ellinwood in 
The Open Court of January. It is evident that Dr. Ellinwood is a 
student of Buddhist translated literature, judging by the quotations 
he has freely made in defence of the position adopted by Dr. Bar- 
rows with reference to the theory that Nirvana is annihilation. 

Dr. Ellinwood speaks of Buddhism as " a system which is one 
thing in Ceylon, quite another in Tibet, and still another in China 
and Japan." Just so, Christianity is one thing in Russia, quite 
another in Rome, and still another in Germany, England and 
America, where the Presbyterian and Universalist live side by side. 

I grant that Buddhism has undergone phases of transforma- 
tion. Many changes in the outward superstructure have been 
made according to the conditions of the countries where the Good 
Law was preached, yet amidst all these vicissitudes the doctrines 
of Buddha remained unchanged. 

Here lies the wonderful vitality of the doctrine that he preached 
twenty-four centuries ago. Nepal is the only country where a Hin- 
duised form of Buddhism exists, which, however, from the earliest 
times has been regarded as heterodox and heretical. But the Bud- 
dhism of Tibet, China, Japan, and of the countries of the Indo- 
Chinese Peninsula preaches fundamentally the same doctrine. By 
Indian Buddhist Bhikshus, says Samuel Beal, "a new litera- 
ture was produced — a literature essentially Indian — and therefore 
Aryan. . . . The Buddhists of India brought about all this, and 
much more than this, for what occurred in China happened also 
throughout the regions beyond, and in due course Corea, Japan on 


that side, and Mongolia and Tibet on the other, were converted 
and made obedient to the same faith. " ^ 

What, then, is Buddhism ? What is it that all Buddhists, if 
they are genuine Buddhists, hold in common? 

Every Buddhist knows the four noble truths; every Buddhist 
knows that they have been proclaimed by the Tathagata, and they 
are the foundation of his religion. 

The first noble truth states that there is misery, implying the 
need of a religion of salvation. The second noble truth states 
that we must blame ourselves for our own misery, not any other 
man nor any demon or god : the cause of misery is desire, lust, 
ignorance, and hatred. The third noble truth points out that the 
removal of the cause of misery will lead to the removal of misery 
itself ; and finally the fourth noble truth, pointing out the way of 
purity, is the logical outcome and practical application of the other 
three noble truths. This fourth noble truth is the essence of all 
Buddhism. It proclaims that not by asceticism, not by methods of 
the Brahmanical yoga (hypnotical trances), not by looking out for 
our happiness, but solely by walking on the noble eighth-fold path 
of righteousness can Nirvana be obtained. 

There is no genuine Buddhist who does not accept the four 
noble truths, and every one who does accept them is a Buddhist, 
whatever else he may be in addition, a philosopher, a scholar, a 
Christian, a Mohammedan, a Theosophist, a believer in supersti- 
tions, or what not, and any one who walks on the noble path of 
righteousness, leading a pure life, will in time rid himself of his 
impurities and errors as a silversmith, little by little, blows off the 
dross from the silver. (See Dhammapada, verse 239.) 

Buddhism, or the Dharma, is thus defined in the Chullavagga 
(x, 5) ; " Of whatsoever doctrines thou shalt be conscious, Gotami, 
that they conduce to passion and not to peace, to pride and not to 
veneration, to wishing for much and not to wishing for little, to 
love of society and not to seclusion, to sloth and not to the exercise 
of zeal, to being hard to satisfy and not to content, verily mayest 
thou then, Gotami, bear in mind that that is not Dhamma, that 
that is not Vinaya, that that is not the teaching of the Master. But 
of whatsoever doctrines thou shalt be conscious, Gotami, that they 
conduce to peace and not to passion, to veneration and not to 
pride, to wishing for little and not to wishing for much, to seclu- 
sion and not to love of society, to the exercise of zeal and not to 
sloth, to content and not to querulousness, verily mayest thou then 

1 Beal's Buddhist Literature in China. 


bear in mind that that is the Dhamma, and that is Vinaya, and 
that the teaching of the Master." (Translation by Rhys Davids.) 

Another definition of Buddhism as formulated by the great 
Arhat Moggaliputta Tissa, chief of the third great Asoka convoca- 
tion, runs thus : " It is a Dhamma which follows all Dhammas, 
and yet all Dhammas descend into or follow that Dhamma." 

From the earliest times of the history of Buddhism it has 
never been correctly understood by hostile critics. The Brahmans 
called it Ncistika, the nihilistic, because Buddhism rejects their 
speculations concerning the atma and ignores the authority of the 
Vedas ; the Jains called Buddha Mdydvadi, the holder of the doc- 
trine of non-reality. 

Buddhism is not a creed, for it discards all belief that must be 
taken for granted. It is called the Vibhajja vdda — the religion of 
observation and analysis. Truth is the touchstone of Buddha's 
religion. All dogmatic theorising is abandoned as a "jungle, a wil- 
derness, a puppet show, a writhing, and a fetter," and is "coupled 
with misery, ruin, despair, and agony, and does not tend to aver- 
sion, absence of passion, cessation, quiescence, knowledge, su- 
preme wisdom, and Nirvana." 

The worldly-minded, in their passions, are not in a condition 
to realise Nirvana. Only the perfectly unselfish, those freed from 
all error and dogmatism, can attain the sinless state. None else, 
neither god nor man, can know the condition of the emancipated 
Holy Ones who have reached Nirvana. Descriptions and explana- 
tions are of no avail; it is a state to be experienced. But one 
thing is sure, Nirvana is the highest bliss attainable, and we Bud- 
dhists are confident that there is no better way to Nirvana than the 
noble eightfold path taught by our Master, the Buddha. 



THE SIGNIFICANCE of the trinity relation is strongly marked 
in the symbolism of religious doctrines, in philosophy, and in 
the various phenomena of nature. Three members are the neces- 
sary constituents of a syllogism. Every spot in space is naturally 
determined from any point of reference by three coordinates, im- 
plying that the possibility of moving in infinite directions is for 
measuring purposes reducible to three dimensions, and history 
teaches us that the progress of civilisation is effected by a recon- 
ciliation of contrasts, which appears (as Hegel puts it) in a series 
of (i) a thesis, (2) an antithesis, and (3) their combination. ^ 

In addition to the important part which the trinity idea plays 
in abstract reasoning, we find that it is an indispensable concep- 
tion in nature. When trying to comprehend the constant flux of 
phenomena as manifestations of immutable laws, we distinguish 
(i) the eternal norms of being, viz., the laws of nature, the Ur- 
grund, the ^vS^oS, the creative and formative power, the conditions 
of existence, religiously called "the Father of all life;" (2) the 
actualisation of existence in concrete things and living creatures, 
the phenomena in which the laws of nature are manifested, the 
avatars or incarnations of the creator, the evolution of life, the re- 
ality of the world-process, which is consummated in the sinless 
man, the perfectly Enlightened One, the God-man; and (3) the 
end and aim of life, the ideal, the aspiration of reaching a goal 
that animates life and gives purpose to its endeavors. These three 
aspects of life (i) the What, (2) the Whence, (3) the Whither; (i) 
Grundy (2) Ursache, (3) Zweck; the (i) ground or raison d'etre, (2) 
the constant flux of causation, and (3) the direction or tendency of 
existence, are three phases of one and the same reality; they are a 

1 For particulars see Primer of Philosophy , pp. 100-102. 



trinity which renders three aspects possible : (i) the nomological, 
(2) the aetiological, and (3) the ethological (i. e., the teleological or 








Z;,^- y. Sc<t/>r,ii/ Maris 

Fig. I. The Brahman Trimurti. (After Coleman.) 

The trinity conception of God is offensive only to those who 
conceive God after the fashion of a human individual, but it com- 
mends itself to the philosopher who understands that God is not 


personal, but supersonal, not a concrete individual will, but an om- 
nipresent effectiveness, not a God, but God. 

It is certainly a remarkable coincidence that several among 
the higher religions teach the trinity idea in one or another form. 
Only the Jews and Mohammedans are strict Unitarians, the Par- 
see faith is almost dualistic, and the religion of ancient Egypt, at 
least in one of its phases, exhibits the peculiar doctrine of a quad- 
rinity. But the ancient Babylonians, the Brahmans, the Buddhists, 
and the old paganism of the Germanic races, as explained in the 
two Eddas, teach a trinity of their God. 

The Edda speaks of Alfadhur as Har, the High One, Ifn-Har, 
the equally High One, and Thridhi or the Third One. But this 
trinity doctrine is not so clear as the trinity doctrines of the East, 
nor are we quite sure that it is not a later product which might 
have originated under Christian influence. 

The old Babylonians worshipped the trinity of Anu, Ea, and 
Bel ; Ea being quite analogous to the Christian God the Father, and 
Bel (also called Merodach) to Christ, God the Son, for he is the 
saviour, and the conqueror of Tiamat, the Evil One. Says Mr. 
Budge in his excellent booklet, Babylonian Life and History, p. 127 : 

"The omnipresent and omnipotent Marduk (Merodach) was the god 'who 
went before Ea ' and was the healer and mediator for mankind. He revealed to 
mankind the knowledge of Ea ; in all incantations he is invoked as the god ' mighty 
to save ' against evil and ill." 

Brahm, the highest God of Brahmanism, representing the All, 
or the abstract idea of being, is conceived as a trinity, which is 
called Trimurti (Fig. i), consisting of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, 
three divine presences who in many respects bear quite a close re- 
semblance to the Christian Trinity. The most famous ancient rep- 
resentation of the Trimurti is found near Bombay in the caves of 
Elephanta, where three massive faces growing from one body are 
sculptured in the rock. 

Kalidasa, the Shakespeare of ancient India, best known in the 
West as the author of Sakuntala, says : 

" In these three persons the one god was shown, — 
Each first in place, each last, — not one alone; 
Of Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma, each may be 
First, second, third among the blessed Three." 

Brahma (Fig. 2) is the creator and the father of all, commonly 
represented with four heads; Vishnu (Fig. 6) is the divine revela- 



Fig. 2. Brahma. 
(Fragment of a car. Musee Gnimet.) 

Fig. 3. Shiva-Trimurti 
Leaning on the linga, the symbol of the 
creative faculty. 

(Fragment of a car. Musee Guimet.) 

Fig. 4. Shiva with Parvati Fig. 5. Shiva Dancing Surrounded bv a Halo of 

On Nanda, the sacred bull (Musee Gnimet). Flames. (Bronze Statue. Musee Guimet.) 



Fig. 6. Vishnu Narasimha. 
(Fragment of a car. Musee Guimet.) 


Fig. 7. Krishna 
As a shepherd lad playing the flute [the flute 
is missing]. (Bronze statue, Musee Guimet.) 

Fig. 8. Jagannath With His Two Companions. (After Schlagintweit.) 



Fig. 9. Lao-Tsze — Buddha— Confucius. 
D, D, D, philosophers, and E a hero. F, the Chinese dragon, covered with the sacred tor- 
toise shell. G, G, G, H, Gods. I, K, L, M, Demons. 

After an old Chinese painting, reproduced by Kirchner, and from Kirchner by Pickart.] 



tion manifesting itself in incarnations called "avatars"^; and 
Shiva (Figs. 3, 4, 5) is the destroyer and regenerator, the trans- 

Vishnu in his incarnations, especially as Krishna (Figs. 8 and 
11) and as Jagannath^ (Fig. 8), is dearest to the Hindu heart, for 
he is the God that has become flesh, and he is full of love and 
compassion. Brahma and Shiva, not unlike the Jehovah of the Old 
Testament, are gods of wrath, but the Vishnu (the Hindu Christ) 
is full of compassion, of meekness, and humility. This is illus- 
trated in a crude legend which according to a story from the Bha- 
gavata-purana runs as follows : ^ 

"A dispute once arose among the sages which of the three gods was greatest. 
Thej applied to the greatest of all sages — Bhrigu — to determine the point. He 
undertook to put all three gods to a severe test. He went first to Brahma and 
omitted all obeisance. The god's anger blazed forth, but he was at length pacified. 
Next he went to the abode of Shiva, and omitted to return the god's salutation. The 
irascible god was enraged, his eyes flashed fire, and he raised his Trident weapon 
to destroy the sage. But the god's wife, Parvati, interceded for him. Lastly, 
Bhrigu went to the heaven of Vishnu, whom he found asleep. To try his forbear- 
ance, he gave the god a good kick on his breast, which awoke him. Instead of 
showing anger, Vishnu asked Bhrigu's pardon for not having greeted him on his 
first arrival. Then he declared he was highly honored by the sage's blow. It had 
imprinted an indelible mark of good fortune on his breast. He trusted the sage's 
foot was not hurt, and began to rub it gently. 'This,' said Bhrigu, 'is the might- 
iest god ; he overpowers his enemies by the most potent of all weapens — gentleness 
and generosity.' " 

In spite of the lack of dignity that marks this myth, it reminds 
one of the story of Golgatha ; there, too, the wounds in the breast 
where the lance pierced the Crucified, became, together with the 
four other wounds, the symbol of the highest and divinest holiness. 

Krishna is God manifesting himself as the divine hero, teacher, 
and saviour. The Krishna legends bear many strange resemblances 

1 Vishnu incarnates himself in ten avatars. The illustration (Fig. 6) represents him as Nara- 
simha, or the lion-man, according to the legend that the heretical king Hiranyakasipa, ridiculing 
the idea of Vishnu's omnipresence, asked mockingly. " Is Vishnu in this pillar?" whereupon 
the pillar was rent asunder, the god came out in the shape of a lion-man and tore the scoffer to 

2 Jagannath is commonly misrepresented in Christian countries, and there is much talk of the 
custom of people throwing themselves under the wheels of the big Car of JagannSth. There is 
no truth in the tale. Says Sir Monier Monier-Williams, an enthusiastic worker in the field of 
Christian apologetics : " It is usual for missionaries to speak with horror of the self-immolation 
alleged to take place under the Car of Jagannath (Krishna). But if deaths occur, they must be 
accidental, as self-destruction is wholly opposed both to the letter and spirit of the Vaishnava 
religion." [Brakmanistn and Hinduism, p. ii8.) 

Jagannath, the Vishnu incarnation of mercy and compassion, always appears with two com- 
panions. As to their grotesque appearance, we must consider that the Hindu tries to describe 
the divine by things uncommon and extraordinary, 

3 See Sir M, M. Williams's Brakmanism and Hinduism, p, 46. 



Fig. 10. The Christian Trinity after the Conception of Old German Masters. 
(Reproduced from Muther.) 

Fig. II. Krishna Nursed by Devaki. 
After an old and richly-colored Hindu painting. [Re- 
produced from Moore's Hindu Pantheon, plate 59.] 

Fig. 12. Quan-Yin. 
Buddha's incarnation as a mother's love. 
White Chinese Porcelain (Musee Guimet). 

Fig. 13. The Buddhist Trinity (Japanese) 

The Buddha, the Dharma, the Sangha. 

Carved wood; Musee Guimet. 

Fig. 15. Mary's Coronation. 
Fig. 14. The Christian Trinity By Ambrogio Fossano, called Borgognone. Formerly 

From the Iconographie ChrHienne. [Reproduced in the S. Simpliciano at Milan, now at the Brera. [Atter 
from Bastian's Ethnol. Bilderbtich, plate xvii.] Lubke.] 



Fig. i6. The Coronation of Mary. 
After H. F., an unknown Old German artist of Augsburg. (Reproduced from Muther.) 



Fig. 17. The Trinity. 
From Hans Schaufeleius's prayer book Via Felicitatis. (Reproduced from Muther.) 

Fig. i8. The Holy Trinity in the Vatican. 
After Pietro Berrettini. Reproduced from // Vaticano, plate xx. 


to stories in the lives of both Buddha and Christ. The most curi- 
ous among them are Krishna's escape from a massacre of children, 
arranged by a Hindu Herod for the purpose of killing the newborn 
god, and his transfiguration shortly before his death. Pictures of 
the Krishna child at the bosom of his mother remind us very much 
of similar subjects in Buddhistic and Christian art (Compare Fig, 
II with Fig. 12), Well known is also the thoughtful legend that 
while Krishna plays the flute (Fig. 6), every one of the dancing 
shepherdesses believes that the swain whom she embraces is the 
god himself. 

The Buddhist trinity (Fig. 13) is different from the trinity of 
the Brahmans. The Buddhists take refuge in the Buddha, the 
Dharma, and the Sangha, every one of them being a manisfesta- 
tion of the bodhi, the enlightenment that leads to the salvation of 
Nirvana. Not exactly the same, but a similar idea, is expressed in 
the doctrine of the three personalities of Buddha : (i) the Sam- 
bhoga-kaya, the personality of bliss, which means Buddha as the 
eternal law of the bodhi ; (2) the Nirmana-kaya, the personality of 
transformations, or Buddha as he manifests himself in evolution ; 
and (3) the Dharma-kaya, the personality of religious truth, v/hich 
is the unfoldment of Buddha in the Buddhist doctrines.^ 

In China there is a peculiar trinity of the great religious leaders, 
Lao-Tsze, Buddha, and Confucius (Fig. g). Although Taoists, 
Buddhists, and Confucianists are not free from jealousy among 
themselves, the systems of the three masters are not regarded as 
antagonistic but rather as complementary. Their trinity appears 
to be accidental, and yet it, too, is an expression of the triune rela- 
tion of philosophy, religion, and ethics. 

The Christian doctrine of the trinity was definitely settled at 
the time of the Council of Nice. In the beginning of the Christian 
Church there was a wavering between two conceptions, one of 
which may be called gnostic, the other canonical. The gnostic 
conception, formed after the pattern of father, mother, and child, 
represented the Deity as a trinity of (i) God the Creator, (2) 
Sophia or the Divine Wisdom, and (3) the Messiah, also called the 
son of David, the son of man, the son of woman, and the son of 
God. Some gnostic authors use the terms Sophia and Logos as per- 
fect synonyms, but among the Christians of the third century the 

1 In the Buddhist mythology of China and Japan the trinity idea is very prominent. A Chinese 
work of five thin volumes, kindly presented me by Mr. Jos. M. Wade of Boston, contains among 
its numerous illustrations of Buddhist saints and deities a great number of trinity figures. The 
title of the work shows four characters, signifying " Buddha-Image Table-Collection," which 
means "A Collection of Illustrations of Buddhist Images." 


term Sophia is entirely abandoned, and the trinity of God the 
Father, God the Son, or Christ, as the incarnation of the Logos, and 
the Holy Spirit, becomes firmly established as the canonical doc- 
trine of the Church (Figs. lo and 14-18). Nevertheless, the gnos- 
tic conception of Sophia, the bride of God, reappears in the deifi- 
cation of Mary, who sometimes, although rarely, takes the place of 
the Holy Ghost (Fig. 17), and sometimes is represented as an ad- 
ditional person in the trinity (Fig. 15), which, however, in artis- 
tic representations, makes the Holy Ghost appear as the relation 
that obtains between God, Christ, and Mary.^ 

The Brahman, the Buddhist, and the Christian trinity con- 
ceptions are in many respects very different, but the more instruct- 
ive and remarkable are their agreements which teach us that the 
trinity idea is deeply founded in the nature of things. 

1 The old Christian Trinities (e. g. , Fig. 14) bear a close resemblance to Hindu representations 
of the Trimdrti. The old German Masters represent God the Father as an emperor holding coun- 
sel with his son, the king, on the government of the world (e. g.. Fig. 18). There are a few pic- 
tures which seem to convey the idea that God the Father, Mary, and Christ form a trinity {see 
Fig. 15), but the instances in which (as in Fig. 17) the Holy Ghost is entirely replaced by Mary, are 



WHEN WE SEE a mother look for the last time upon the face 
of her dead child, when we see her tears and hear her sobs 
and cries, there wells up in our breasts a flood of emotion, we are 
filled with grief, sorrow overflows our hearts, and tears dim our 
eyes. We hear of the good fortune of some acquaintance and are 
at once filled with joy. We v/eep with those that weep and laugh 
with those that laugh. 

These are familiar examples of the manifestations of sympath5^ 
The common notion of sympathy is that it is a feeling correspond- 
ing to that which another feels, it is literally a fellow-feeling with 
others in their varied conditions of grief or joy. It is an agreement 
of affections or inclinations, or a sameness of natures, which makes 
persons pleased with one another or with the same subject of 

By most people sympathy is thought to be restricted to the 
hearts of the human family, and particularly to individuals of the 
same race. We hardly ever think that a bird feels sorry for its 
wounded mate, or that a fox that has caught a good fat hen is con- 
gratulated by his fellow-foxes. We never think, as did Pliny, that 
plants sympathise with one another. It is only the poet who can 
say that "the sympathies and affections of plants blossom into 
marriage ; the petals of flowers are their wedding dresses, and their 
lovely hues and sweet odors are their gayeties and smiles and mu- 
sic." We never think of the ocean and the land as lovers, having 
that likeness of natures which makes them pleased with each 
other. It is only the poet that can say, as did Alexander Smith, 
"The sea is a bridegroom, the shore his wedded bride. In the 
fulness of his marriage joy he decorates her tawny brow with 
shells, retires a space to see how fair she looks, then proud, nms 


Up to kiss her." We never expect, as we enter the inorganic world, 
the world of coal, and iron, and rock, to see manifestations of sym- 
pathy. Yet the chemist finds here what appears to be warm sym- 
pathy and enduring affection. Many of the most pleasing experi- 
ments in chemistry and physics depend upon the apparent fact of 
sympathy. Dr. Mason Good says, '<It exists between atom and 
atom, and the philosopher calls it attraction; it exists between iron 
and loadstone, and every one calls it magnetism." So that chem- 
istry and physics are only a sportive, poetical way of telling the 
story of the human heart, its life, its intelligence, its emotions. 

It is the object of this paper to show that only by the study of 
the so-called dead world around us can we really know what sym- 
pathy is, its exact nature, its process of action, and its development 
from unconscious sympathy in matter to conscious sympathy in 
mind. The field is an inviting one, full of surprises and pleasures, 
of instruction and philosophy, and to it the thoughtful attention of 
the reader is invited. 

Let us go back to our childhood sports, to the old orchard and 
the old apple-tree, and see again the swing suspended from one of 
its branches. The mere mention of the swing sets our heart a-beat- 
ing in sympathy with its motion. Did you ever carefully observe 
this motion and the process of swinging? A little girl sits in the 
swing, and a little boy stands just behind her to push. He gives 
a slight push and she swings away. She swings back, and he again 
gives a stronger push. She again swings away farther than before. 
And so, back and forth, she swings. Should he push before she 
gets fully back, he would stop the motion of the swing ; should he 
push too slowly or too quickly, there would be an interference with 
the natural motion of the swing. He must push exactly at the mo- 
ment the swing is ready to go away from him. In this way the 
swing has an even, steady motion, going away and coming back in 
equal intervals of time. It swings back and forth, say, thirty times 
a minute; the boy must therefore push fifteen times every minute. 
This swinging motion is called, in the language of science, a vibra- 

A little way off is another swing, longer than the one just con- 
sidered, and we notice that it takes longer for it to vibrate back 
and forth. This swing vibrates, say, twenty times a minute, and 
the pushes are ten a minute. Should the boy push eleven times a 
minute, or nine times a minute, he would stop the swinging. He 
must push exactly ten times a minute, no more, no less. 

Anything which, when moved out of place, comes back again 


to place, in equal intervals of time, vibrates. Examples of vibra- 
tion are seen in the movement of the pendulum of a clock, the bal- 
ance-wheel of a watch, the shuttle of a sewing-machine, the piston 
of a steam-engine, the waves upon the surface of water, etc. 

Take a large tuning-fork and fasten it firmly by its handle to a 
table, so that its prongs shall stand upwards. Strike one of the 
prongs. See how it vibrates back and forth, so swiftly that the eye 
can scarcely follow its rapid motion. At the same time there is 
heard a musical tone of a certain pitch. Take a small piece of cork 
and suspend it by a fine thread. Hold the cork close to the vibrat- 
ing prong. The prong pushes the cork and sends it flying away. 
The suspended cork is a swing, and the vibrating prong is the boy 
that pushes it. But the prong strikes out many times oftener than 
the cork can swing back and forth in a second. If the thread be 
shortened, that is, the swing be made shorter, a length may be 
found so that the vibrations of the prong and of the cork will be 
the same in number per second. In the case of the swing and the 
boy, the boy timed his pushes to agree with the vibrations of the 
swing; in the case of the fork and the cork, the vibrations of the 
cork are timed to agree with the pushes of the prong. In ct.b^r 
words, the cork-swing is keyed up to the pitch of the fork. 

Here are two tuning-forks of exactly the same pitch, that is, 
they vibrate the same number of times in a second. Each is fas- 
tened by means of a brass plate to the top of small boxes, open at 
the ends, and made of thin pieces of wood. The boxes are called 
sounding-boxes. When the forks are struck, they vibrate and force 
the top and sides of the boxes to vibrate with equal rapidity. The 
result is a very loud musical tone of the same pitch as the forks. 
Place one of the boxes on the table and hold the other in the hand. 
Strike the fork of the one held in the hand, and it emits a loud 
sound. While sounding, bring it near the silent fork attached to 
the box on the table, but not in contact with it. Allow them to 
continue in this position for a few seconds, and then stop the vi- 
bration of the fork in the hand — the tone is still heard. The fork 
on the table has taken up the vibrations of its neighbor and is now 
sounding in its turn, a faint, mellow tone. The vibrations of the 
fork in the hand have been transferred to the fork on the table. 
How is it done? 

There is around us a substance capable of transmitting the 
motion of a tuning-fork, or of any vibrating body, to great dis- 
tances with great rapidity. This substance is the atmosphere. The 
atmosphere is composed of very small particles placed very near 


to one another, but not actually touching, so that each particle can 
swing back and forth with perfect freedom. Each particle is, in 
fact, a little swing. But they have this advantage over ordinary 
swings — they are not held in place by threads of different lengths, 
and so can vibrate just so rapidly, and no more, but are held near 
one another by the attractive power of the earth, and kept apart by 
a repulsive force which exists between them, an arrangement 
which permits them to swing slowlj' or rapidly. When the prong 
of the fork vibrates it strikes the particles of air next to it, which 
push other particles, which in turn push still other particles, and 
so on. Each particle swings a little ways, strikes its neighbor in 
front of it, springs back to be struck by the neighbor back of it, 
and so on. And in this way motion travels, like waves, through 
the air, outwards in all directions from the vibrating fork, and thus 
particles of air at a distance from the fork vibrate as rapidly as the 
prongs themselves. And when the air-waves made by the fork in 
the hand reach the fork on the table they strike its prongs and 
cause them to vibrate. "It is easy to understand this. The waves 
of air of the one fork can affect the other, because they are per- 
fectly timed. A single wave causes the prongs of the silent fork to 
vfi^rate through a very small space. But just as it has completed 
this small vibration, another wave of air is ready to push it. Thus 
the small pushes add themselves together. The pushes, all deliv- 
ered at the proper moment, all properly timed, give such strength 
to the vibrations of the fork on the table as to render it audible." 
One fork, then, can cause another at a distance to vibrate with 
the same form and speed of motion as itself has. This sameness 
of motion is called sympathetic vibration. Two bodies vibrate in 
sympathy, then, when the motion of one is similar to and as rapid 
as the motion of the other. Instead of a tuning-fork to set up 
motion among the particles of air, any vibrating body may be used, 
as piano-strings, harp-strings, the reeds of an organ, the tongue of 
a Jew's harp, a bell, etc. 

All have heard of the harp of a thousand strings. Let us, in 
imagination, make one. Some of its strings shall be long, some 
short; some large, some small; some light, some heavy; some 
stretched tightly, some loosely ; no two alike, but all capable of 
vibrating in different times and thus of giving out different tones, 
and all mounted upon a large sounding-box or sounding-board — a 
most wonderful musical instrument. Let us now place this harp of 
a thousand strings at one end of a room and place near it a young 
man who has good, sharp ears. At the other end of the room we 


will place a piano, a violin, a flute, a cornet, a bugle, a whistle, a 
drum, and other instruments, each having a person to play upon 
it. The young lady at the piano strikes C, the young man at the 
harp hears C sounding in the harp. She strikes E on the piano, 
he hears E in the harp. She slowly plays " Home, Sweet Home," 
he hears "Home, Sweet Home " in the harp. And now a simple 
melody is played upon the flute ; the young man hears the same mel- 
ody in the harp. The drum is now struck, and the heavy, long strings 
of the harp give out the same sound. And so for the other instru- 
ments. As the strings of the piano vibrate, waves of motion pass 
through the air to the strings of the harp and cause some of them 
to vibrate. All strings of the harp so constructed and keyed-up 
as to vibrate the same number of times per second as those of the 
piano vibrate in sympathy with them, and give out the same tune 
as is played on the piano. Waves of air from the cornet pass over 
to the harp, certain strings of which vibrate in sympathy and give 
out the same tune as is played upon the cornet. In like manner 
all the musical instruments play upon the harp through this prin- 
ciple of sympathetic vibration. The harp is so constructed that it 
is in sympathy with all the instruments, and can reproduce all the 
tones and tunes they give forth. 

This harp of ours is not altogether a creature of the imagina- 
tion; England's great scientist, John Tyndall, says : " If you open 
a piano and sing into it a certain string will respond. Change the 
pitch of your voice ; the first string ceases to vibrate, but another 
replies. Change again the pitch ; the first two strings are silent, 
while another resounds. Now, in altering the pitch you simply 
change the form of the motion communicated by your vocal chords 
to the air, one string responding to one form and another to an- 

Now, suppose this wonderful harp of ours were a conscious 
musical instrument, that it could feel its own tones or vibrations, 
and know its own tunes as they are caused in it by the other mu- 
sical instruments. And suppose, further, that each of the other in- 
struments were a conscious instrument, that it could feel its own 
tones or vibrations and know its own tunes, would not the harp 
sympathise literally with the piano, and the flute, and the cornet, 
and the drum ? 

That this wonderful harp is not wholly impossible of realisation 
is apparent when we come to think of the telephone. In fact, the 
telephone is a much more wonderful mechanism than our imagi- 
nary harp, wonderful in its simplicity and ability to respond sym- 


pathetically to impressions made upon it by waves of air. The 
band may play, ducks may quack, dogs bark, cats mew, birds 
sing, and boys whistle, all at the same time, in the presence of one 
telephone, and the medley of sound will be transmitted miles dis- 
tant, through the medium of a single small wire, to be exactly re- 
produced in another telephone. The two phones are constructed 
precisely alike, and what thrills one thrills the other in the same 
way, one vibrates in sympathy with the other. Now, if each phone 
were a conscious phone, capable of feeling and knowing its own 
vibrations, the feelings and emotions of each would be the same, 
there would be a literal sympathy between them. The joy of one 
would be the joy of the other, the grief of one would be the grief 
of the other, they would literally be "two souls with but a single 
thought, two hearts that beat as one." 

This, then, is the philosophy of sympathy, that two objects 
constructed on the same plan, made of similar materials, keyed-up, 
so to speak, to the same degree of tension, subjected to the same 
forces, will vibrate in sympathy with each other. And if the two 
objects are conscious objects, an act of one accompanied by a feel- 
ing will arouse the like feeling and action in the other. 

The sun is composed of various elements whose particles are 
vibrating with great rapidity. The earth has in and around it the 
same elements whose particles are capable of vibrating with the 
same rapidity. Between the sun and the earth, and filling all space, 
is a medium capable of transmitting waves of motion from the sun 
to the earth, and causing earth-particles to vibrate in sympathy 
with sun-particles. So that storms and other disturbances in the 
sun are accompanied by storms and electrical disturbances on the 
earth. And what is true of the sun and the earth is also true of all 
other heavenly bodies. Thus, as Tyndall says, "nature is not an 
aggregate of independent parts, but an organic whole." And thus 
throughout the universe there is a bond of sympathy which unites 
into one grand whole the myriads of worlds. It is no poet's dream 
that makes some lowly flower rejoice in the warmth of the sunlight, 
that makes the valleys laugh when kissed by the raindrops, that 
makes a little bird sing in some human breast when all nature 
smiles and is happy. Given a mechanism that can vibrate in uni- 
son with the varied motions of nature, and at the same time be con- 
scious of these motions, and this mechanism is in literal sympathy 
with the thrills of the universe. And we have such a mechanism — 
it is a human being — man. Hear Tyndall again: "And thus is 
sentient man acted upon by nature, the optic, the auditory, and 


Other nerves of the human body being so many strings differently 
tuned and responsive to different forms of the universal power." 

We are now prepared to study the phenomena of sympathetic 
vibrations accompanied by consciousness or feeling, as exemplified 
in ourselves and other animals. 

The nervous system is the mechanism by means of which, and 
through which, sympathy is established between man and man, and 
between man and the world outside of man. It is a mechanism 
much more wonderful and complex than our harp of a thousand 
strings. The limits of this paper will not permit us to study its or- 
ganisation in detail, nor to notice all the modes of its action. But 
enough will be presented to enable us to see that the principle of 
sympathetic vibration is the key which unlocks and opens up to us 
the apparent mystery of sympathy. 

The nerves are of two kinds, nerve cells, and nerve fibres. 
The nerve cells are small, irregular masses of grayish color. They 
are so constructed that they can respond to the various motions 
that may come to them, as do the strings of a harp or the vibrating 
plate of a telephone, that is, they can vibrate in sympathy with 
other cells or motions. They can also originate motion, because 
in the process of waste and repair which accompanies their nutri- 
tion, molecular changes involve atomic and molecular vibratory 
motions. As each string of a piano, on account of its structure and 
tension, can vibrate only in one way and emit but one kind of 
pitch or note, so each cell, on account of its structure and qual- 
ity of tissue, which it has by inheritance and education, can origi- 
nate but one form of motion and vibrate to but one kind of im- 
pression. The nerve cells are connected with one another by white 
nerve threads or fibres. The nerve fibres do nothing but trans- 
mit motion from cell to cell. The cells may be thought of as tele- 
phones, and the fibres as wires connecting them. 

There are millions of nerve-cells and millions of connecting 
nerve-fibres. The cells and fibres are found in every organ of the 
body ; they are found clustered in large masses in the spinal cord 
and brain, which are called nerve-centres. If we think of the 
nerve-cells of the body as telephones, the nerve-fibres as telephonic 
wires, then the brain is a telephonic central office where connex- 
ions are made between the various telephones. 

As one telephone vibrates in sympathy with another through 
the medium of the connecting wire, so the nerve-cells and centres 
vibrate in sympathy with one another through the medium of the 
connecting nerve-fibres. But unlike the sympathy between tele- 


phones, there is a literal sympathy between the cells and nerve- 
centres of the body, for there is associated with the vibration of 
nerve-cells a most wonderful phenomenon, that of feeling and con- 
sciousness. The cells not only vibrate, but they know their own 
states of vibration. How it is that a certain mode of motion re- 
sults in a certain feeling is a mystery no one has solved. But the 
fact is that there is a feeling, and that the feeling changes as the 
form of motion changes. 

Motion gets into the brain from the outer world through the 
medium of certain special nerve-organs called the organs of sense. 
For example, the ear is such a special sense-organ. The cells and 
fibres of the internal ear are of many sizes and lengths, and many 
thousand in number, so that, no matter what kinds and qualities 
and rapidities of sound-waves may come to them, some are capa- 
ble of absorbing the same motion, of vibrating in sympathy. But 
this motion does not end in the ear. The nerve-cells of the ear are 
connected with like ones in the brain. So that the motion of the 
fibres and cells of the ear are transmitted to the cells of the brain ; 
and the cells of the brain vibrate in sympathy with those of the ear, 
and thus with the sounds in the world outside the brain. And the 
motion of the cells of the brain thus produced result in a state of 
consciousness we call a feeling, or sensation. We are conscious of 
noises and musical tones of different pitches, and qualities, and de- 
grees of loudness. And this is hearing. Now, if the strings of a 
piano were conscious beings, if they could feel and know their own 
motions as they vibrate, the piano and the brain would literally 
sympathise with each other. Substitute for the piano a man. He 
feels like laughing, and he laughs. Waves of air from his vocal 
chords speed through the atmosphere and cause in the ear of an- 
other man corresponding vibrations. The motion goes on to the 
other man's brain, resulting in like vibrations in his brain, and he, 
too, feels like laughing, and laughs — laughs out of pure sympathy. 
And this sympathy is of the simplest kind ; " it is a resonance, or 
unconscious reproduction or imitation of another's feeling." 

Another example : At the back of the eye is a delicate sub- 
stance called the retina. It is composed of nerve-cells and fibres 
in the form of rods and cones, of great complexity. The cells are 
of various shapes and sizes, the rods of different sizes and lengths. 
They are all connected by the optic nerve with the cells of the 
brain. Now, what is called light, or color, is thought to be only 
certain forms of wave-motion running through a medium called 
ether, which fills all space not occupied by other matter. In the 


color called red as many as four hundred and thirty trillion waves 
of ether strike the retina every second. Violet sends out seven 
hundred trillion per second. The larger cells and the longer rods 
and cones of the retina are made to vibrate by the slower waves of 
light, and the smaller cells and shorter rods and cones are made to 
vibrate by the more rapid waves of light, just as a long swing is 
made to vibrate by slow pushes, and a short swing by fast pushes. 
Now, suppose there is placed before the eye a red rose, green 
grass, a yellow buttercup, the blue sky, and a modest violet. Red 
waves of light from the rose enter the eye and certain cells, rods, 
and cones of the retina are put into sympathetic vibration. Green 
waves from the green grass, in like manner, put other cells, rods, 
and cones into sympathetic vibration. In like manner other cells, 
rods, and cones of the retina are made to vibrate in sympathy with 
the waves of motion from the buttercup, the sky, and the violet. 
For every form of wave of light that enters the eye there is a cor- 
responding form of motion in the retina. But the motions do not 
end in the retina, they are transmitted through the optic nerve to 
the cells of the brain, and corresponding motions are set up in 
them. So that the cells of the brain vibrate in sympathy with the 
roses, the grass, the sky, the buttercups, the violets, and with all 
the colors of nature. Still further, the motion of the cells of the 
brain are accompanied by consciousness, and there are as many 
forms of consciousness as there are forms of waves of light. Now, 
if the roses and the buttercups and the violets had feelings deter- 
mined by their respective colors, we should feel as they feel, there 
would be a literal sympathy between us and them. 

What is true of the ear and the eye as instruments for trans- 
mitting certain forms of motion to the brain and thus arousing cer- 
tain feelings within us is true of the other nerves of the body. 
From the various organs of the body a multitude of vibrations are 
transmitted to the brain without intermittance, producing in us a 
continuous but ever-varying state of consciousness — our personal- 
ity. So that our feelings of bodily comfort or pain, of hunger, 
thirst, muscular tension, etc., are but various forms of sympathetic 
vibration. So universally is this view entertained that it is common 
to say that the organs of the body sympathise with one another, 
through the medium of the sympathetic nervous system, and that 
our varying moods and emotions depend upon the varying condi- 
tions and actions of the bodily organs. So it is true, as said before, 
that the nerves of the human body are so many strings, differently 
tuned and responsive to different forms of motion. We thus get 


feelings or ideas of odors, tastes, temperature, hardness, smooth- 
ness, colors, etc. The world close around us and the distant sun 
and moon and stars are continually sending into us waves of motion 
of different forms and qualities and degrees, causing us to tremble, 
to vibrate, to thrill in every nerve, producing in us an infinite num- 
ber and variety of feelings ; feelings as great as nature feels, full of 
joy if she be joyful, full of sadness if she be sad. 

As we have seen, the nerve fibres from the eye are distributed 
to certain nerve cells of the brain, those from the ear to other cells 
of the brain, those from the nose to still other cells, etc., so that 
different receptive parts of the brain have different forms of vibra- 
tion, attended by different forms of feeling. But this is not all. 
The various parts of the brain are themselves connected by nerve 
fibres. For example, the cells which vibrate under the impulses of 
waves of light are connected with the cells which are moved by 
waves of sound, so that the feelings accompanying a disturbance 
of the eye may be associated with feelings accompanying a disturb- 
ance of the ear. Thus, when we see a moving train of cars and 
hear the puffs of the engine, the two forms of feeling exist together, 
they are associated. In like manner other forms of feeling may be 
associated. Feelings produced by nerve disturbance in all parts of 
the body are thus made to blend into one compound feeling ; it 
may be one we call bodily comfort, or unrest, or buoyancy of spirit. 
Compound feelings are the result of a blending of the vibratory 
motions of different nerve-cells through the medium of the connect- 
ing nerve-fibres, the form of vibration in one cell being super- 
imposed upon that of another, as ripples upon larger waves or as 
overtone-vibrations of strings upon the fundamental. Another 
thing is made possible by this connexion of brain-cell with brain- 
cell. A disturbance of the cells connected with the ear may disturb 
the cells connected with the eye, even though the eyes themselves 
be not impressed. Thus, the music of a brass band will call up 
those feelings of sight we had when we saw the players. Though 
the players are out of sight, we can see them in the mind — their 
instruments, their dress, their orderly marching. Thus, feelings 
can revive other feelings with which they were once associated. 
A flash of lightning will revive the sound of thunder, and we seem 
to hear it even before it comes, that is, we anticipate the sound. 
And the sound of thunder leads us to think that it was preceded by 
lightning, though we did not see it. The first ten notes of "Old 
Hundred" will revive all the remaining notes, and we know the 
entire tune before it is sung. It is because the cells of the brain 


are connected by "associative nerve-fibres, as Dalton calls them, 
that one idea revives another idea with which it was once associ- 
ated. If an idea could not thus call up another idea, there would 
be no such train of ideas we call thought. Continuous, coherent 
thought is only possible when the cells of the brain are connected. 
Recollection and. memory are made possible by this connexion, and 
impaired or destroyed by the degeneration or destruction of the 
connecting fibres. 

" Lulled in the countless chambers of the brain, 
Our thoughts are linked by many a hidden chain. 
Awake but one, and lo ! what myriads rise ! 
Each stamps its image as the other flies." 

How wonderful is all this. The brain centres of the eye, the 
ear, and other organs of sense, at the base of the brain, are so 
many pipe-organs connected with the outer world, and played upon 
by it. Arranged on the surface of the cerebrum are the cells con- 
cerned in feeling and thinking, which are echo-organs connected 
with the pipe-organs below, and which are connected with one an- 
other by associative fibres. The organs at the base of the brain 
are played upon by pulses from the outer world, resulting in such 
harmonies as only the colors of the rainbow and the voices of an- 
gels can originate. The echo-organs reproduce the melodies in 
faint, mellow tones, with all the harmonic overtones. Even while 
the pipe-organs are silent, the outer world shut out, the echo-organs 
are sounding their sweet songs. Ideas, emotions, images, thoughts 
follow one another in an endless succession in the echo-organs. 
One melody in an echo-organ evokes another melody in another 
organ, one idea calls up another idea. And all so, because one 
part vibrates in sympathy with parts connected with it. 

This view of the mechanism of associated feelings and thoughts 
is substantially that taught by modern psychology. Th. Ribot says: 
"If we take any adult person, in good health, and of average intel- 
ligence, the ordinary mechanism of his mental life will consist in a 
perpetual coming and going of inward events, in a marching by of 
sensations, feelings, ideas, and images, which associate with, or 
repel each other according to certain laws. Properly speaking, it 
is not, as frequently has been said, a chain, a series, but it is rather 
an irradiation in various directions, and through various strata; a 
mobile aggregate which is being incessantly formed, unformed, and 
reformed. Every one knows that this mechanism has been care- 
fully studied in our day, and that the theory of association forms 
one of the solidest acquisitions of modern psychology." 


But the half has not been told. The vibration of nerve cells 
results in a molecular decomposition of the cells themselves, ac- 
companied by the liberation of energy. And this liberated energy 
manifests itself partly in heat and partly in the production of mus- 
cular contraction. Nerve-fibres, called motor nerves, run from the 
cells of the brain to all the muscles of the body. .And the muscles 
are made to contract by the stimuli of this liberated energy carried 
to them by the motor nerves. So that every idea, every feeling, 
every thought is followed by some act, of some muscle, in some 
part of the body. All our movements and all the actions of the 
various organs of the body are thus produced by waves of energy 
which originate in, and proceed from, certain groups of cells in the 
brain, called motor cells. A disturbance in the motor cells of the 
brain is accompanied by a feeling or state of consciousness v/e call 
volition, or will. The motor cells are intimately connected with 
the feeling and thinking cells by nerve fibres, so that a disturbance 
in the feeling and thinking cells can be transmitted to the motor 
cells, and from thence to the muscles, causing bodily movements. 

This fact of nerve structure makes it possible for us to under- 
stand how certain feelings are followed by certain definite actions ; 
the feeling of hunger, for instance, followed by an act of eating ; 
the feeling of pain followed by an act of crying-out; the feeling of 
joy followed by laughing or shouting. In every act there is not 
only the consciousness of the act itself, but an accompanying feel- 
ing which prompted the act. If a certain feeling finds expression 
in a certain action, and the feeling and the action are many times 
repeated, an association is established between the feeling and the 
motor cells, and a habit of acting in a definite way after certain 
feelings is formed. On the other hand, an action in another person 
will arouse in us the feelings that have always accompanied our 
acting in the same way, and having those feelings we are impelled 
to act as that person does. For example, we have a certain feeling 
and we yawn, and every time we have that feeling we yawn. We 
see a person yawn, and his act arouses in us the same feeling that 
has always accompanied our yawning, and we yawn. We uncon- 
sciously imitate that person's act because we feel as he feels — a 
case of the simplest form of sympathetic vibration. Again, we have 
a certain feeling and we weep. We hear a person weep, or see the 
tears flow down his cheeks, and his action and appearance arouses 
in us the same feeling and actions that have always accompanied 
our weeping, and we weep because we feel as he does, we weep 
out of sympathy with him. 


Some amount of experience in the society of our fellow-men 
is needed to establish as association between the several feelings 
and their expression in action. But when the connexion is estab- 
lished a person automatically takes on the moods of hilarity, anx- 
iety, or depression of those about him, and gives expression in acts 
of attitude, gesture, voice, etc. Says Sully: "A child suddenly 
placed in the midst of a group of merry children catches the pre- 
vailing tone of gladness. The spread of a feeling of indignation 
or of admiration, through a community, as a school or a nation, 
illustrates this tendency of a strongly manifested emotion to reflect 
itself in others. This fact is known as the contagion of feeling." 

Contagious sympathy is well exemplified in some of the lower 
animals that associate in numbers. Herbert Spencer explains its 
mechanism in substance as follows : Members of a herd experi- 
ence the attacks of an enemy. The emotion of fear aroused by the 
attack expresses itself in movements of escape, preceded and ac- 
companied, it may be, by sounds of some kind. Each member of 
the herd sees the movements and hears the sounds of the rest of 
the herd, and the movements and sounds are more or less like his 
own movements and sounds, which are prompted by his own feel- 
ings of fear. Frequent repetition of attacks establishes an associa- 
tion between the feelings of fear and the signs of fear in himself 
and others, which signs, in time, become quite uniform as expres- 
sions of certain definite fears. After the association is established 
the movements and sounds cannot be perceived without there 
being aroused the feeling habitually joined with them when they 
were before perceived. Thus it is that the signs of fear may be ex- 
cited in those to whom no fearful object is perceptible. And thus 
one member of a flock, himself alone and alarmed and making a 
sign of fear, seen and heard by the rest, excites in the rest the fear 
he is displaying, and the rest, prompted by their fear, begin to 
make like sounds and movements. 

This explains how panics are brought about. A flock of birds 
towards which a man approaches will quietly watch for a v/hile ; 
but when one flies, those near it, excited by its movements of es- 
cape, fly also ; and in a moment the rest are in the air. The same 
happens with sheep ; when one runs, all run, and so strong is the 
sympathetic tendency among them that when one leaps over a 
stick held in his path, all leap at the same spot, though the stick 
be taken away. Dogs barking at night exemplify this tendency to 
sympathetic action. The panics in theatres, schools, and churches, 
upon the alarm of fire, are also examples of contagious smypathy. 


By the inheritance of like body-structures and habits there 
must necessarily be aroused in progeny feelings and actions simi- 
lar to those of progenitors, when subjected to the same environ- 
ments and experiences. The association of certain feelings and 
corresponding actions becomes organic, and a quick, automatic, 
unconscious, and complete sympathy is established between the 
members of the same class or kind of animals. A drove of cattle, 
coming to a blood-stain in the road, one of their number smells it ; 
whereupon he bellows and paws the ground. The others, seeing 
his actions and hearing his bellowing, begin to bellow and paw the 
ground. A brood of chickens under the care of the mother hen, 
hearing her cry of warning as some shadow flits over her head, will 
at once run under her protecting wings. And this they will do 
having never before heard the cry and being totally unconscious of 
danger. Having inherited a body-structure tuned in unison with 
the warning sound, the chickens respond as readily as does one 
tuning-fork to another. Says Sully : "That the child has a vague, 
intuitive knowledge of others' feelings seems shown by the fact 
that he responds to the smiles of his mother long before his own 
experience could have taught him to associate pleasurable feeling 
with this particular facial movement." The explanation of this "in- 
tuitive knowledge" seems to be that the child, having inherited the 
body mechanism of his mother, seeing her smile, responds in a 
definite action, and this action has been the action of the class to 
which he belongs for countless generations. Acts usually classed 
as instinctive find their explanation in the facts of heredity, and 
the possession of a mechanism which responds sympathetically to 
environments habitual to the race. Given a mechanism so con- 
structed as to move in a definite way upon the application of a par- 
ticular stimulus, when the appropriate stimulus comes along the 
mechanism responds accordingly. A windmill so constructed as to 
turn round a certain way when the wind blows will always turn 
round that same way when the wind blows. ^ 

But animals of unlike classes or kinds, constructed upon dif- 
ferent plans, inheriting unlike mechanisms and experiences, are 
like two tuning-forks of different pitches of tone. They cannot vi- 
brate in sympathy with each other. The acts of one cannot call 
out like acts in the other, either because the feelings are unlike or 
because like feelings have become associated with unlike acts of 
expression. The playing of a march will at once impel men who 

lln this connexion attention may be called to Mr. E. C. Hegeler's articles on the soul in The 
open Court, Nos. i, 15, and 127, which I have only seen after I had written the present article. 


have marched to music to "fall in "and "keep step," but a cow 
will hear the same music and pass by with stolid indifference. No 
feelings of musical tones are invoked in her brain by the playing ; 
her brain and the instruments do not vibrate in sympathy. The 
howling of a dog when he hears music clearly shows us that he and 
the music are in discord. The saying, "Birds of a feather flock 
together," is founded upon this fact of sympathetic vibration. It 
is only another way of saying that sympathy is found only between 
members of the same class or kind, because of similarity of struc- 

In its well -developed form sympathy is more than a vibration 
in unison with the feelings of another, it is more than a reson- 
ance or imitative reproduction of manifested feeling. Says Sully : 
" It implies a distinct representation of another's pleasure or pain, 
and a disposition to make it our own, or to identify ourselves with 
the subject of it. It is a feeling for as well as with another." And 
Herbert Spencer says : "The degree and range of sympathy de- 
pends upon the clearness and extent of representation. So that 
there can be sympathy only in proportion as there is power of rep- 
resentation." Let us notice, briefly, the nature of representation 
upon which the higher forms of sympathy depend. 

When a bell is struck it vibrates and emits a sound, and it con- 
tinues to vibrate and emit a sound for some little time after the 
blow is struck which caused the vibration. When one looks at the 
sun for a few moments and then closes his eyes he still sees the 
sun, round and distinct. An image of the sun seems to be in his 
eyes. The retina continues to vibrate for some time after it is 
struck by the sun's waves of light. Not only is the retina set in vi- 
bration by the light of the sun, but the optic centres in the brain 
and the brain-cells associated with the optic centres are also made 
to vibrate, and the vibration of the brain-cells continues for some 
time after the retina ceases to vibrate. In other words, an image of 
the thing actually seen may be in consciousness for some time 
after the thing has disappeared. And multiplied experiences in 
seeing things, and thus causing the cells of the brain to vibrate, 
result in such a structural condition of the ceils concerned in see- 
ing that they acquire a habit of vibrating in a particular way. So 
that, though an object which has caused a vibration in the brain- 
cells is far distant, or utterly annihilated, the brain-cells, being 
now "keyed up" in unison with the motion of the annihilated ob- 
ject, still have the ability to vibrate as they did when under the 
stimulus of the object. And when they do thus vibrate, either 


from molecular change in the process of nutrition or from stimuli 
from other cells associated with them, there is an image, more or 
less vivid, of the annihilated object. And this re-presentation of 
the image is called, in the language of psychology, representation. 
The brain is now able to act independently of external stimulation, 
having acquired a habit so to act through previous exercises under 
external stimulation. Beethoven was able to represent musical 
sounds after he had lost his hearing. Says Spencer: *'A sympa- 
thetic feeling, in its higher form, is one that is not immediately ex- 
cited by the natural cause of such a feeling, but one that is medi- 
ately excited by the presentation of signs habitually associated with 
such a feeling." Thus, though one may have nothing happening to 
himself to grieve about, when he sees signs of grief in another his 
own brain is excited, and a representation of his own grief when 
he manifested similar signs springs into being ; he has a mental 
representation of another's inner experiences, he knows the other's 
condition of mind. And this image of another's grief may be 
strengthened and made vivid by the intuitions of grief he has 
inherited from a long line of ancestors who have had similar grief, 
and it may be strengthened and made vivid by the blendings of 
many of his own former griefs of a like form. Be that as it may, if 
the representation is vivid it takes firm hold on his mind, so that 
the suffering he witnesses is his own suffering, and he is prompted 
to make the same efforts to relieve the other's suffering as he would 
to relieve his own. He thus feels for as well as with another. And 
this complete identification of himself with another, this putting of 
himself in another's place, impels him to do toward and for that 
other as he would that other should do for him, similarly condi- 
tioned. " His feeling for another is a disinterested impulse which 
forms the foundation of a morally good and virtuous disposition of 
character. " 

Pleasure is experienced by us when we have representations of 
pleasure in others, and the feeling prompts us to generous actions. 
Pain is experienced by us when we have representations of pain in 
others, and the feeling prompts us to mitigate that pain. 

The feeling of pity is a complex feeling experienced by us 
when we see in another a combination of misfortunes, as poverty 
coupled with helpless old age, the grief of parents over the crim- 
inal conduct of a son, an accident that cripples one for life, etc.^ 
though there exists no connexion, personal or social, with that 

Sympathy with pain puts a check upon intentional infliction of 


pain. Representations of pain and ignominy sufficiently vivid in- 
hibits us from inflicting the penalty of death upon a convicted mur- 
derer. The corporal punishment of children is inhibited when sym- 
pathy is intense. Even the feelings of another are reluctantly 
wounded by unkind words when there is a high degree of represen- 
tative power. 

The limits of this paper will not permit an extended examina- 
tion of all those altruistic sentiments having their basis and mode 
of manifestation in sympathy. The higher concepts and sentiments 
have their genesis in compound vibratory motions, the factors of 
which are found in the simpler forms of vibration of the brain- cen- 
tres accompanied by elementary ideas and associated by connect- 
ing nerve-fibres. They may be likened (as is done by Mr. E. C 
Hegeler) to the composite photographs of Galton, in which the 
blending of several different faces on the same photographic plate 
produces an ideal image which has no counterpart in actual life. 
The sentiments of liberty, of patriotism, of justice, and of mercy 
and duty, are but developed forms of these ideal images. And as 
intelligence and the representative power develops, the sympa- 
thetic sentiments that find their satisfaction in conduct that is re- 
gardful of others, and so conducive to harmonious co-operation, 
should become stronger, and the golden rule find its realisation in 
the actions of men. The sacredness of life, of liberty, of property, 
should be more vividly felt as civilisation advances. The disinter- 
ested love of right presupposes the capacity and habit of repre- 
senting and realising the interests and claims of others. 




MY READING of late has been of a very mixed character. I 
have gone through the Report of the Parliament of Re- 
ligions held in Chicago, and I have read over again the "Sympo- 
sium on the Soul and the Future Life" which appeared in the 
Nineteenth Century Review some years ago. This symposium, to 
which men of all kinds of belief contributed, was led off and closed 
by Mr. Frederick Harrison, the high-priest of Positivism in Eng- 
land. The result of all this study is that I am utterly perplexed, 
confused, bewildered in my ideas as to religion. 

As a corrective, I tried a paper read by some worthy cleric at 
a ministerial conference, on " How to Deal with Modern Thought," 
but I did not get much enlightenment. "Modern Thought" — and 
what is Modern Thought ? Is the daily paper its expression ? Take, 
for instance, this Sunday issue of the Daily Amuinciator, with its 
forty pages, more or less, of reading matter. What food for the 
mind does it afford? What is the menu oi this Feast of Reason? 
The pieces de resistance are, as a matter of course, political articles 
in abundance ; some grave, some frivolous, some bland, some bit- 
ter. For the rest of the banquet we have : the records of some 
noble deeds, — a long list of atrocious crimes, — the sermon of the 
revivalist, — the lecture of the freethinker, — the seance of the spirit- 
ualist medium, — the last discovery of science, — the last gigantic 
swindle, — the last miracle at the shrine of some saint, — the last dy- 
namite outrage. What a witches' cauldron is the daily paper ! 
What a chaos is Modern Thought ! 



Now in the midst of all this Babel, what conclusion can be 
reached by a man whose religious opinions are in a state of flux? 
Like Kant, after discussing his "antinomies," I feel like saying: 
"Everything sinks under us. The most perfect Being, as well as 
the most insignificant, floats in mid-air without support .... to 
disappear without resistance." 

But here is a report of the last session of "The American Con- 
gress of Liberal Religious Societies" (see T/ie Open Court, p. 5139), 
perhaps I can find in it the nov ard) amid all these floating, sink- 
ing, vanishing things. At this session Mr. E. P. Powell, of Clinton, 
N. Y. , read a paper on "The Foundations of Religion," — that's 
just what I am seeking. He says these foundations are "Headship, 
Dependence, and the Hope of the Future." — "God in higher terms 
is Father, Worship in higher terms is Love, and Creed in higher 
terms is Immortality." 

Now, all this sounds very well : we might call it Religion re- 
duced to its lowest terms. But the problem remains as perplex- 
ing as ever ; these metaphysical abstractions hardly satisfy one. 
"Headship" — of what or of whom? "Dependence"^ — on what or 
on whom? "The Future" — for what or for whom? "God is the 
Father." But I want to know, Is there a God who is the Father? 
Is there a necessity for worship, whether you call it love or not? 

I shall just put aside all this literature. I shall for the nonce 
shut up my books and stow away all my pamphlets and papers, and 
light my pipe and think. I must begin de novo, and it seems to 
me the whole matter resolves itself into the questions : "Is there a 
God?" and, "Ought we to worship Him?" Now, all these authors 
I have been reading, who have given various answers to these two 
questions, may be ranged under four heads. These are : 

1. Theists, who say, There is a God, somehow, somewhere; 
and we ought to worship him. 

2. Atheists, who say. There is no God and cannot be ; and all 
worship is frivolous and vain. 

3. Agnostics, who say, We don't know if there be a God or 
not, and we never can know ; and to worship the unknown and un- 
knowable is foolishness. 

4. Positivists, who say, We do not know if there be a God ; 
but we must act on what we do know : and we know that worship 
is an instinct and necessity of our nature ; therefore let us worship 
something, though we don't exactly know what.^ 

iThe Positivism alluded to is, be it remembered, that of August Comte, of whom Mr. Fred- 
erick Harrison is an ardent disciple; the French Positivism with its fantastic Worship and Rit- 


Now, under which head do I come? Not under the first or 
second, because I can neither assert nor deny that there is a God. 
I must then be an agnostic. And yet, no. For an agnostic's creed 
practically amounts to this: " I don't know if there be a God, and 
I don't care; the unknowable is no concern of ours." Now, I do 
care. I cannot conceive of any problem of more moment to me 
than : "Is there a God or not?" The agnostic in physical science 
is not admired. Professor Proctor {Familiar Essays on Scientific 
Subjects, article "Oxygen in the Sun") speaking of the dark lines 
in the spectroscope, says: "A physicist of some eminence spoke of 
these phenomena in 1858 in a tone which ought vet-y seldom to he 
adopted by the man of science. "The phenomena defy, as we have 
seen," he said, "all attempts to reduce them within empirical laws, 
and no complete explanation or theory of them is possible." Well, 
in 1859 these "inexplicable" phenomena were explained by Kirch- 
hoff. Now, this eminent physicist of 1858 was an agnostic in 7-e 
the dark lines, and as such incurs Professor Proctor's reproof. Why 
should the agnostic in any branch of philosophy be applauded? 
Surely, the question, " Is there a God or not?" is of at least equal 
importance to us as the question, "Is there oxygen in the sun or 
not?" No, I cannot be an agnostic; for though I don't know, still 
I do care. I would prefer to be classed among those of whom the 
Christian Scriptures speak, as "seeking after God if haply they 
might feel after Him and find Him." 

Well then, there is nothing left but the last head. Positivism. 
Mr. F. Harrison and other followers of Aug. Comte argue that 
worship is a necessity of our nature. As Mr. Powell puts it, "de- 
pendence" prompts worship. Well, then, I will be a Positivist, 
and worship : but what or whom ? To be sure, the masters of the 
school abound in suggestions: — "Worship humanity in the ab- 
stract." "Worship the Power that makes for righteousness.' 
"Worship Sweetness and Light." "Worship the True, the Beauti 
ful, the Good." All very nice and very pretty; but too vague for 
me. I can't worship mere abstractions ; I can't feel overawed by 
mere adjectives, even when dignified with the definite article and 
capital letters. 

I have it! I will make "worship" an intransitive verb, and 
"worship" just as I "think" or "breathe." The next question is, 

ual. This is a very different thing from the Positivism propounded by The Monist and The Open 
Court. In these, Positivism means that philosophy which bases everything on positive facts and 
traces all things to the bottom rock of experience. Such philosophy, I am free to admit, seems 
to me the only possible meeting-ground for religion and modern science. 


how? What mode of worship shall I adopt? What shall be my 
ritual? — I have it again ! I see by the Daily Annunciator that the 
clergy of the diocese have lately been holding "Retreats" and 
•'Meditations": I will take my cue from them. My worship shall 
consist of certain hours of retirement in my library, during which I 
will cogitate on these problems while I smoke my pipe. Yes, my 
big meerschaum shall be my Altar of Incense. I will forbid all in- 
trusion while I offer my burnt-offering. To quote the Christian 
Scriptures — for I see Mr. Harrison and the rest can do that very 
glibly — I will commune with my own heart, in my chamber ; and 
while the incense ascends, I will jot down my thoughts on these 
subjects at each "Devotion." 

[to be continued.] 



THERE was once upon a time a forest, and a youth was walk- 
ing dreamily in the shade of its majestic trees. Suddenly he 
heard a wailing note, and, searching in the direction whence the 
sound came, he found a wood-dove caught in a snare. "Well, 
well," he said, " I should not wonder at all if that dove were a fairy 
who would grant me a wish if released." 

With these thoughts, he cut the cord and let the dove go. His 
eyes followed her flight and he asked: "Supposing you are a 
fairy, shall I be allowed to make a wish ? " 

And really the dove was a fairy, whose delicate form hovered 
between the branches of the big oak tree ; and she said : "Certainly 
I am a fairy, and I shall allow you three wishes." 

"All right ! " said the youth, "three wishes — such is the cus- 
tom in fairy tales. But will they be fulfilled?" 

"Yes," said the fairy, "they will be fulfilled." 

What a delightful prospect for a young man ! He thought : 
" First, I wish wealth ; secondly, a palace to live in ; and, thirdly, 
that I shall be granted three more wishes whenever I so desire." 

"Your wishes are granted," said the fairy, and disappeared. 

The youth went home, and there he saw a palace which he 
knew was his own. He entered and went right to the treasure- 
vault, for he was familiar with all the rooms of the mansion as if 
he had been living in it for ages. The treasure-vault contained as 
much money as he wanted. He spent his riches in pleasure and in 
charities just as he thought best. At any rate he enjoyed himself 
immensely until he became sick in body and in mind. While lying 
on his bed he thought of his chance of having new wishes granted. 
And he wished, first, for renewed health ; secondly, wisdom, with 

1 From the Fliegende Blatter, Jan., 1897, by xps. 

THE DOVE. 121 

all the learning which long years of studying would afford ; and, 
thirdly, another chance of three more wishes. 

His wishes were again fulfilled. 

When he became sick of his books he longed for a quiet home, 
and he wished first, for a beautiful wife, and, secondly, for well- 
behaved, amenable children, and, thirdly, that he could have an- 
other chance of three wishes. 

Thus he continued, always asking for the fulfilment of two 
wishes and requesting another chance of wishes whenever he 
should desire it. 

This kind of life was very pleasant, but he grew sick of it be- 
cause he had wished for everything that he could think of, and he 
no longer knew what to wish for next. 

One day, when he had in vain troubled himself with the inven- 
tion of new wishes without being able to find one, he grew very 
wroth and shouted in his anger : "What pleasure can there be in 
obtaining anything if these confounded fairies always grant it for 
the mere asking ! I wish 1 had never wished anything." 

As he uttered these words, he found himself standing at the 
very same spot, in the very same forest, under the very same con- 
ditions as before. The fulfilment of all his wishes was at once 
wiped out as though it had been a dream ; and in the boughs of the 
gnarly oak the liberated wood- dove cooed merrily. 


(Containing a Communication from the Rev. Seelakkhandha.) 

SINCE THE PUBLICATION of The Gospel of Buddha I have 
been in receipt of many tokens of recognition from prominent 
Buddhists of various countries, — from His Majesty the King of 
Siam, from representative leaders of Japanese sects, and from sev- 
eral priests of Ceylon. Among the latter, the Rev. C. A. Seelak- 
khandha has shown me much politeness and a kind willingness to 
assist me in further studying the faith of Buddhists in their old sa- 
cred literature, as well as in the living mind of the present genera- 
tion. A short time ago he sent me a casket in the shape of a dag- 
oba. The casket contains another casket, also in the shape of a 
dagoba, and on opening the interior casket we see a little silver lo- 
tus containing a green gem in the centre, on a golden foil. Under- 
neath the golden foil the tiny relic, not larger in size than a pea, 
lies hidden. 

The donation of this relic was accompanied by a correspond- 
ence as to the conception of relic-worship among the Buddhists, 
which may be of general interest. 

When some time ago the Rev. Seelakkhandha, on sending me 
a number of Pali books, offered to procure for me a Buddha statue, 
Buddhist pictures, relics, or Pali manuscripts, etc., I replied with 
reference to relics : 

" In case you can let me have relics, I shall be very grateful to you, but I do 
not think that I would care for relics of human bodies, bones, teeth, or anything of 
that kind." 

The Rev. Seelakkhandha wrote back : 

"We do not regard the bones, etc., of ordinary human beings. But relics of 
Buddha and Arhats — lasting monuments of their virtue — are more valuable to us 


than any worldly possession. These are very rare, too, and are obtained from the 
ruins of ancient Dagobas. I have with me a relic of Buddha found in a golden cas- 
ket within a Dagoba (now in ruins), built 2,000 years ago. If you are willing to 
have this, I shall send it to you as a token of the regard in which you hold Lord 
Buddha and his religion. These relics are not used by us as ornaments, but they 
are held most sacred. There is nothing more valuable to a Buddhist than a genuine 
relic. " 

Thinking of the collector's interest that genuine relics possess, 
I wrote to Rev. Seelakkhandha : "As to caskets with relics enclosed, 
I expect that I should like to possess one of them, because it shows 
the reverence in which the Ceylonese hold their master and his 
saints." But I regretted having accepted the offer as soon as the 
letter had left my hands, and I wrote another letter the next day, 
which reads as follows : 

' ' I wish to add a few words to my letter of yesterday with reference to the 
relics. I feel that if you were to send me one of those relics which you from your 
standpoint with good reasons consider so dear to you, you would be deprived of a 
treasure which would be less to me than it is to you. I would value these relics 
for historical reasons only. They would in my eyes be an evidence of the rever- 
ence in which you hold the memory of the Buddha and his saints, but otherwise 
they would only be to me objects of curiosity. According to my conception of 
Buddhism the most sacred relics we have of the Buddha and his saints are the 
words which they left, — the Sutras and all those ideas which can be verified in ex- 
perience as valuable truths. Words, thoughts, and ideas are not material things, 
they are spiritual. It is true that they are transferred by material means in books 
and manuscripts, and by the air vibrations of sounds, but it is not the paper of the 
book, or the fibres of the manuscript, or the sound-waves, that are sacred, but the 
ideas which are conveyed by them. Thus, all the treasures which I regard as holy 
are spiritual, and not material. The worship of relics, be they bones, hair, teeth, 
or any other substance of the body of a saint, is a mistake. They do not possess 
any other value than the remains of ordinary mortals. The soul of Buddha is not 
in his bones, but in his words, and I regard relic-worship as an incomplete stage of 
religious development in which devotees have not as yet attained to full philosoph- 
ical clearness. Now, it certainly is of interest to me to have evidences of the re- 
ligious zeal of Buddhists. The keeping sacred of relics is a symptom of their devo- 
tion, but that is all I see in the use of relics. And considering that these relics are 
more to you than to me, I feel that I should not deprive you of them. Therefore, 
do not send me relics except it be on the stipulated condition that you know what 
I think about them. Otherwise you might regret afterwards having sent them to a 
man in whose conception they possess no religious value. 

"In the hope that you understand me and do not misconstrue my objections 
to relic-worship, I remain, with kind regards, etc." 

Rev. Seelakkhandha once more and at greater length explained 
his views of relics in another letter, as follows : 

"When Lord Buddha entered NirvSna about 2,440 years ago in the Park of 
Opawattana of the Mallawa Kings at Kusinagara, he wished that his bones (with 
the exception of the bone of the forehead, the four big teeth, the two jaw-bones, 


and the chief bone of the neck) be scattered away from the body and remain un- 
harmed on its cremation. He did this in order to leave some mark of remembrance 
to his followers who may with their help meditate on the personal virtues of the 
departed Teacher, because His life on this earth was comparatively short, i. e. 
eighty years. It happened according to his wish, and these bones or relics were of 
three kinds : (i) the largest about the size of a seed of rice and golden-colored; 
(2) the medium about half of a pea and pearl-colored ; (3) the smallest of the size 
of a mustard seed and of the color of jasmine. There were sixteen measures (the 
Magadhan measure being little less than half a peck) of these relics which were 
distributed equally among eight kings who built Dagebas enshrining them in their 
respective dominions. Among these was King Ajatasatru of Rajagaha who buried 
his share of relics in Dagebas with the pomp and magnificence proper to such occa- 
sions. As it had been predicted that thereafter the pious king Asoka would be a 
participator in the benefits derived from these relics, Ajatasatru caused the greater 
part of them to be buried in the city of Rajagaha itself. King Asoka (a lineal de- 
scendant of Ajatasatru) who reigned at Patna about 2,222 years ago, caused these 
relics to be unearthed, and he is said to have built 84,000 Dagebas in different 
places in India enshrining them. He was a friend of his contemporary King Deva- 
nampiya Tissa of Ceylon about this time (2203 years ago), and he sent his son Ma- 
hinda, a Buddhist monk of renown, to this island [viz., Ceylon] to introduce Bud- 
dhism, which he accomplished with the co-operation of his royal friend and convert 
Tissa. Relics were now necessary to build Dagebas, — the usual monuments of 
religious zeal. 

" Sumana Bhikkhu, a grandson of Asoka who accompanied Mahinda to Ceylon, 
was sent to Asoka to procure some relics. He brought with him as a present from 
Asoka to Tissa some relics in the very alms-bowl which Buddha is said to have 
used in His life-time. Tissa paid the usual honors to the relics and built Dagebas 
for them in many places in the island, — chiefly at Anuradhapura, his capital. Most 
of these are now in ruins, and when the relics contained in them are consequently 
unearthed, the process of building Dagebas is repeated. Some of the relics thus 
obtained are kept in the possession of people instead of being enshrined in Dagebas. 

" The relic I am sending you is one thus obtained from the ruins of a Dageba at 
Apura and has been kept with me with great veneration, — offering flowers, incense, 
etc., morn and eve. I believe this to be a genuine relic of the Buddha. We reverence 
Buddha's relics as a mark of gratitude to Him who showed us the way to salvation 
and as a token of remembrance of the many personal virtues (bhagavat, arhat 
samyaksambuddha) which His life illustrated; and those of His disciples (i- e., 
Rahats) for similar reasons, and also to keep us reminded of their noble exemplary 
lives as results of Lord Buddha's invaluable doctrine. 

" We do not believe that by ' worshipping ' relics we attain Nirvana, obtain any 
remission of our sins, or gain even merely any worldly benefit. These advantages 
are effected only by persevering in the path of virtue. But having in close prox- 
imity to us any monument or relic to perpetuate the memory of one who has been 
a unique example of virtue and benevolence, does, I venture to say, remove many 
obstacles in our way and make us inclined to follow that great Teacher. But one 
whose life is buried in sin, however enthusiastic he may be with regard to the out- 
ward ceremonial of religion, will not attain salvation. 

' 'An example : During a season of drought even the foul water is taken for drink- 
ing purposes after purifying the same. The purification is effected by removing the 
mud and filth from the water and putting a kind of gem (osakaprasada) into the 



water. The gem will not cleanse the water if it had not been first separated from 
the filth. In order to purify our heart it must be first freed from sinful thoughts. 

' 'Again, as a fan helps us to feel the refreshing breeze, and a musical instrument 
to feed our ears with melodious sounds, so the relics, be they of Buddha or of his 
holy disciples, give us courage in our attempt to alleviate our misery. The mere 
keeping of the fan without fanning, or the musical instrument without playing, will 
give us neither the breeze nor the music. 

" The biographies of great men help the rising generation to follow their foot- 
steps, but the lesson is more impressive to a person of ordinary intellect by the 
presence of some material object connected with them. Also, it is usual that chil- 
dren, on the demise of their parents, preserve some articles used by them during 
their life-time as a token of the regard they entertain towards their beloved, and as 
a mark of gratitude. When you consider what I have said above, I hope you will 
get rid of any erroneous impressions which ' the image and relic worship' of the 
Buddhists may have left in your mind." 


To the Editor of The Open Court. 

I do not pause to think whether my testimony can be of any value, but I think 
that it is a duty whenever one hears an accusation raised which one kiio'ti's to be 
false, to say so. 

I have just read M. St. Cere's letter in No. 486 of T/ie Open Court and cannot 
resist the impulse to tell your readers that I have carefully followed the lawsuit in 
which — on M. Max Lebaudy's death — M. St. Cere has been entangled. He was 
the victim of a gross calumniation, and all the vile accusations that were printed 
against him in the reports of the press, and which were founded on no facts what- 
ever, were proved to be erroneous. M. St. Cere has been declared innocent by the 
magistrates, and whoever reads the documents of the trial will see that the acquit- 
tal was not only due to the negative want of proofs, but to the positive certainty 
that the accusations were mere gossip. 

M. St. Cere is no friend of mine ; I know on the contrary that he is an adver- 
sary of the principles of international peace which I defend, because he is an ardent 
French patriot — whether his extraction be French or not — and fervently wishes to 
see France raised from her last defeat before she may lend her hand to universal 
pacification. The infamous accusation of being a spy is the very last that would 
have been believed by those who knew M. St. Cere, though it was raised, as it al- 
ways is by a certain jingo press when the persecution spirit is let loose against 
some individual or other. 

Baroness Bertha von Suttner. 

Hermannsdorf, Austria. 


Good times have been prophesied, but they do not come. Business is stagnant 
still, and confidence is lacking. And why ? Where, as in banking, rigid watchfulness 
is called for, we observe careless negligence. Special favors are shown to relatives 
and friends against the express provisions of the law. Political nominations and 
appointments are made for the sake of rewarding stump orators and campaign 
workers. The advocates of a high-tariff policy are apparently resuming their old 
tinkering and bargaining with the silver senators. The spoils system is regarded as 
the natural condition of things, and deviations from the straight path of honesty 
are deemed pardonable. Such is the situation of the country ! And with all that 
we are promised good times ! But good times cannot come until honesty is recog- 
nised to be indispensable in all business affairs, in politics, and in religion. 

Religion should be at the bottom of all exertions, of all business, of all politics; 
but religion is not church-going. Religion is honesty. Religion is not belief, re- 
ligion is faithfulness. Religion is not observance of traditions, religion is taking 
life and its duties seriously. Do not make light of the doctrines of your church ; 
face the problems of belief fearlessly and squarely. Dare to have a conviction, 
and aspire to have the right conviction which can stand criticism. Then take your 
conviction with you into practical life and apply it to politics and to business. You 
will thus within the circle of your influence contribute your share to the general 
prosperity of the country. Confidence is the condition of good times, and the prev- 
alence of honesty is the condition of confidence. 

C. Hermann Boppe of Milwaukee, the editor of the Freidenker, criticises The 
Open Court in an article on "The Belief in God and Immortality," (published in 
the Freidenker- Almanack for 1897) in which he quotes with approval Carl Heinzen, 
who says : "As Cortez burned the ships behind him, so radicalism burns the ships 
before itself — not only that fallacious boat of Charon on which those who in life 
are cheated out of truth and elysium, hope to attain truth and elysium after death, 
but also the air-ships on which man's imagination is supernaturally carried into 
heaven or eternity." Mr. Boppe condemns the policy of retaining the words " Re- 
ligion," "God," "Soul," "Immortality," even though they may receive new con- 
tents and a definite scientific meaning. Without making any objection to the prop- 
osition that science is a revelation, he regards the solution offered in the Religion of 
Science as a compromise with superstition, which leads to paradoxical statements 
and will ultimately prove nothing but a waste of time. We have stated our answer 
to men of this type in our reply to Corvinus in Nos. 414 and 432 of Tke Open Court, 
and it seems unnecessary here to repeat our arguments. It is true that in the new 


light which modern psychology sheds on the problem of the soul, we should for the 
sake of accuracy abolish the old modes of expression and invent new terms. But 
this method would lead to nothing, and would be little helpful for the progress of 
mankind. The new astronomy of Copernicus changed our world-conception in a 
similar way, and we ought to have altered a great number of phrases which are in 
common use, such as "sunrise" and "sunset," but the attempt to do so would 
simply have increased the confusion and would have availed little towards the proof 
of the new doctrine. In addition, these terms, in spite of being inaccurate, are quite 
justifiable, for to the people of a certain place the sun actually rises and sets. The 
facts are not changed, but the conception of the facts receives a new, a deeper, and 
a truer interpretation, which removes all the various insurmountable difficulties of 
the old interpretation. 

If we had to invent new terms for every new phase in the discovery of truth, 
we ought to change our whole language every two or three centuries, and if we 
should condemn religion because it is in its beginning mixed up with superstition 
and its path leads through error to truth, we ought at the same time to condemn 
science, for science too, has to pass through phases of misconception and false the- 
ories. We might just as well abolish the universities as the churches, because the 
science of to-day is in many respects a combination of errors and confusion. In 
brief, since the facts of life remain the same in the new dispensation of the Re- 
ligion of Science as they have always been, the absolute denial of the old formu- 
lations is not less erroneous than their implicit acceptance and the only way out of 
this dilemma is to purify the traditional notions and make religion more and more 
scientific. There is no need of burning our ships either before us or behind us. 

Mr. Ohara of Otsu, Omi, Japan, the translator into Chinese and publisher of 
The Gospel of Btiddha, writes that he will be pleased to supply copies of the Chinese 
edition of The Gospel 0/ Buddha for seventy-five cents, and has sent us a number 
of copies in order to enable us to fill orders at once. We may add that the trans- 
lation is in the modern Chinese-Wenli, not in the old style of the classical books of 
China, but in the language of to-day, of the official dispatches, of the translation of 
the Bible, of the Chinese newspapers, and of the commercial world in the Celestial 
Empire. It has received the endorsement and high praise of the Rev. Tan Tek 
Soon, one of the leaders among Chinese Buddhists of Singapore, who writes in a 
letter to H. Dharmapala : "That it is apparently translated by an educated Japan- 
ese reflects the greatest credit on that enterprising nation, and is a noble repayment 
of the many debts of religious instruction received by the Japanese from their 
neighbors. ... It will help greatly to advance the cause of religion among my 

Mr. Rama-Chandra Sen, Ex-Inspector of Schools at Oude, has briefly outlined 
his philosophy in a pamphlet entitled Monado-Mononisni which he published some 
time ago in India. He has in the meantime made friends in the far West, among 
them Dr. R. Norman Foster of Chicago, whose enthusiasm induced him to publish 
a new exposition of Mr. Sen's Monado-Mono7iis7n in the shape of a pamphlet which 
presents in a condensed form the world-conception of such an Eastern thinker as 
is Mr. Sen. 

Mr. Sen believes that all existence is conscious and is radiating in a supreme 
focus (p. 7). Conscious unconditioned feeling is the noumenon which as uncon- 
ditioned cause unconditionally conditions itself (p. 9). Time and space are mo- 


nadic ; motion and matter atomic (p. 13). The simplest individual is a mineral (p. 
16). A plant is a cognitional organism of the simplest kind (18). A. brute is an 
emotional organism (p. 20). Man is a reflective organism higher than brute (p. 22). 
A spirit is a perfect cognitional being of the highest kind (p. 27). An angel is a 
perfect emotional being of the highest kind (p. 30). A cherub is a perfect reflective 
being of the highest kind (p. 33). A seraph is a perfect super-reflective being of 
the highest kind (p. 35). Lastly, the self-existing, sublimest focus is the eternal, 
unchangeable, unchanging Monon (p. 37), which is all-absolute and omniscient (p. 
38). Man's stages of progress are marked as spirit-man, angel-man, cherub-man, 
seraph-man, and God-man. The God-man is the end of Nature's evolution and 
the sumnium bonwn of religion (p. 48). 

While we do not agree with Mr. Sen's methods of philosophising, we have 
found much that is of interest in his speculations which in their naive simplicity 
remind us of the lofty constructions of various European thinkers who have attained 
great fame. We must also add that we recognise in Mr. Sen an earnest desire to 
embody in his system both the results of Oriental and Western research. The 
Roman proverb says : "In viagnis iwluisse sat est." v. c. 

The Biblical World of January, 1897, is, as most of its predecessors have been, 
full of interesting material, popular in tone, and yet scholarly. George B. Foster, 
speaking of "The Theological Training for the Times," says in bold honesty: 
' ' There are some things which ought to be said with the utmost freedom and frank- 
ness." And speaking of the theological student who is sorely perplexed by the di- 
lemma of traditional faith and the results of scientific criticicism, he says: 

' ' He is divided between two feelings : perplexed on the one hand by a suspi- 
"cion that in clinging to traditional orthodoxy he may be untrue to himself; and 
' ' checked on the other side by a fear that in discarding it he may be casting aside 
" ideas essential to his moral and spiritual life. At such a time a divinity school 
" should indeed be an Alma Mater to him. And if its work be destructive in part, 
"as in part today it must, it is destructive for the sake of construction, the con- 
" structiveness of Him who, though he destroyed, came not to destroy but to fiil- 

Among other material of interest we note an article by George S. Goodspead 
on the "Ideal Childhood in Non-Christian Religions," in which he surveys the 
childhood legends of Buddha, Confucius, Zoroaster, Lao-Tsze, Krishna, and Mo- 
hammed. From the new Egyptian discoveries made by Mr. Petrie, the tablet of 
Amen-Hotep the Third is reproduced from a photograph by Brugsch, the inscrip- 
tion of which is of special interest because it contains on the back of the tablet a 
mention of the people of Israel. Among the accounts of other victories, the king 
announces that "Israel is desolated; his grain is not (i. e., his harvests are de- 
stroyed); Palestine has become as widows for Egypt (i. e., the people of the country 
have become as helpless as widows before the attacks of Egypt). Not the least valu- 
able contribution is the editorial which insists on a thorough study of the Bible. 
The editor asks : "Is it not legitimate from the point of view of Sunday observance 
to use a portion of the day for the study of the Bible, and is it not legitimate to 
perform such study thoroughly and with a view to permanent results, as to perform 
it superficially and without expectation of accomplishing anything?" The author 
of the article, referring to the Revised Edition, condemns those as "criminally 
guilty" who would conceal the "light which God in his providence has shed upon 
his own revelation." 



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The Open Court 


Devoted to the Science of Religion, the Religion of Science, and 
the Extension of the Religious Parliament Idea. 

VOL. XI. (no. 3.) MARCH, 1897. NO. 490 





AT THE OUTSET of his fifth Gifford Lecture Professor Tiele 
spoke of the religions which were entitled to be classed as 
ethical, and in this connexion he discussed the essential difference 
between Buddhism and Christianity, and the other religions in the 
group. The latter, he said, were all limited to a single people or 
nationality, and if they nevertheless spread and were accepted by 
other nations, that was done along with the whole civilisation to 
which they belonged. Christianity and Buddhism, however, did 
not direct themselves to a single people, but to all men, and to all 
in their own language. In short, Christianity and Buddhism were 
both universalistic in character, whereas the other ethical religions 
were, at least in a certain measure, still particularistic, Moham- 
medanism was so in the least degree. That religion also spread 
itself out among many peoples, but by its sacred language, its ob- 
ligatory pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, and its legal prescrip- 
tions, which went down into details, it was much more particular- 
istic than either Buddhism or Christianity, and it stood also in 
many other respects below them. 

Professor Tiele acknowledged that there was an essential dif- 
ference between Buddhism and Christianity, and the religion of 
Islam, because Mohammedanism had not brought forth the univer- 
salistic principle out of itself as a necessary application of its fun- 
damental thought, but had borrowed it from Christianity, and had 
apprehended it more politically than religiously. In fact, this uni- 


versalism of Islam was little different from, and was indeed nothing 
but an expansion of, the proselytism of Judaism. 

Continued study of the subject and further reflexion, had led 
Professor Tiele to conclusions, even regarding Buddhism and 
Christianity, that differed in some respects from the prevailing 
view, and from that which had hitherto been accepted by him. 
Buddhism and Christianity were, each of them, rather an abstrac- 
tion, than an actually existing organisation, — not a particular re- 
ligion, but a group or family of religions, one in origin and in cer- 
tain general principles, but otherwise often differing world wide 
and often standing in a hostile attitude towards each other. If 
we might define religions as "modes of divine worship proper to 
different tribes, nations, or communities, and based on the belief 
held in common by the members of them severally," this defini- 
tion was certainly applicable to the particular Buddhistic and 
Christian Churches and sects, but neither to Christianity nor Bud- 
dhism, as such, as a whole. Both fell outside of the boundary of 
their morphological classification. They were powerful revelations 
of the ethico-religious spirit, which, when spread by preaching, 
often conquered after long resistance the old religions with which 
they came into contact, so that they were permeated in more or 
less measure by the new higher principles, and were thereby wholly 
reformed. From this preaching, this conflict, and this fusion were 
born those related, yet, in kind and development, so sharply dis- 
tinguished religions or churches, which, taken together, were called 
Buddhism and Christianity. 

Inquiring next into the consequences of the specific origin of 
the ethical religions, the lecturer noted, in the first place, an im- 
portant modification in the conception of revelation ; and, in the 
second, the forming of more or less independent religious commu- 
nions, which no longer coincided with the community of the State 
or the people, but took up over against them a certain standpoint 
of their own, which, to a certain extent, was independent. With 
ethical religion there arose the Church ; for every ethical religion 
embodied itself necessarily in a Church. In passing, he remarked 
that he would not willingly give up the word " Church," — not 
meaning the word in its philological sense, but the conception 
which was now definitely expressed by it. 

All ethical religions or churches had proceeded out of small 
unions, of which, as a rule, one highly endowed spirit was the soul 
and centre, and these had thereby always a certain independence 
over against the community of the people and the State. The eth- 


ical religions, and even some forms of the highest families of reli- 
gion, viz., the Buddhistic and Christian, might also become State 
Churches, but they were so only as privileged Churches, exclu- 
sively recognised and supported by the State. They were no longer 
one with the State, but formed, even as State Churches, independ- 
ent bodies, and they could only permanently prevent the rise of 
other independent church associations among the citizens of the 
State. The rising of such more or less independent Churches was an 
important factor in the history of the evolution of religion. Called 
into existence by the religious self-consciousness, they were destined 
and bound to maintain that consciousness in the first place. With 
their birth dawned the emancipation of religion. The Church had a 
right to sovereignty within her own sphere, the domain of the con- 
science, the life of the soul, religious conviction. But she forfeited 
that right as soon as she would move upon a domain which was not 
her own ; as soon as, driven by ambition or self-interest, she re- 
fused to others the liberty she demanded for herself ; as soon as 
she proceeded to domineer over the State, science, philosophy, or 
art, and thus disturbed the other expressions of the spiritual life of 
man in their development. In conclusion. Professor Tiele consid- 
ered the third consequence of the specific origin of the ethical reli- 
gions, viz. : that being born of individualism, they could never 
wholly kill it by the power of the community, and that, conversely, 

neither would individualism kill its power. 

* * 

Continuing an inquiry into the directions of development in 
particular religions and in groups of closely related religions. 
Professor Tiele said in his seventh lecture that what held true of 
the great families of religion was also applicable to the individual 
members of which they were composed, to single religions as well 
as to groups of mutually related religions. After quoting examples 
to show that evolution was a very complicated phenomenon, that 
it did not proceed in a straight line, nor was perfectly harmoni- 
ous, but that here the one side and there the other side of the re- 
ligious thinking and life was specially cultivated, and that thus 
every religion, every school, every sect, every direction, furnished 
its own contribution to the general development, he said that 
that, however, they could only do, and they could only bear fruit 
for this end, if they did not remain isolated, nor shoot past the 
goal in more and more sharply marked one-sidedness. In such 
cases, indeed, there commonly sprang up a reaction. But this 
reaction was, as a rule, a violent subversion, a falling into the op- 



posite extreme. The cure could only be brought about by recon- 
ciliation, whereby the equilibrium was restored, or rather by which 
the tendencies which, on account of their one sidedness appeared 
to be antagonistic and irreconcilable, were resolved into harmoni- 
ous co-operation. That co-operation, as was evident, would also 
be still always incomplete, just as all that v,^as human was incom- 
plete — at least at the beginning it would be rather a striving, an 
ideal, which was only slowly realised ; but it would yet be a step 
forward and in the right direction. That which combined what 
was formerly separated, stood, on that account, higher, because it 
taught men to appreciate what was not esteemed, or was misun- 
derstood, by one direction as well as by the other, as equally legiti- 
mate, nay, as even necessary elements of the religious thinking and 
life ; and in so doing it let nothing be lost of the good in either di- 
rection, but made it conducive to the higher development of reli- 
gion. The whole history of the Roman religion was the history of 
a constant and systematic reception of Greek ideas and observances 
into the firmly founded structure of the Roman forms of worship. 
In Christianity that confluence of the two great streams of develop- 
ment reached its completion. While Buddhism reached the ex- 
treme limit in the direction of the one-sided theanthropism, and 
embraced all the divine in the Enlightened One, but soon again 
fell away into a composite mythology and an abject superstition; 
and while Islam in its own almost fatalistic monotheism embraced 
the most one-sided form of a theocrary, and thereby to a consider- 
able extent relapsed into the old particularism, Christianity brought 
the two antagonistic positions, transcendence and immanence, to 
unity by its ethical apprehension of the Fatherhood of God, in 
which both God's exaltation above man and man's affinity with 
God were comprehended. 

Christianity was the most many-sided of all religions and fam- 
ilies of religion, and it possessed thereby a capacity of adaptation 
that had been called its elasticity which explained the great wealth 
of its many and multifarious forms. It was in more than one re- 
spect, and more than any other religious communion, the religion 
of reconciliation; and in this sense that it reconciled in itself with 
each other the apparently irreconcilable elements of the religious 
life, separately represented and one-sidedly developed in other re- 
ligions and in earlier periods of shorter or longer duration. For it 
brought to unity, not only the antithesis referred to, of theocracy 
and theanthropism, but others as well. In its preaching of the 
kingdom of God, which was not future only nor exclusively heav- 


enly, but existed here already among us, and must also be realised 
on earth; in its beautiful doctrines of the communion of saints, the 
brotherhood of all mankind, and the equality of all before God, it 
strove after the most intimate union of all men, whatever be their 
descent, language, or color. But along with all that, it left full 
freedom to the individual, by proclaiming that the unity of the 
spirit was the only bond of this communion, and that each individ- 
ual was alone responsible for his own conscience — not like Bud- 
dhism which extinguished all individuality, because it annulled 
personality and imposed on every confessor passive obedience to 
the power placed above it. Christianity did not take up a hostile 
attitude to the world, nor did it mix itself with it ; it neither hated 
nor defied it, and was therefore neither one-sidedly optimistic nor 
one-sidedly pessimistic. It appreciated and glorified the greatest 
self-denial and surrender of everything for a sacred end, but aim- 
less self-renouncement, fasting and abstinence for their own sakes, 
as meritorious works it rejected. It did not assert that the recon- 
ciliation of these antinomies, the confluence of these divergent di- 
rections, was already completed in the historical Christianity. They 
found them still frequently side by side and in conflict with each 
other; they were confronted here and now by the one, and then 
and there by the other religious thought cultivated with special 
preference, embodied in diverse churches and sects, and maintained 
by one sided parties. But it was distinguished by this form from 
all other ethical religious communions, of v/hich even the most uni- 
versalistic really knew only one form of religious life, — that they 
found in the bosom of Christianity all directions, and all of them 
appealing with some right, to the same authority. Hence, he by 
no means said that the reconciliation of what hitherto divided man- 
kind in matters of religion had already come about. It was the 
work which for nearly nineteen centuries had been carried on in 
the Christian world, partly unconsciously and partly with full con- 
sciousness, but which, although not without fruit, was still far from 
being completed, 
">^-^ The whole history of religion viewed outwardly was the history 
of a succession of all sorts of one-sided forms of religion, in which 
the religious elements were variously mixed, and which in rivalry 
with each other arose, flourished, and perished, or at least ceased 
to grow. The history of Christianity was the continuation of the 
earlier history, but more complete, many-sided, all-embracing. 
What he meant was only this, that when they took the trouble to 
penetrate to the kernel of the Gospel in which all the varieties of 


Christian life took their origin, they should find there the solution 
of the contradictions in germ or in principle. He did not say that 
from partiality for the religion which he accepted as his. If he had 
to give expression to his religious conviction, he should confess 
that in the Christ, the true religion, the religion of humanity, was 
revealed to man. It was the religion which constantly created new 
forms that were higher and higher, but because they were human, 
were also always still defective, and which thus developed itself 
more and more in and through humanity. But that was a matter 
of belief, and he put himself here upon a purely impartial, scien- 
tific standpoint. Yet ever upon that standpoint, and as a result of 
historical and philosophical investigation, he did maintain that 
with the appearing of Christianity a wholly new period in the evo- 
lution of religion had begun ; that all the currents of the religious 
life of humanity previously flowed together in it; and that to de- 
velop religion was now and henceforth the same as to realise more 
and more the principles of that religion. 




ALL THIS TALK now going on in regard to the next Papal 
Conclave has something very strange about it, but nothing 
new. Pius IX. also had the same curious experience of hearing a 
great deal said about his approaching death and his successor, and 
the same thing has happened to every pope who has had a long 
life. Now this talk may be no reflexion upon the living pope, but 
surely it is not pleasant to think that one is living too long. In the 
election of a cardinal for the papacy his age is always considered, 
and he is chosen as old as possible in the hope that another Con- 
clave may occur after a brief interval. When the election of Leo 
XIII. was under consideration one of the secondary arguments of 
the promoters of the candidacy of Pecci was precisely that of his 
advanced age. Cardinal Bartolini, the great supporter of Pecci, 
persuaded the four Spanish cardinals to oppose the candidacy of 
Franchi and to give their votes to Pecci on the grounds that 
Franchi was " troppo giovine," too young, and that there would be 
time enough for him to reach the papacy. A pope then who lives 
too long is, especially for the Sacred College, a great disappoint- 
ment. Leo XIII. was not only advanced in age but had an ap- 
parently weak constitution, and it seemed to everybody that his 
powerful mind could not long remain in so weak and thin a body. 
Nevertheless, Leo has pronounced the holy benediction over the 
great majority of the cardinals who elected him. What a disap- 
pointment he has been to the Sacred College ! It is this disap- 
pointment and a long restrained impatience that are signified by 
the numerous literary productions now appearing in regard to the 
next Conclave. 

All these productions concerning the next Conclave may be di- 

1 Translated from the manuscript of Professor Fiamingo, by I. W. Howerth, of the University 
of Chicago. 


vided into two classes. One class treats the question in a general 
way, considering the qualities to be desired in the new pope, and 
similar topics. Sometimes writings of this class consider the present 
condition of Catholicism and the position of the papacy, and subject 
them to criticism. Each writer believes that the change of pope 
may result in transforming Catholicism in accordance with his own 
pet ideal of religion. Productions of the second class, however, try 
to reveal the preparatory work going on behind the scenes at the 
Vatican. They frequently appear in reviews, and after mentioning 
various cardinals proceed to discuss the question as to which one of 
them stands the best chance of securing the chair of St. Peter. They 
set before the reader a series of personalities which, far from com- 
manding his respect for the cardinals, represent them as engaged 
in intrigue and more or less vulgar gossip. Banghi, Maus, and 
Pappalettere pointed out Pecci some years before his election as 
the successor of Pius IX. But in their calculations they were as- 
sisted by the merits of Pecci himself. They were assisted also by 
all the follies and miseries which are summed up in the badly con- 
cealed antagonism between Pecci and Cardinal Antonelli, secretary 
of state of Pius IX., and by the strong antipathy of Pius IX. to- 
wards Pecci, and by the friendship between Pecci and Bartolini 
who in the Conclave was his strong supporter. They were strength- 
ened too by the various outbursts of discontent and protest against 
the politics of the Vatican in the last years of Pius IX. And yet 
Pecci has retained the regard and respect of those who if they were 
not scornful toward the papacy were certainly not enthusiastic for 
it, and has thus shown a character to which gossip and petty in- 
trigue must be repugnant. Publications then which pretend to re- 
veal the plots and schemes of the Vatican to designate a new pope 
while the present one is still living cannot be free from the odious 
character of idle gossips. When it is remembered that after all the 
Sacred College is composed of old men, and all that is necessary to 
precipitate a whole structure of ingenious speculations is the death 
of one of them, it is perceived how little is the importance which 
should be attached to this kind of talk, an importance indeed 
ephemeral and fictitious. 

Much greater, however, is the interest aroused by those stud- 
ies which make the discussion of the next Conclave an occasion for 
instituting an examination into the conditions of Catholicism, and 
which point out in their ideal of the new pope the gaps and defects 
which Catholicism must repair. To this kind of literary produc- 
tion concerning the Conclave belongs the volume which was recently 


published by Le Sar Peladan, Le prochain conclave, and which has 
the pretentious and somewhat arrogant sub-title '' Istruzioni ai car- 
dinali." This subtitle, however, reflects the weakness of the whole 
book which is a series of severe reflexions, a revelation of the seeds 
of death, as Peladan himself expresses it, which are hidden in the 
palace of the Roman Pontiff. This criticism of the conditions of 
Catholicism the author completes with what in his mind constitutes 
the ideal of the Catholic religion, namely, humanisation, which he 
believes may be realised by the new pope. P^ladan's book is lack- 
ing in scientific and historical precision. We read, for instance, 
that in the early times of Catholicism the pope was elected by Ro- 
man bishops alone. Nothing could be more erroneous. The first 
authentic document concerning the election of a pope is the Epistola 
written by Cornelius after being deposed by the Anti-Pope Novarius 
and who had again assumed the chair of St. Peter to which he is 
said to have been elected by sixteen bishops present at Rome. Now 
Peladan mistakes this special fact for a general proceeding in the 
election of all the popes. On the contrary, as in the early times of 
Christianity, and until this system was prohibited by the Council 
of Antioch (341 A. D.), many bishops and a few popes were nomi- 
nated by their predecessors, so after the time of Constantine there 
concurred in the election of the pope the suffrage of the people, the 
presence of almost all the clergy, the vote of the assembly of the 
oldest priests and a concourse of men of high consideration. Of 
such errors in regard to fact there are in Peladan's book not a few. 
Italians, according to Peladan, number twenty-five million, not 
thirty-one million. 

But in spite of all this it must be recognised that the work of 
Le Sar Peladan has a value and merits our consideration. Peladan 
is a romancer, a mystic, and a decadent besides, and is a believer 
in the Christian Catholic religion. It may be understood, there- 
fore, that in his mind is established the custom of taking abstrac- 
tions for reality, of taking ideas as real facts and construing them 
as such in order to reach a new hypothesis and new abstractions, 
without suspecting in the least that he must thus arrive at a point 
far removed from reality. From the top of an edifice of abstractions 
the reality of life and its institutions appears sordid and mean. And 
Peladan who places himself in an elevated position and is inspired 
by an ideal undoubtedly far removed from reality, is able to see 
contemporaneous Catholicism in a way not possible to ordinary in- 
dividuals who think that what they observe from day to day is nat- 
ural and just. The criticisms of Peladan show sometimes real gaps 


and weaknesses, but they show also the religious needs of a mind of 
large scientific culture, that is, of an intellectual development su- 
perior to what has heretofore satisfied Catholicism. P61adan is not 
the only cleric who predicts for the next pope and for the Catholic 
Church better times than those in which the author writes. "Well 
or ill, P^ladan has spoken some necessary words, words which have 
been spoken by no one else. They will irritate many minds en- 
thusiastic over the constituted religious order. Other minds more 
subtle will be chilled by them." 

Catholicism must be humanised. That is the sentiment which 
inspires Peladan's whole work. P^ladan never explains compre- 
hensively what he means by the humanisation of Catholicism. When 
he notes that the people of the cities are withdrawing from the 
Church, that persons of high culture are turning towards new re- 
ligions, and that we are in the presence of the masses who are de- 
serting, and of an elite who are reflecting, Peladan concludes that 
all that is necessary to bring back the masses and to hold the elite 
is to create some more saints and to recognise the demands of hu- 
manity. It is necessary, he thinks, to diffuse knowledge high and 
low in order to re-establish on the one hand the equality so dear to 
the masses, and on the other to construct a hierarchy. How Pela- 
dan would explain all this, it would be difficult to say. Whoever is 
pope, and whatever may be the character of the Sacred College, it 
would be difficult to create more saints in an historical epoch when 
no more are desired, and at the same time to humanise and idealise 
religion for persons of culture. One cannot understand, indeed, 
how it would be possible to develop Catholicism for persons of 
culture on the one hand, and for the masses on the other. What 
effect would the "saints " created by Catholicism for the masses 
have upon the rest of the population, that is, upon the elite? 

Nor does Peladan explain how Catholicism is to create these 
saints. When has Catholicism ever created in a conscious and 
pre-determined manner any of the saints whom believers now adore? 
If Catholicism had practised such artifice, undoubtedly it would 
not have developed as it did seventeen or eighteen centuries ago, 
nor would it have that moral position which it now occupies. And 
yet there remains the fact established by a believer like Peladan 
that the population of the city is withdrawing from the Church, 
and cultured people are losing faith in Catholic dogmas which are 
found to bear a strong resemblance to those of other religions old 
and new. But his remedy for the decline of Catholicism set forth 
in a manner confused and contradictory has all the appearance of 


those programs of social reform ab iniis fundamentis, partly good 
but more frequently wholly impracticable and emanating from a 
mind unbalanced and deprived of every sense of reality, which sees 
everything in a form imaginary and ideal. The social program of 
Plato is worth just as much as that of Karl Marx. The ideal of 
Leo X. of the power of the Catholic religion has just as much in- 
fluence on social evolution as that of Gregory VII., who proclaimed 
that "The Church of God ought to be independent of every tem- 
poral power. . . . The Church ought to be free; the Pope should 
be allowed to absolve the priests from temporal bonds. The world 
is lightened bj^ two luminaries, the sun the greater, and the moon 
the lesser. The authority of the Apostles resembles the sun. . . . 
Whatever may be the resistance encountered by him who represents 
Christ on earth, he ought to struggle, to stand firm, to suffer as 
Christ suffered. Neither persecution nor violence should disturb 
him in the performance of his duty." A splendid program, truly; 
almost superhuman ! But did Gregory VII. ever realise the ideal 
which he proclaimed as the duty of him who represents Christ on 
earth, or did any other pope? On the contrary, not only in the 
early times of Catholicism when the popes were the heirs of the 
haughty imperial spirit of conquering Rome, and in the Middle 
Ages when the military spirit was everywhere dominant, but even 
at the end of our century when the Sacred College united to elect a 
successor to Pius IX., they have been unanimous in adhering to all 
the demands and protests uttered by the deceased Pontiff against 
the occupation of the States of the Church. These ideal programs 
for transforming Catholicism are in fact metaphysical abstractions. 
Religious evolution is carried on, more even than social evolution, 
by the action of unconscious forces, caring nothing for those who 
would instil a new vitality and secure a great prosperity to the in- 
stitution itself. 

Paul V. completed the colossal temple in Rome dedicated to 
St. Peter, but upon the facade he placed enormous letters to in- 
form the world that he belonged to the Borghese family, which is 
Roman. Cardinals Mertel and Caterini, in the conclave which 
elected Leo XIII., gave their votes to the effect that the conclave 
should be held in Rome because, being old, they did not wish to 
weary themselves by a journey. Leo XIII., in order to enjoy the 
sympathy of the French government, accepted as plenipotentiary 
to the Roman court, a man who had been excommunicated, the 
anti-Christian hero of les Bouches du Rhone, Pombelle le crocheteur, 
as he is called by the French Catholics, who are always rebelling 


against the Vatican and who are nov/ protesting in a solemn man- 
ner in the elections at Brest. These little facts, so diverse, have at 
bottom a nature essentially identical. They show that the Pope 
and the members of the Sacred College cannot banish entirely the 
little personal vanities and weaknesses which are found in every 
breast. Catholicism in the long series of centuries of its life, in its 
numerous successions of popes and Sacred Colleges, has been trans- 
formed by increasing more and more the power and personality of 
the curia and of the one who presides over it. The pope, who at 
first was a simple bishop, and exercised his authority, local and dio- 
cesan, just as any other bishop, and had only a little pre-eminence 
on account of being the successor of St. Peter, was, by and by, pro- 
claimed the infallible representative of Christ. The whole evolu- 
tion of Catholicism is in a sense directly opposed to humanising 
itself and to stripping itself of every personal feature, which Cath- 
olics, like P^ladan, are proclaiming as the ideal of religion, an ideal 
never suited to new times, always neglected by the masses, and an 
object of criticism for the more highly cultivated. But this is to 
ask of the Catholic religion what it will never be able to accom- 

The Catholic religion is impersonated in a certain number 
of individuals, nor can these individuals escape from the tenden- 
cies common to all men. It is a question of a new paganism, as 
Emile Gebhart expresses it. As exclusiveness and the spirit of su- 
premacy are characteristics which appear in all men, so they ap- 
pear in Catholicism. When Leo XIII. spoke to the dissenting 
Catholics of England in order to reclaim them, he could see noth- 
ing but error in their religion, and they were naturally offended and 
indignant. How much greater would be the spirit of supremacy in 
the head of the Catholic Church if he should attempt to call to his 
faith the followers of Buddha and Mahomet. And that would hap- 
pen to-morrow if a pope like Vannutelli, or Jacobini, or Svampa 
should be elected. 

A conclave cannot change modern Catholicism without chang- 
ing the human nature of the clergy. I cannot conceive the humani- 
sation and the universality of Catholicism asked for by Peladan as 
representing the elite of the Catholic church, to whom he speaks at 
length in his book. It would be the negation of evolution and of 
Catholicism as it has been developed and exists to-day, as well as 
of the hatred of innovation, which is a very great social force, and 
still more powerful in religion. Religions will die rather than trans- 
form themselves, and this is especially true of the Christian religion. 



MAZDAISM, the belief of the ancient Persians, is perhaps the 
most remarkable religion of antiquity, not only on account of 
the purity of its ethics, but also by reason of the striking similar- 
ities which it bears to Christianity. 

Ahura Mazda, the Lord Omniscient, is frequently represented 
(as seen in Fig. i) upon bas-reliefs of Persian monuments and rock 

Fig. I. Ahurx Mazda. 
(Conventional reproduction of the figure on the great rock inscription of Darius at Behistan.) 

inscriptions. He reveals himself through "the excellent, the pure 
and stirring Word," also called "the creative Word which was 
in the beginning," which reminds one not only of the Christian 
idea of the Logos, 6 Xoyos o? r)v iv oepx^, but also of the Brah- 
man Fdc/i, word (etymologically the same as the Latin vox), which 
is glorified in the fourth hymn of the Rig Veda, as "pervading 
heaven and earth, existing in all the worlds and extending to the 



On the rock inscription of Elvend, which had been made by 
the order of King Darius, we read these Hnes^: 

" There is one God, omnipotent Ahura Mazda, 
It is He who has created the earth here ; 
It is He who has created the heaven there ; 
It is He who has created mortal man." 

Lenormant characterises the God of Zoroaster as follows : 

"Ahura Mazda has creaited as/ia, purity or rather the cosmic order; he has 
created both the moral and material world constitution ; he has made the universe; 
he has made the law ; he is, in a word, creator [datar], sovereign [ahura), omnis- 

Fig. 2. Sculptures on a Royal Tomb. 
(Coste et Flandin, Perse Ancienne, at Persepolis, pi. 164. Lenormant, V., p. 23.) 

cient [mazddo), the god of order [ashavan). He corresponds exactly to Varuna, the 
highest god of Vedism. 

"This spiritual conception of the Supreme Being is absolutely pure in the 
Avesta, and the expressions that Ormuzd has the sun for his eye, the heaven for his 
garment, the lightning for his sons, the waters for his spouses, are unequivocally 
allegorical. Creator of all things, Ormuzd is himself uncreated and eternal. He 
had no beginning and will have no end. He has accomplished his creation work 
by pronouncing ' the Word,' the 'Ahuna-Vairyo, Honover,' i. e., ' the word that ex- 
isted before everything else,' reminding us of the eternal Word, the Divine Logos 
of the Gospel." {Histoire ancienne de V Orient, V., p. 388.) 

Concerning Ahriman, Lenormant says : 

"The creation came forth from the hands of Ormuzd, pure and perfect like 
himself. It was Ahriman who perverted it by his infamous influence, and labored 

1 Translated from Lenormant's Histoire ancienne de I' Orient, Vol. V., p. 



continually to destroy and overthrow it, for he is the destroyer (paurou marka) as 
well as the spirit of evil. The struggle between these two principles, of good and 
of evil, constitutes the world's history. In Ahriman we find again the old wrathful 
serpent of the Indo-Iranian period, who is the personification of evil and who in 
Vedism, under the name of AM, is regarded as an individual being. The myth of 
the serpent and the legends of the Avesta are mingled in Ahriman under the name 
of AJi Dahdka, who is said to have attacked Atar, Tra^taona, and Yima, but is 

Fig. 3. The Tree of Life. 

Decorations on the embroidery of a royal mantle. 

(British Museum. Layard, Monmnents, ist series, pi. 6. Lenormant, /. /. V., p. 108.) 

himself dethroned. It is the source of the Greek myth that Apollo slays the dragon 
Python. The Indo-Iranian religion knew only the struggle that was carried on in 
the atmosphere between the fire-god and the serpent-demon Afrasiab. And it was, 
according to Professor Darmesteter, the doctrine of this struggle, which, when gen- 
eralised and applied to all things in the world, finally led to the establishment of 
dualism." (Ibid., p. 392.) 

The tree of life, which is known to us through the first chapter 
of Genesis, is an old Accadian idea, which is of immemorial origin. 


dating perhaps from the daj's when men lived mainly upon the fruits 
of trees, ^ and having been handed down through the Assyrians to the 
Babylonians and Persians. It always remained a favorite idea among 
the artists of the various nations that successively held sway over 
the valley of Mesopotamia ; and it still appears in Persian bas- 
reliefs, where we find it for instance in the shape of decorations 
in the embroidery of a royal mantle. (Fig. 3.) 

The fire sacrifice of the Persians was accompanied by partak- 
ing of the haoma drink, a ceremony which reminds us, on the one 
hand, of the soma sacrifice of the Vedic age in India, and, on the 
other hand, of the Lord's Supper of the Christians. We know 
through the sacred scriptures of the Persians that little cakes (the 
draona) covered with small pieces of holy meat (the myazda) were 
consecrated in the name of a spiritual being, a god or angel, or of 
some great deceased personality, and then distributed among all 
the worshippers that were present. But more sacred still than the 
draona with the myazda is the haoma drink which was prepared 
from the white haoma plant, ^ also called gaokerena. Says Professor 
Darmesteter : " It is by the drinking of gaokerena that men, on the 
day of the resurrection, will become immortal."^ 

The way in which the Persian sacrament of drinking the gao- 
kerena was still celebrated in the times of early Christianity, must 
have been very similar to the Christian communion, for Justinus, 
when speaking of the Lord's Supper among the Christians, adds 
"that this very same solemnity, too, the evil spirits have intro- 
duced in the mysteries of Mithra." {Apol. I., 86.) 

The most characteristic feature of the Persian religion after 
the lifetime of Zoroaster consists in the teaching that a great crisis 
is near at hand, which will lead to the renovation of the world 
frashokereli \n the Avesta, 3.n6. frashakari in Pahlavi. Saviours will 
come, born of the seed of Zoroaster, and in the end the great Sav- 
iour who will bring about the resurrection of the dead. He will 
be the "son of a virgin " and the "All-conquering." His name shall 
be the Victorious {verethrajati), Righteousness-incarnate {astvat- 

1 The tree of life may originally have been the tree of life-preserving fruits. It is noteworthy 
that the names oi/agus, the beecb-tree, and of i^rj-yds, the oak, which are both etymologically iden- 
tical with the English word beech and the German Buche, mean " eating " or " the tree with edible 
fruits." The word acorn, which is not derived from oak, but is connected with acre, the field, 
means " harvest " or " fruit," which indicates that it was eaten at the time when its name was 
coined. The word acorn has no connexion with the German Eichel, i. e., little oak, or oak-fruit, 
but it is the same as the German Ecker, which is the name of the beech-tree fruit. 

2 There is another species of the haoma which is yellow. The yellow haoma is called the 
earthly haoma and the king of healing plants. 

3 Sacred Books of the East, Vol. IV., p. Ixix. Compare Bundahis, 42, 12 ; 59, 4. 



ereta), and the Saviour {saoshyant). Then the Hving shall become 
immortal, yet their bodies will be transfigured so that they will cast 
no shadows, and the dead shall rise, ''within their lifeless bodies 
incorporate life shall be restored," (Fr. 4. 3.)^ 

In a similar way John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth an- 
nounce that the Kingdom of Heaven is near at hand ; and St. Paul 
still believed that the second advent of Christ would take place dur- 
ing his own life-time. The dead who sleep in the Lord will be re- 
surrected, and the bodies of those that are still in the flesh will be 
transfigured and become immortal. 

The Persian world-conception, like the religion of the Jews, 
was too abstract to favor any artistic development. Therefore we 
do not possess representations of either the good or evil spirits that 

Fig. 4. Assyrian Cylinder. 
(British Museum. Lenormant, V., p. 234. 

Fig. 5. The Goddess Anna. 

(Bas-relief in the British Museum. Lenormant, 

v., p. 259.) 

are exclusively and peculiarly Persian. Even the picture of Ahura 
Mazda (as we find it on various bas-reliefs) is not based upon a 
conception that can be regarded as original. The winged form 
from which the bust of the god of Mazdaism rises can be traced 
to Assyrian emblems, and may, for all we know, be of Accadian 
origin. There is, for instance, a picture of the trinity of Anu, Ea, 
and Bel, which exhibits exactly the same figure that we find in 
the Persian representation of Ahura Mazda. (Fig. 4.) Other 
pictures of Babylonian gods which appear in the same form as 
the Persian representations of Ahura Mazda are quite frequent, 

1 For a concise statement of the Persian religion, which in many respects foreshadows the 
Christian doctrines of a Saviour and of the bodily resurrection of the dead, see Prof. A. V. Wil" 
liains Jackson's excellent article, " The Ancient Persian Doctrine of a Future Life," published 
in the Biblical World, August, 1896. 



and we reproduce one instance in which the deity is floating in the 
sky. (Fig. 7.) This illustration is of interest, because it shows 
the sun and the idol before which the religious ceremony of wor- 
ship is performed as distinct objects. Thus the deity itself is ap- 

Fig. 6. An Assyrian 
Cameo. 1 

Fig. 8. A Persian 

Fig. 7. Assyrian Cylinder. 

{Layard, Cidte de Mitra, pi. xxx., No. 7. Lenor- 

mant, V., p. 248.) 

parently identified with neither and is believed to be an invisible 
witness of the homage paid him at his statue. 

The Babylonian trinity was thought to be male and female, 
and it is notev/orthy that the female representative of the divine 

Fig. g. Merodach Delivering the Moon-God from the Evil Spirits. 
(From a Babylonian cylinder. Reproduced from Smith's Chaldean Account 0/ Genesis.) 

father Anu, the god- mother Anna, also called Istar, was worshipped 
under the symbol of a dove. (Fig. 5). There is no trace of it in 
Mazdaism, but the dove as an emblem of most significant spiritu- 
ality reappears, in a purer and nobler form, in Christianity, while 

1 Both cameos are at the Louvre in the "Cabinet des medailles. 
pp. 448 and 493. 

See Lenormant, /. /. V., 

Ik MAZDAISM. 14.7 

there is no trace of the conventional representation of Ahura 

As to the picture of Ahura Mazda, we have to add that Prof. 
A. V. Williams Jackson explains the ring in the hands of Ahura 
Mazda as "the Circle of Sovereignty,"^ and interprets the loop with 
streamers in which the figure floats as a variation of the same idea, 
for in some of the pictures it appears as a chaplet, or waist-garland 
with ribbons. 2 

It is not possible that the loop with streamers is originally a 
disc representing the disc of the sun after the fashion of Egyptian 
temple decorations. At any rate, there are a great number of As- 
syrian sculptures of the same type which are unequivocally repre- 
sentations of the sun. A cylinder (published in Layard's Culte de 
Mithra, plate XLIX., No. 2) illustrating the myth of god Isdubar's 
descent to Hasisatra, shows the two scorpion-genii of the horizon 
watching the rise and the setting of the sun. Here the sun appears, 
like the figure from which Ahura Mazda rises, as a winged disc 
with feather-tail and streamers. In addition, we find the same pic- 
ture in the deity that protects the tree of life (Fig. 3), which can 
only signify the benign influence of the sun on plants ; and an old 
Babylonian cylinder representing Merodach's fight with the evil 
spirit that darkens the moon (Fig, 9), shows above the moon-god 
the sun covered with clouds in this very same conventional shape. ^ 

Ahura Mazda is pictured as a winged disc without any head, 
in the style of Chaldean sun-pictures, in a cameo representing him 
as worshipped by two sphinxes, between whom the sacred haoma 
plant is seen (Fig. 6). In another cameo (Fig. 8) he appears as a 
human figure without wings, rising from a crescent that hovers 
above the sacrificial fire. Above him is a picture of the sun, and 
before him stands a priest or a king in an attitude of adoration. 

It is noteworthy that there are a few bas-reliefs which replace, 
in the representation of Ahura Mazda, the circle of sovereignty by 
a lotos flower, which may indicate either Egyptian or Indian in- 
fluence. Was the lotos flower in the hands of Ahura Mazda per- 
haps an emblem that was introduced since objections were vigor- 
ously made against bloody sacrifices? If that were so, we might 

ISee his article on " The Circle ofaSovereignty," in the American Oriental Society' s Proceed- 
ings, May, 1889. 

2 See K. O. Kiash, Ancient Persian Sculptures : and also Rawlinson, J. R. A. S., X., p. 187 
Kossowicz, Inscriptiones Palaeo Persicae Achaemeniodoruiu, p. 46, et seq. 

STliere is no need of enumerating other cylinders and bas-reliefs of the same kind, as they 
are too frequently found in Assyrian archaeology. See for instance the illustrations in Lenormant, 
/. /. v., pp. 177, 230, 247, 296, 299, etc. 


J *:5 J J -J _j^j_^ . -ti .J ., .LV J w -^ J A} 

I Ig 10 BaS RfcLItF OF pERbEPOLIb 

fter Coste tt Flandin Petse A}icten?ie pi 136 Reproduced fiom Lenormant, V., p. 485.) 


attribute its use to the spread of a movement that in its rise was 
similar to the Buddhism of India. 

In conclusion we state that some of the early Christians es- 
teemed the religious wisdom of Persia almost as sacred as the dicta 
of the prophets of Israel, for in one of the apocryphal gospels the 
statement is made that the Magi of the East who saw the star of 
Bethlehem came in response to an ancient prophecy of the advent 
of the Saviour that had been made by Zoroaster. 



WHEN THE FIRST European travellers visited the island of 
Madagascar the form of trial known as the ordeal of poison 
was practised by all but the most primitive tribes of the aborig- 
ines. The supreme tribunal of the Hovas recognised its validity ; 
it was encouraged by officials corresponding to our justices of the 
peace, and was a frequent resort of individuals in the settlement of 
private disputes. It simplified litigation. 

" What do you agree to swallow ? " a testy islander would ask 
his opponents, where our Western controversialists would offer to 
stake a sum of money. They had three or four different poisons : 
a variety of stramonium, euphorbia-leaves, and the juice of a fruit 
known as the tangena-cherry, that acted as an emetic, and in large 
doses was apt to extinguish a feebly-flickering life in a couple of 
hours. Vigorous patients often survived its effects, which could 
also be mitigated by various antidotes known only to the initiated. 

As the severest test of endurance then known, it gradually su- 
perseded the milder ordeals, and appeals to that strange form of 
arbitration remained frequent enough to support the traffic of the 
antidote-mongers till the foreigners introduced arsenic and sul- 
phuric acid. 

The {/e^ of desperate litigants promptly resorted to the more 
crucial tests, but with an unexpected result : After a few dozen 
court-rooms had been turned into morgues, ordeals of poison be- 
came unpopular, and Hova patriots began to take a lively interest 
in the European system of trial by jury. 

The most conservative rulers preferred the extension of re- 
forms, to the enlargement of cemeteries ; and similar consideration 
may lead to the abolishment of the ordeal of saltpetre for the settle- 
ment of international disputes. 


Its first introduction seemed to have made warfare easier. 
First-class archers were scarce and expensive, and cavaliers, armed 
cap a-pie, generally preferred to break lances in quarrels of their 
own ; but the invention of gunpowder terminated such monopolies ; 
a boy with a musket could defy the Constable de Bourbon in his 
double coat of Milanese chain-armor; the choice of recruiting-ser- 
geants was no longer limited to athletes. A year's work of a few 
active gunsmiths enabled a city to take the field against its despoil- 
ers ; a single cannon, die faule Grethe — Lazy Peg, as they called 
her on account of her unwieldiness — is said to have smashed the 
walls of one hundred and five different robber castles and reduced 
their proprietors to the alternative of flight or surrender. Battles 
became more frequent and yet less murderous, as they were fought 
at long range and under circumstances enabling the vanquished to 
avoid the massacres following the encounters of ill-matched com- 
batants in the heroic age of hand-to-hand contests. 

For a while it seemed as if campaigns were to be decided by 
manoeuvres like the intricate marches and countermarches of Tu- 
renne and Montecuculi, at a great saving of human life, if not of 
time. Then came the inevitable reaction. The success of reck- 
lessly aggressive tactics compelled their more and more general 
adoption and involved a revival of close-range combats, while the 
mechanism of firearms was improved from year to year. Prince 
Eugene of Savoy advised his cuirassiers to charge at full speed and 
avail themselves of the fact that they could generally break infan- 
try formations "between two volleys," i. e., after they galloped in 
reach of the first bullets and before their enemies had time to load 
again. But half a century later, and after the improvement of 
small arms had made sharpshooters decidedly formidable oppo- 
nents, Frederick the Great issued similar instructions in the form 
of a peremptory order. "At the word of command," says his proc- 
lamation of June 10, 1744, " every squadron shall attack at full 
gallop and in close order ; and his Majesty feels assured that if 
these instructions are implicitly followed the enemy will always be 

Napoleon, on his first appearance in the headquarters of the 
Army of Italy, proclaimed the same principle in a still more une- 
quivocal manner. "The time for making war in a theatrical and 
effeminate manner," he said, "has gone by forever. I do not pro- 
pose to imitate the commanders who mutually appointed a place of 
combat and advanced, hat in hand, to request their opponents to 
fire the first volley. We must cut the enemy in pieces — precipitate 


ourselves like a torrent on their battalions and grind them to pow- 
der, that is, bring back war to its primitive state, and fight as 
Alexander and Caesar did. Experienced generals conduct the troops 
opposed to us ? So much the better! It is not their experience 
that will avail them against me. Mark my words, they will soon 
burn their manuals of tactics." (Headley's Napoleon, Vol. I., 
p. 64.) 

That plan has since been adopted in every desperate action 
from the storming of the Malakoff to the battle of Spottsylvania, 
where Hancock's infantry charged through a storm of bullets that 
gnawed off an oak stump to the roots, and the three hours' rush 
against the batteries that bulwarked the hillside of Gravelotte with 
walls of corpses. 

And in the meanwhile both cannons and small arms have been 
steadily improved. The first blunderbuss muskets had to be served 
by two men, and could be fired only once in five minutes, but the 
advance from those clumsy contrivances to the first breech-loaders 
is not greater than that from a Burnside rifle to the magazine guns 
which for the last seven years have been manufactured at the rate 
of nearly a thousand a day. A squad of six men can now keep up 
a shower of bullets approximating a hundred a minute, i. e., an 
average of sixteen shots each, for a minute and a half, then after a 
pause of ten seconds, recommence their fusillade with replenished 
magazines. And these bullets go five times as far as the musket- 
balls of the Seven Years' War. At a distance of a mile and three- 
quarters they will penetrate a man's body ; at close range they will 
strike through a four-inch plank of the hardest oak wood. And 
moreover, their alleged deficiency in "killing qualities" has been 
remedied by the addition of an alloy of soft, heavy metal that forces 
its way through the steel cap, and, by spreading like mashed wax, 
almost rivals the effect of an explosive shell. 

Prof. W. A. Carlin describes the results of his experiments 
with these projectiles as beyond all his expectations, even when 
his victims were Rocky Mountain grizzlies — next to superstitions 
about the hardest things to kill. "The bear had not heard us," 
he says, "owing to the noise of the running stream, but evi- 
dently suspected that all was not right, for she stood up, turned 
slightly, and was just about to look our way when I sent a soft- 
nose bullet from my 30.40 Winchester into her left shoulder. She 
gave a bawl and turned a complete somersault, landing upright 
on her hind feet and rump. She turned her head towards us, and 
there was no mistaking the ugly expression on her face, when I 


fired again, putting the second bullet diagonally through her chest 
and shoulder. Had I known it, the second shot was hardly needed " 
— nor the third, which smashed the brute's skull. ''The posi mor- 
tem inquest," he continues, " surprised us both. The first shot had 
smashed both shoulders to atoms, the intervening flesh resembling 
jelly and being filled with small splinters of bone. We had never 
seen such a horrible wound. The shock was evidently great, for on 
skinning her we found the lower part of her body badly congested, 
although she had not been struck further back than her shoulders. 
The shot in her head had crushed her skull into such small pieces 
that we could recover only those shown in the illustration" — with a 
photograph of two larger and fifteen smaller skull-fragments, while 
twenty years ago it was considered doubtful if a full-grown grizzly 
could be killed with less than a dozen bullets. 

Imagine the effect of a thousand such projectiles, fired at short 
range into a close-formed squadron of cavalry ! Yet the improve- 
ments of siege-guns and field artillery have almost equalled those 
of small arms. The fortifications of Gibraltar itself are considered 
no longer proof against dynamite bombs, and the German Govern- 
ment demands an additional appropriation of 175,000,000 marks to 
reconstruct its artillery in a manner to offset the advantages of Ca- 
n^t's quick-fire cannon. That invention of Col. Fr. Canet, Super- 
intendent of the Mediterranean Coast Defences, seems to justify 
its description as the field-gun of the future, and to combine the 
advantages of the mitrailleuse with those of a Maxim gun. It is a 
breech-loader of a most ingeniously simple construction that can 
fire five shots per minute and in two minutes can be modified in a 
manner to adapt it to shrapnell, round balls or caissons of grape 
and canister. The carriage terminates in a double prong that 
strikes deep into the ground at the first shot, while the recoil of 
subsequent discharges is checked by pneumatic tubes, allowing a 
gradual but still limited compression of the enclosed air. A bat- 
tery of such machines could almost annihilate a division of infantry 
attempting its capture against the range of an unobstructed fire and 
make cavalry charges so risky that few commanders would order 
them even under cover of darkness. 

It is the knowledge of such risks that has preserved the peace 
of Western Europe for the last twenty five years and put the luxury 
of a man-hunt beyond the resources of second-class powers. Four 
hundred years ago such "autocrats of sixty faithful square leagues," 
as the Dukes of Parma and Modena, Brunswick, and Savoy, were 
fighting like catamounts upon the smallest provocation, and often, 


like Caesar Borgia, without any provocation whatever, except that 
of their ill humors, or, like the elder Dandolo, to stimulate a torpid 

The number of potentates who can afford the expenses of such 
tonics has steadily decreased as the number and destructiveness of 
gunpowder machines increased, and an invention which once threat- 
ened to close the gates of mercy on mankind may thus ultimately 
close the Temple of Janus. 




I had a long talk with my old friend Professor Molecule this 
morning. "Professor," said I, "I have been cogitating over the 
old questions, "What am I? Whence came I? Whither go I?" 
"Then," said he, "you have been wasting your time, for those 
questions are settled. What are you ? Why, like every other en- 
tity, a compound of matter and motion, of various atoms gathered 
from the four winds and operated by Force and Energy ; and some 
of these days you will be decomposed, and the various atoms and 
powers will go to form other entities. Possibly the lime in your 
body may help, centuries hence, to form some huge rock against 
which may dash some vessel bearing, it may be, your remote pro- 
geny ; the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen may become sugar to fat- 
ten, or alcohol to craze, your children's children ; while the brain- 
power you have been expending in puzzling over these questions 
may yet re-appear in an electric flash to carry the messages, or 
blast the homes, of some of your descendants." 

Now, all this may be very interesting, but, oh, how horrible ! 
How vapid, empty, foolish the whole business of life seems to be, 
if that is all ! If my personality is like a pattern seen in a kaleido- 
scope for a moment, composed of little bits of glass which with a 
turn of the instrument are re-distributed to form other "entities," 
I would like to know if life is worth living ! I think with Tennyson 
{In Memoriam, canto ^^') that in such a case man is — 

"A monster, then, a dream, 
A discord. Dragons of the prime 


That tare each other in their slime 

Were mellow music matched with him." 

But I will take a wider range. Supposing I am only a transitory 
combination of certain particles belonging to the world at large, — 
what is the world at large? or indeed the whole universe? How 
came it into being? When little Topsy, in Uncle Tom's Cabin, was 
asked who made her, she answered : "Nobody made me ; 'spects I 
growed." Wonder if the little nigger lass was right after all, — if 
she was an " advanced thinker"? We should call this materialist 
philosophy Topsyism : for when asked who made the universe (or, 
according to the old formula, "heaven and earth") it replies: 
"Nobody made it ; 'spects it growed." On the other hand, the 
"orthodox" reply : "In the beginning God created the Heavens 
and the Earth." How grand, after all, is that opening sentence of 
the Book of Genesis ; how majestic in its severe simplicity ! 

Of course, we accept the findings of science : the world no 
doubt "grew," so to speak, to its present condition. Even the 
huge rocks which our forefathers thought primitive or eternal we 
now know took untold time to form and were the outcome of num- 
berless agencies. But what then? Does excessive age, or slow pro- 
duction, or immensity of result, lessen the necessity of an original 
designer? Are we not as much impressed with the genius and 
power of the framers of the Pyramids, as of the designer of the last 
new cuff-button? Does not the argument from design gather force, 
instead of weakening, as the thought of the immensity of the uni- 
verse and its limitless age grows upon us? I believe with Darwin 
(see the closing words of The Origin of Species') that the Evolution- 
ary Theory gives one a grander idea of the Creator — if there be one 
— than what I may call the mechanical theory of the creation which 
was held formerly. Professor Molecule says that the teleological 
argument breaks down, and makes fun specially of Paley's Nattirao 
Theology. To be sure, the details of that argument are now out of 
date; just as the Chemistry, Physiology, Biology of a hundred years 
ago are out of date now: but the main thesis seems to me to grow 
only stronger with the enlargement of our ideas of "Heaven and 
Earth." Paley opens his case thus : "In crossing a heath, suppose 
I pitched my foot against a stone, and were asked how the stone 
came to be there, I might probably answer that for all I know to 
the contrary it had lain there for ever." I admit, of course, that no 
well-informed person would make such an answer nowadays. But 
the Archdeacon proceeds : "Suppose I had found a watch upon the 
ground and it should be inquired how it happened to be in that 

\ IN NUBIBUS, 157 

place, 1 should hardly think of the answer I had given before." 
No, certainly not. However, a marvellous advance has been made 
since Paley's days, both in science and in practical mechanics. In 
his time there was no knowledge of the ages required to form one 
of the stratified rocks, while the watch was then constructed by 
hand at immense expenditure of time and care by the maker. Now- 
adays watches are made by machinery in short time, while we know 
the stone was the result of a much more intricate and lengthened 
process. I can fancy my friend Molecule and myself walking to- 
gether and such a contingency happening to us. He stubs his toe 
against a stone ; I pick up a watch. "Look here, Professor," I 
cry, "see this wonderful piece of mechanism ! Surely, that evinces 
design and must have had a maker !" — "Pooh, my dear fellow," 
he would exclaim, "there is nothing wonderful in that watch, there 
are thousands like it ; it was all made by machinery, by fixed rules ; 
and once you master the details you will see nothing to wonder at. 
But look at this stone : your watch was made in a few hours ; this 
stone probably took ten thousand years to make. And observe : it 
has some remarkable fossils in it : here is a Trilobite with a twist 
in his tail, and there is a very peculiar Lingula. I shall take this 
stone home with me and write an elaborate monograph on it, and 
render myself immortal: I mean I shall acquire posthumous fame." 

Still, I do not see that the argument for an original designer is 
weakened by all this. To me it seems intensified in proportion to 
the immensity of the thing designed. I might put it as a "Rule of 
Three" sum, thus: As a watch, which took a few hours to put to- 
gether, 2s to a stone, which took ages to put together, so is the de- 
signer of the watch to the designer of the stone, or of the process 
by which the stone was put together. And from the designer of 
this process we argue on to the designer of all the processes of the 

And then again : formerly a watch made by hand called forth 
admiration of the maker's skill and delicate manipulation, much of 
which is now supplanted by mechanical contrivances. Well, sup- 
pose men of genius go on inventing such mechanical appliances, 
until at last a machine is constructed which turns out watches en- 
tire. All one has to do is to put so much gold, silver, steel, etc., 
into a hopper at one end, and at the other out comes a full-blown 
watch, — or a bushel of them, for that matter. I can fancy Profes- 
sor Molecule and myself watching the operation. "Don't you see, 
my dear fellow," he would say, "that it is all a matter of mechani- 
cal laws, and watches must needs come out in obedience to those 


laws? Now, if the materials you put in at one end were, just for 
once, to come out a stew-pan instead of a watch, then indeed I 
should be astonished at the ' miracle,' and attribute it to some 
higher power." 

Now, my answer to that would certainly be : " My dear sir, 
that's all very true, but — who invented that machine ? I see it un- 
erringly grinds out watches in blind obedience to fixed laws, but I 
repeat: Who made that machine? Let me know him that I may 
express my admiration of his skill and power, and 'worship' him — 
to use the word in its old-fashioned sense." 

Now, to apply this argument to the world we live in. I see a 
marvellous fitness of things — a grand inter-relation of laws — matter 
— power — a certain tifiiqueness of the whole Universe. In short, I 
trace design in all — even in the stone, which in Paley's day would 
have excited no emotion. It is not only the mechanical adapted- 
ness of the human eye or hand that fills me with astonishment, but 
also every clod of earth, every atom around me. Professor Mole- 
cule says it is all evolution. The Universe is one vast machine. 
Well, let it be granted. But — who made that machine? 

My pipe is nearly out ; the last wreaths of smoke are ascend- 
ing ; my 'worship' is well-nigh over. Professor Molecule may call 
this fetishism ; Mr. Fred. Harrison may smile at my travestie of his 
religion. But I cannot help it. I don't know if there be a God or 
not. Nevertheless — with all due reverence and solemnit)^ — I offer 
up my incense to — The Maker of the Machine. 


I met Professor Molecule again this morning and discussed 
my machine theory with him. I thought I would pose him with 
the question: "Who made the machine?" But not a bit of it. 
"Most likely," said he, "the machine, as you call it, made itself." 
— "But, Professor," I said, "that can't be, on the line of your own 
teaching. How can nothing produce something? Which was 
prior, the 'machine,' or what you call 'itself? How could the 
machine, when it was non-existent, make itself? How can non- 
entity make an entity? That seems to me harder to believe than 
an)' dogma of theology. That "God created the Universe" is at 
least thinkable, but that non-entity created all entities is to me un- 
thinkable." He replied : "Well, what I mean is this : the various 
component parts of matter and power (which we must postulate to 
be eternal) ranged themselves into the machine. The various 
atoms operated by Force and Energy, and obeying chemical and 

^ IN NUBIBUS. 159 

dynamical laws, in the course of innumerable ages, produced all 
this vast machine, this complex universe, of which you and I are 
infinitesimal, fleeting phenomena. What is the use of seeking 
further? Suppose you found out the maker of the machine, — then 
you must find out who made the maker of the machine, and so on 
ad infinitum.'''' And with that he left me. Now, is he right, I won- 
der? Matter and Power making the machine without a controlling 
mind. And then "Laws" — ivhy laws, and whose laws? Force, and 
Atoms, and Laws, — Laws, and Atoms, and Force. After all that 
is an explanation that don't explain. It is like putting the world 
on an elephant, and the elephant on a tortoise, and the tortoise on 
no one knows what. How came those Laws, so called? Wonder 
did the Atoms meet in Convention and pass resolutions which be- 
came like the decrees of the Medes and Persians? Wonder if they 
decreed, for instance, that when so many atoms of H meet so many 
atoms of O under such and such conditions, they should coalesce 
and form a new entity called Water? Perhaps they said, Let there 
be water, — and there was water. By the way, what lots of resolu- 
tions they must have passed. Wonder if there was any opposition? 
Wonder if, when Atoms moved a resolution, Force did not some- 
times move an amendment? And then, how about the different 
kinds of atoms or elements of which chemistry at present counts 
sixty or seventy? Wonder if each element was represented at the 
original Convention by one Atom or a billion Atoms? Now, Phi- 
losophy and Science make it their special province to search out 
the causes of things. Behold certain phenomena : forth steps sci- 
ence and tells us the causes of these phenomena. But when com- 
mon sense demands, "Will you tell me the cause of those causes?" 
science replies, "That is not my business !" 

But I understand there is a new theory now among the scien- 
tists. These scientists, by the way, ought to take out a Patent 
Right for manufacturing theories. None but they may tneorise — 
or dogmatise either. This new theory is that all these sixty or sev- 
enty elements may yet be reduced to three or four, and possibly at 
last to one. Professor Molecule thinks that some day all our so- 
called elements will be resolvable into Hydrogen, and so that will 
be found to be the great mother-element. If that should be the 
case, we would then get at the great original "Indefinite, incoher- 
ent Homogeneity" of Mr. Herbert Spencer. Then, surely, science 
would give us a creed : — " I believe in Hydrogen." Then I suppose 
we will all worship Hydrogen. We could formulate an article of 
religion similar to the first of the famous Thirty-nine Articles. Let 


US try how the wording of it, mutatis imitandis, would suit our new 

"There is but one living and true Hydrogen, everlasting, with- 
out body, parts or passions, of infinite power, wisdom and goodness, 
the maker and preserver of all things, both visible and invisible." 

Now, let us take this up, clause by clause, as they say in Com- 
mittees, and see what amendments are needed. We shall have to 
change the tense of the first clause as we are speaking of the be- 
ginning of things, and perhaps leave out the word "living." We 
will read it thus : "There was but one everlasting and true Hydro- 
gen." That will do; first clause carried as amended. 

"Without body, parts, or passions." Yes; second clause car- 
ried. "Of infinite Power. " Certainly; all things were made by it ; 
we can set no limit to its power, "potential" at first and then 
"kinetic." "Wisdom" — how about that ? If it knew what it was 
doing, if it had an end in view in all its permutations and combina- 
tions, then it had "Wisdom ;" but if it had no more sense than the 
hydrogen we fill balloons with, — then it had not, and its evolutions 
came out by chance, and that sounds unscientific. However, we 
must leave that out for the present as "not proven." — "Of infinite 
Goodness." Of course, if it had no "wisdom," it had no "good- 
ness." But even if it had "wisdom," the "goodness" would be a 
a question like "the goodness of nature," which we often hear of, 
but which depends altogether upon the point of view. The healthy, 
prosperous man will think nature very good, while the sufferer in 
mind, body, and estate will view it in an opposite light. The little 
insect, fluttering joyously among the flowers, can no doubt thank 
nature for its goodness ; but when it gets caught in the spider's 
web I dare say it fails to see where the goodness comes in. No, 
like "wisdom," "goodness" must be left out of our Confession of 
Faith for the present. The last clause, "the Maker and Preserver 
of all things," etc., may stand, unless the word "Preserver" is ob- 
jected to. But as the Indestructibility of Matter and the Conserva- 
tion of Energy are established scientific facts, we may let it stay, 
and carry the whole clause. So our "Creed," as amended so far, 
would read thus : "There was but one everlasting and true Hydro- 
gen without body, parts, or passions, of infinite power, the maker 
and preserver of all things, both visible and invisible." 

Here at last I have an object of worship. 

Now, I wonder what Hydrogen — supposing it has wisdom — 
thinks of the work of its hands? Wonder if it has itself absorbed 
some of the intelligence it has created or evolved? Wonder if it 


will go on creating or evolving, until at last it produces a God, such 
as men have conceived of ; or if — scared at its own sviccess, at the 
Frankenstein it has produced — it will recall all its own construc- 
tions into itself, and resolve all things again, as at the first, into an 
eternal Nirvana of Hydrogen I^ 

It comes to this, it seems to me : Ever3^body must have some 
"Creed," or belief. The scientific agnostic says he don't know ; but 
he can't help framing theories, adopting hypotheses, as to the ori- 
gin of things. His "working hypothesis," until it is verified, is a 
"creed." Again, all parties, theists and atheists, can agree (since 
the universe had confessedly some beginning) in saying : I believe 
in a maker of heaven and earth ; whether that maker be that very 
vague and indefinite expression, "Nature, " or that definite entity. 
Hydrogen, or the old-fashioned term, God. 

But the materialists must believe in a blind, unconscious maker, 
a haphazard maker, and yet a Creator ; for mindless itself, it created 
Mind; without Intelligence, it created Intellect. It is more easy 
for me to believe in the priority of mind, rather than that Matter 
plus Energy evolved Mind. 

There must be something Eternal, either Mind or Matter — or 
perhaps both. Since I must believe in some originator, I will take 
the most credible theory, the best "working hypothesis," of the 
three. I shall say with the Theist : — 

I believe in God, Maker of Heaven and Earth. 

1 See Clodd's Story of Creation, Part I., Chapter I., and also the summary at the close of the 
book. This work is an admirable epitome of the results of modern scientific research. 




HUMAN PERFECTION, or the perfecting of mankind, has 
often been proposed as the object as well as the criterion of 
ethics. Although absolute perfection, in the sense of a state than 
which there is not a better, may not be readily apprehended, nor, 
much less, realised, yet we can form a clear conception of relative 
perfection, in the sense of a condition better than the present con- 
dition, or than any other condition taken as a term of comparison. 
And, since all ethics, whatever its particular views, deals with the 
means of bettering the condition of man, whether individually or 
collectively, or at least with the means of keeping that condition 
from retrograding, we may perhaps with propriety say that every 
system of ethics aims at the perfection of mankind ; or, in the lan- 
guage of moral philosophy, that perfection is the end of ethics. 
Nor is this all : the very word end implies that the relative perfec- 
tion we have in view is not to be considered as a means or instru- 
ment in the prosecution of some farther object ; for in this case 
that farther object, not perfection, would be the end of ethics. 
This we express by saying that perfection, of one kind or another, 
is to be considered as an end in itself, to be striven after for its own 
sake, and not for the sake of something else ; although it is obvious 
that, there being no end without a means, ethics must necessarily 
relate to the means requisite for the attainment of the end, no less 
than to the end itself. 

But the nature of this end is more or less definite, more or less 
vague, according to the view we take of perfection, i. e. , accord- 
ing to the norm constituting our ethical guide and standard. We 
may, with the hedonist, make of pleasurable feeling our standard 
of perfection j and the practice of morality, in this case, being di- 


rected towards the enjoyment of pleasure, either by ourselves or 
others, we have secured our end, in every special instance, when 
either we or others have experienced the feelings in question ; and 
these feelings being all we seek, we may describe them as consti- 
tuting an end by itself ; an end, moreover, which is perfectly defi- 
nite, and v/hose character as an end — its finalness — is distinctly per- 
ceived. Or we may, with the ordinary intuitionist, establish a 
difference between the "higher" and the ''lower" natures of man, 
including in the former all his virtuous tendencies, or the dictates 
of his "moral sense" ; and in this case (although the distinction is 
by no means clear), we may still say that a given virtue, such as 
chastity (a favorite "virtue" with many writers, among them Mr. 
Lecky), is to be practised for no other reason than because it is an 
element of our " better nature " ; because we know (or, rather, feel') 
that it is better to be pure than to be impure, irrespective of all 
consequences, either to ourselves or others. Here, also, as in the 
preceding instance, we have an end by itself, inasmuch as virtuous 
actions are performed, not in order to attain any remote ends, but 
because we conceive that by performing them we are what we 
"ought to be." In both of the above cases the object in view is 
the satisfaction of what is, or is alleged to be, a specific feeling ; 
and once the feeling has been satisfied, our goal, for the time, has 
been reached. The common characteristic of the two systems is 
that they both present a relatively final condition, whether pleas- 
ure or virtuousness, as the object of conduct; that they both find 
the ethical standard in an ideal capable of being completely re- 

The case, however, is somewhat different when we consider 
perfection in a dynamical instead of a statical sense ; v^hen we 
regard morality as a factor in the evolution of mankind, subject 
itself to the laws of change and adaptation, and playing no other 
part than that of an accelerating force impelling the human race 
in its uninterrupted onward and upward motion. The difference 
between this position and those mentioned above is, that, although 
the intuitionist and the evolutio-hedonist may hold, and do hold, 
that morality is a very powerful element in the development of the 
race, yet it is not a necessary consequence of their views that mor- 
ality should be practised because of its developmental value ; in 
other words, development is not their ethical criterion or standard. 
On the other hand, the doctrine now under consideration regards 
morality as having human progress for its main object \ whence it 
follows that progress, in one form or another, is the ethical crite- 


rion, the standard b)' which conduct is to be judged and measured. 
A system of ethics of this description may, I think, be more par- 
ticularly termed an ethics of perfection. Its distinctive character- 
istic lies in this — that the end of every moral action, being subserv- 
ient to the farther end of human progress, is only a relative end, 
not an end by itself ; and, as such, may be more adequately de- 
scribed as a means, while the real end of ethics is a never-realised 
ideal which recedes from us in proportion as we approach it, or 
which constantly and continuously changes in proportion as it is 
partially realised. We may, however, take another view of the 
matter, and, by picturing to ourselves the evolution of the race as 
an unceasing motion, consider this motion as an end by itself, 
which, with respect to our actions, is attained when we are satis- 
fied that they have been factors contributory to the preservation or 
acceleration of that motion. 

Of all the various forms in which the ethics of perfection has 
appeared, there is one which, affirming to be founded exclusively 
on the law of cosmic evolution, as that law is understood by the 
foremost thinkers of the age, claims for itself, as legitimate prop- 
erty, the title of evolutionary ethics. Unfortunately, however, this 
appellation has been already appropriated by such systems as those 
presented in the works of Leslie Stephen and Herbert Spencer, 
whose doctrines, from a purely ethical point of view, are almost 
(not entirely) diametrically opposed to the doctrines with which I 
am now dealing. It becomes necessary, therefore, to make a dis- 
tinction, and I think we may give the name developmetital ethics to 
that system of ethics whose moral standard is development, espe- 
cially mental development ; in which the morality of an action is 
measured by its fitness to enter as a new factor in the sum total of 
forces impelling the human race in its upward motion. 

Of this ethics Dr. Paul Carus, editor of The Monist, is a very 
strong adherent and enthusiastic advocate. It is the object of the 
present essay to examine the most salient points of his doctrines, as 
they can be gathered from his numerous writings. I shall, first, en- 
deavor to present an outline of his views, not indeed in the literal 
form in which he has stated them, but as they can be logically in- 
terpreted. In following this method of exposition I am not actu- 
ated by the pretentious hope of improving upon Dr. Carus's lucid 
and vigorous presentation of his subject : my reasons are of a more 
plausible nature. In the first place, an uninterrupted series of quo- 
tations is almost always monotonous, especially when they are 
from a well-known writer ; and, in the second place, the critic, by 


presenting, as he understands them, the views he wishes to discuss, 
shows at once what he conceives the position of his author to be, 
and on what interpretation of his author's ideas he will base his 


Having, through the constant study of nature, acquired a scien- 
tific or positivist habit of mind, we have reversed the principles of 
the old systems of philosophy ; and, no longer seeking to evolve 
natural phenomena from the purely formal operations of our un- 
derstanding, we seek in natural phenomena the materials to be 
combined and elaborated in those operations. However consistent 
our theories, however rigorous our reasonings, they will evidently 
remain nothing but pure forms of thought, answering to no ob- 
jective realities, unless the premises have been taken from the ob- 
jective world itself. But, if it is true that, in the language of Kant, 
pure formal thought is ''empty," it is equally true that pure sen- 
sations, the data of experience, are " blind "; whence the necessity, 
on the one side, of looking in experience for the real content of 
knowledge, and, on the other side, of looking in formal thought for 
the meaning or interpretation of sensations. Experience furnishes 
the premises, but logic must give us the conclusions : without the 
classifications of experience in the categories of formal thought, the 
coherence and unification in which real knowledge consist would 
be impossible; man might be a sentient being, but not a cogitative 
being. The laws of logic, however, are not isolated subjectivities, 
disconnected from the world of experience : they are conditions of 
thought corresponding to certain conditions of objective reality : 
they have been arrived at by the elimination of all the special prop- 
erties of reality, except the most general property, without which 
no reality can be conceived, viz., fortn. The laws of logic being, 
then, nothing but the laws of form, they must be applicable to any 
system of reality where form is the primary condition of existence. 
It follows that to that regularity and uniformity known in logic as 
consistency, there must correspond that regularity and uniformity 
in nature we describe by the term law — natural law. Hence we 
arrive at the conception of the universe as being not a chaos, but 
of necessity a cosmos, an orderly concatenation of causes and effects, 
where events, which are only changes of form, are invariably de- 
termined by the preceding forms of existence. Furthermore, the 
correspondence between the operations of formal thought and the 


objective realities of nature arises from their very identity, or their 
oneness ; for the laws of logic are the subjective aspect of the lavs^s 
of nature working in the cerebral substance ; they do not dictate or 
create order, but are the consciousness of the order followed by na- 
ture in the process of organisation : they are self-conscious nature, 
becoming aware of the conditions she has fulfilled, and must have 
fulfilled, in the course of her evolution — nature, so to speak, inter- 
preting herself.^ 

If, having established the universality of law, we ask ourselves 
what view we are to take of the phenomenal world in its entirety, 
we arrive at very important generalisations. Not only the very con- 
ception of the universe as a cosmos leads us to consider it as a unit- 
ary system of reality, but the development of all scientific knowl- 
edge points in the same direction. Knowledge is a continuous 
process of inclusion and harmonisation : of inclusion, in the sense 
that every new fact is understood when it has been referred to, or 
included in, a general order of facts or experiences formulated by 
us as a law ; of harmonisation, in the sense that the inclusion of a 
particular fact in a general order of facts consists in harmonising 
the new fact with the other known facts, in making objective the 
subjective requisite of consistency. In this manner we are led, by 
the very nature of cognition, to the theoretical conclusion that a 
perfect understanding of the v/hole world of phenomena is only pos- 
sible by the reduction of all modes of existence to one single, uni- 
versal law, of which particular laws are but special manifestations, 
or special aspects, conditioned by the special forms in which the 
one universal law exhibits itself. Thus the consistency of facts with 
one another is easily accounted for on the theory of their oneness ; 
a theory which is not merely the result of abstract speculation, but 
a legitimate induction based on the well-established truths of ex- 
perimental science. All science, indeed, aims at the realisation of 
monism, of a continuity in nature which is the characteristic mark 
of its unity ; and, as said before, the solution of scientific problems 
consists in bringing new phenomena within the applicability of one 
law, or in extending the range of the law so as to make it embrace, 
in a synthetic whole, a greater number of phenomena. An un- 
solved problem is an apparent break of continuity, which disap- 
pears on the solution of the problem : so long as the break of con- 
tinuity exists, the problem remains unsolved.^ 

1 See chapter on "Form and Formal Thought" in Dr. C^xms's Fundamental Problems, 2nd 
edit., Chicago, 1894. 

2 See Fundamental Problems, pp. 7, 20, 21, 22; also. The Monist, I., 2, p. 240. "The unitary 
conception of the world has become a postulate of science. Indeed, the single sciences, each one 


One exception seemed for many centuries to defy all efforts di- 
rected towards including it in the one universal whole ; and the 
philosophers of the past were, and many of our own generation are, 
wont to dwell, sometimes with devout satisfaction, sometimes with 
the pangs of despair, on the impassable chasm, impossible of being 
bridged, separating the realm of life and consciousness from the 
lower realm of dead and inert matter. To-day, however, with the 
progress of natural science, the chasm is becoming narrower and 
narrower ; and if we cannot say that we have actually bridged it, 
we can, in some measure, see one shore from the other shore, and 
are not unwarranted in suggesting the means by which the inter- 
vening distance may be satisfactorily spanned. The doctrine of 
evolution, by tracing the most complex forms of life to the relatively 
simple compound known as protoplasm, has familiarised us with 
the truth that matter is possessed of potentialities never before 
dreamed of, and also with the all-important truth that two phases 
of the same process may appear, when taken at sufficient distance 
from each other, as independent, and even disparate, facts ; but 
that, by gradual, infinitesimal changes of the one fact, we may 
finally arrive at the other as its necessary consequence. A gap in 
nature may, therefore, simply indicate, not that the gap is so in 
reality, but that we are unacquainted with the ''connecting links." 
Were we ignorant of the laws of thermotics, we should, no doubt, 
dogmatically affirm, as an axiomatic truth, that so disparate two 
facts as heat and cold could never change into each other, nor one 
originate from the other. The thermometer, however, soon con- 
vinces us of our error ; while, if we stop to reflect on the gradual 
change of a low into a high temperature, all the apparent contra- 
diction disappears at once. A chasm between any two facts of na- 
ture is a subjective discontinuity, not an objective discontinuity; it 
is a discontinuous perception of a continuous reality. 

Since, according to the theory of evolution, the most complex 
forms of consciousness have evolved from the apparently uncon- 
scious protoplasm, we must believe that the material elements con- 
stituting this protoplasm already contain, in a latent form, all the 
elements of mind ; contain feeling in potentia, not otherwise than as 
molar motion contains the potentialities of heat ; or, to use a very 
striking illustration, as darkness contains the potentialities of light. ^ 

in its province, have always worked out and endeavored to verify the principles of monism. 
Every fact which seems to contradict the principle of unity must be, and indeed it is, considered 
as a problem until it conforms to it. As soon as it is found to be in unison with all the other 
facts the problem is solved." [Fundamental Problems, p. 22.) 
1 The Monist, I., i, pp. 85-86. 


And it does not require a long stretch of imagination, nor is it 
illogical or unscientific to conclude, that those very potentialities 
exist as constituent elements of the material particles composing 
the protoplasm ; while the transition from unorganised matter to 
protoplasmic matter is no more impossible (although we are as 
yet ignorant of the process) than the transition of mere protoplas- 
mic matter to man. In this hypothesis the vexed question as to the 
origin of life disappears as unmeaning : life, in its rudiments, is a 
property of all matter, and, as matter, is eternal, and calls for no 
explanation. The problem, then, for science to solve, is not, 
''What is the origin of life?" but — "What is the origin of that 
form of matter known as protoplasm?" And the latter problem is 
not only scientifically intelligible, but its solution is readily con- 
ceived as both possible and probable.^ 

1 Dr. Carus's views as to the universality of life may be found in Fundamental Problems, pp. 
110-133, 185-187, 300. His views on "The Origin of Mind " may be read in The Monist, I., i, and 
Fundamental Problems, pp. 345-347. The theory of the origin of mind from what Professor Clif- 
ford called "mind-stuff," or "elements of feeling," is very clearly and forcibly stated by Dr. 
Carus in the following terms: " Subjectivity cannot originate out of nothing; it must be con- 
ceived as the product of a co-operation of certain elements which are present in the objective 
world. In other words, the elements of the subjective world are features that we must suppose 
to be inseparably united with the elements of the objective world which are represented in our 
mind as motions. This leads to the conclusion that feeling has to be considered not as a simple 
but as a complex phenomenon. Feelings originate through a combination of elements of feeling; 
and the presence of elements of feeling must be supposed to be an intrinsic property of the ob- 
jective world." {The Monist, I., i, p. 72.) "As light originates out of darkness, being a special 
mode of motion, so feeling originates out of the not-feeling. The not-feeling accordingly contains 
the conditions of feeling in a similar way as potential energy contains the potentiality of kinetic 
energy, or as molar motion contains potentially the molecular motion of heat, light, and electri- 
city." {/iJ/o'., pp. 85-86.) I have quoted this theory at some length, for two reasons: in the first 
place, because it exhibits in a very plain light the scientific and naturalistic, and, therefore, de- 
terministic view Dr. Carus takes of man as a natural phenomenon submitted ultimately to the 
laws of chemistry and mechanics (he repudiates this description of his views, but I think its ac- 
curacy can be substantiated, making due allowance for the meaning of words), and this is of 
great importance for my main purpose ; and, in the second place (and although this has no direct 
bearing on my subject, 1 may be allowed to make a short digression), because, although the theory 
is open to serious criticisms (at least as to its form), it is, one of the most striking illustrations of 
the revolution worked in philosophy by the evolutionary doctrines and methods of analysis ; for 
we no longer regard natural phenomena as mechanical jnixtures, whose properties are identical 
with those of the elements mixed, but as combinations, whose properties, although resultants of 
the properties of the combining elements, are not identical with these. — The theistic argument of 
Locke based on the non-cogitativeness of matter is well known. He argues that, if cogitativeness 
were a property of matter, then, since matter is discontinuous (in the sense that it is not all " one 
being"), every particle must be cogitative, and every particle being eternal, every particle must 
be eternally cogitative, and, therefore (he thinks to have proved that the eternal being must be 
"all-knowing"), every particle must be a God. (Locke, Of Human Understanding, book IV.' 
chap. X. Comp. Leibnitz, Nouveatix Essais, liv. IV., ch. x. ) Besides a defective logic, we at once 
discover the error of assuming that mind is a simple, irreducible fact, not derivable from another 
simple and disparate fact — matter ; and that mind, owing to its very simpleness, is not conceiv- 
able except in all its completeness, as we know it in man or imagine it in God. Locke never 
thought there could be such a thing as " elements of feeling," or elements of mind, for he took 
mind to be undecomposable ; and it was, therefore, natural for him to suppose that if matter 
were cogitative at all, every particle must have a developed will, a perfect memory, and a clear 
understanding (although this view, when closely examined, does not tally with the theory of the 
acquisition of ideas, which is really a forntatioii of mind). 



The foregoing doctrines as to the nature of the universe and 
man do away, in the first place, with that anthropomorphic view 
of the world which postulates an independent and arbitrary will 
"directing" all phenomena, either from "within" (and this is 
called an immanent God), or from "without," as in all popular 
forms of theism ; and, in the second place, with that anthropocen- 
tric view which considers the will and the feelings of man as having 
a legitimate claim on, and absolute authority over, the processes 
going on outside of his conscious being. This radical change of 
view as to "man's place in nature" necessarily implies an equally 
radical change of view with regard to man's conduct — with regard 
to ethics. The test of all truth is no longer subjective, but objec- 
tive, — not introspective, but experimental; and ethics, if it aspires 
to be a science at all, must take its stand on the facts of nature, 
considered as objective realities, and formulated into universal laws 
by the scientific principles and methods of research. Since our 
feelings and our thoughts are not self-existing or independent en- 
tities, but are dependent on, and related to, the whole order of 
nature, it is necessary to know what that order is, what its laws 
are, and how we are connected with them ; and this done, we shall 
be enabled to enunciate in truly scientific formulas the special 
laws of conduct we ordinarily distinguish as ethical rules. 

It may be stated at the outset, that the "authority" for ethics, 
the ultimate sanction and standard of conduct, can be no other than 
the cosmical order itself. Although the cosmos itself is neither 
moral nor immoral, it is the possibility for such a thing as a moral 
life; a possibility which, by the development of consciousness, has 
become an actuality. When we are convinced that all present ex- 
istence is but a feature of the one eternal reality, that our con- 
sciousness has been formed and moulded by the invariable laws of 
the objective world, and that our actions, being special manifesta- 
tions of those laws through the intermediary of feeling, are really 
continuations of an uninterrupted motion which comes from eter- 
nity and goes to eternity, following one, and only one, direction ; 
then we see how idle it is to speculate on what, according to the 
fancies of our imagination, ought to be, without taking the trouble 
to inquire into the deeper question of what, according to the na- 
ture of things as we know them by experience, 7nust be ; and how 
liable we are to err when, leaving aside the criterion of objective 



reality, we erect our feelings into a criterion of morality, by con- 
fusing those things which are logically possible with those that 
alone are actually possible, their possibility being no other than 
their very existence. The can is a prerequisite of the moral ought; 
but this can^ in order to be so actually and objectively, has to be an 
agreement with the universal laws of nature; in which case the can 
is identical with the must. The universal laws of nature, then, being 
the necessary conditions of actual possibility, are the only justifica- 
tion of the moral precepts and the moral ought; and it is a sufficient 
guarantee of the morality of an action to show that it harmonises 
with those cosmical operations which have been revealed to us by 
scientific research. Nor could it be otherwise ; for only that endures 
which, as a part, can fit the universal whole of phenomena ; what 
does not fit must meet with inevitable ruin; and it is needless to 
say that what is doomed to certain failure cannot be a subject of 
approbation. In this sense we may say that morality "means obe- 
dience to the law," and that "human beings can be moral or im- 
moral, according as their conduct agrees with, or does not agree 
with, God" (the universe). ^ Our very existence is involved in our 
obedience or disobedience to the supreme authority of nature; if 
we wish to exist, we must submit to the "cosmical conditions of 
existence," and such actions as conform to those conditions must 
be considered "good"; other actions, "bad."^ 

Were we unacquainted with the direction in which the world 
moves, with the line of progress in general, and of human progress 
in particular, ethics would have no meaning : in the ignorance of 
the causal relations between human actions and their consequences, 
one form of conduct could have no more justification than another; 
at least, no more a priori justification. But if there is a law of 
progress, a direction in which alone progress can take place, and 
if we know that law, then that law is our only possible norm of 
morality.^ This norm has been revealed to us by the doctrine 
of evolution, the first of whose teachings is, "that life as it is now 
can transcend itself; it can transform itself, and must, according to 
nature's laws, transform itself into a higher form of life."* When 

"^Fundamental Problems, pp. 315, 321. Dr. Carus constantly reverts to this position— that the 
objective phenomena of nature are the supreme authority and criterion of ethics. (See, e. g., 
Fundamental Problems, pp. igS, 257, 322, 328. 329; Religion of Science, second edition, Chicago, 
1896, pp. 21, 27; Ethical Problem, Chicago, 1890, p. 31 ; The Monist, I., 4: "The Criterion of Ethics 
an Objective Reality.") 

"i-Ethical Problem, p. 31. 

^'Homilies of Science , Chicago, 1892, p. 37. 

iFundamenial Problems, p. 316. " Morality is that which is in concord with the law of evolu- 
tion." (The Monist, VI., 4, p. 389.) 


life is thus considered as a necessary, continuous upward movement, 
and conduct as one of the factors of this movement, the moral 
problem appears no longer as a mere question of ought, but mainly 
as a question of must: its solution consists in rationalising the ought 
by bringing it within the pale of the must. Shortly stated, the ethics 
of development may be thus formulated : Since the world moves 
in a certain direction, it must move in that direction ; since it must 
move in that direction, we, who are but elements of the world, must 
act so as to further that movement. Hence development is at once 
the cause, the standard, and the authority of ethics. 

Here the very natural question presents itself : What is meant 
by development, by progress ? To this Dr. Carus answers that 
"the test of progress must be sought in the growth of soul." By 
soul, of course, he does not mean an independent and "spiritual" 
ego, but simply the mental activity of the nervous structure. For 
us, as conscious beings, the world is a system of interconnected 
phenomena more or less accurately represented, or "imaged," 
in the cerebral substance ; and, in proportion as our experiences 
grow in number and complexity, the representation gains in ac- 
curacy and distinctness ; which means that we interpret our feelings 
in a more faithful manner, or that there is a closer correspondence 
between the subjective states and their objective correlates. Other- 
wise stated, soul-progress consists in a constant approach to truth ; 
for truth is nothing but the correct interpretation of our feelings, 
or a congruity of our mental states with reality.^ Considering, then, 
the development of soul as, for us, the most important feature of 
cosmical law, we may accept it as a direct criterion of ethics, a 
standard of right and wrong ; this standard not being different from 
the law of evolution in general, nor from the supreme standard of 
universal law, but simply a special aspect of both, or a special point 
of view from which we may regard them ; there being, strictly speak- 
ing, only one law by which all phenomena are governed, and to 
which all particular laws can and must be referred.^ 


Such are, if I have understood them aright, the fundamental 
principles of developmental ethics. I have dispensed with minor 

1 Homilies of Science, pp. 41-42. 

2 In this sense, I think, are to be taken Dr. Carus's numerous references to the development 
of " soul-life" as the ethical criterion. It is man's duty, he says, to do " that which he needs 
must do, according to the laws of nature, to let his soul grow and expand, and to develop to ever 
higher and nobler aims." {The Monist, I., 4, p. 560.) "That which makes our souls grow and 
evolve is moral, that which dwarfs our souls and prevents their evolution is immoral." {Homilies 
of Science, p. 47.) Compare Ethical Problem, p. 42. 


details, it being my main purpose to discuss the bases of the sys- 
tem ; but to such particulars as are of capital importance I shall 
advert in the course of my discussion. Although I believe that the 
postulates set forth by Dr. Carus as the foundations of his ethical 
theory are substantially correct, being identical with the generally 
accepted scientific doctrines of to-day, it does not appear to me 
that he has made a logical application of them ; that is to say, his 
ethical corollaries do not seem to be consistent with the general 
principles from which he has endeavored to derive them. 

The first objection to the ethics of development is one which, 
demolishing, as I conceive, the very foundations, brings the whole 
structure to the ground ; the objection, namely, that the foregoing 
principles themselves are a protest against, and a nullification of, 
all ethical judgments ; and that, therefore, it is an incongruity to 
speak of morality as deriving its authority from those principles. 
If we are nothing but a part of nature ; if our development obeys 
necessary, universal laws ; in short, if we ourselves are natural phe- 
nomena, is it not a contradiction to say that we can oppose the laws 
of nature, and be thereby immoral ? All human passions being of 
natural growth, are all alike transformations of the one universal 
energy, as it operates in the various forms of material existence; 
and passions being the springs of our voluntary actions, the action 
of the martyr is as natural as the action of his executioner; they 
both follow the laws of their natures, that is, the laws of nature ; 
there is nothing in the one that makes his action more " agreeable " 
to the cosmical order than the action of the other ; and, judged by 
the supreme standard of universal law, they are equally moral, that 
is to say, they both act in response to the demands of nature, the 
only difference being that nature makes different demands upon dif- 
ferent organisms. If, then, the laws of nature in general are to be 
accepted as the standard, there is really no standard, for the simple 
reason that there is no right or wrong ; and the everlasting objec- 
tion against Spinozism remains unanswered, unless we have the 
courage to abide by the logical consequences of our postulates, and 
declare, with the philosopher, that a scoundrel is no more blamable 
for being a scoundrel than a horse for being a horse. ^ For Spinoza, 
however, the scoundrel is simply "excusable"; but, according to 
that view which identifies morality with naturalness, the scoundrel 
must be declared to be actually moral. In fact, since everything 
happens, and every man acts, in absolute conformity with the laws 
of nature, the criterion of right is nothing but bare reality; right- 

^Lettre Ue Spinoza fi H. Oldenberg (CEuvres, t. III., pp. Z7(>--i77, Saisset's trans., Paris, 1872). 


ness and existence are ultimately one and the same thing ; and it 
were better to do away with all ethical terminology, for such terms 
as moral and immoral, good and bad, right and wrong lose all their 
significance, when one of the terms of the antithesis has disappeared. 

The objection, however, may be partially met by saying, that 
our standard is not to be found in the laws of nature in general, but 
in the law of evolution in particular ; that ethics takes into consid- 
eration the difference between actions which tend to promote, and 
actions which tend to retard, the evolutionary movement ; and that 
the latter, although really as natural as the former, are by us con- 
ceived, at least relatively, as opposed to these, and may, in ordi- 
nary language, be said to be antagonistic to the general movement 
of the race. There seems, then, no contradiction in classifying con- 
duct, as we classify other natural facts, into two different orders : 
good actions, which are conducive to development ; and bad ac- 
tions, which are opposed to development. And it may be added 
that this distinction, when the words are sufficiently understood, 
and the hair-splitting of casuistry is not allowed to confuse what is 
plain, is entirely intelligible, and may be legitimately used as the 
foundation of a science of morality — of an ethics. Furthermore, it 
may be argued that the moral feelings from which ethical judgments 
arise, are simply the emotional concomitants of human progress ; 
that the law of society being a law of evolution, special feelings 
evolve, as is to be expected, in harmony with the same law ; and 
that thus both the physiological and the psychological aspects of 
morality are perfectly understandable : the physiological, in the 
sense that a moral person, considered as a social organ, must dis- 
charge his functions in a manner subservient to the health and vi- 
tality of the whole ; the psychological, in the sense that the actions 
and judgments of a moral person are accompanied by those char- 
acteristic feelings we distinguish as moral feelings. 

While the logical cogency of such a reasoning as this will not 
be disputed, the assumptions made are open to the following objec- 
tions. As regards the physiological aspect of the question, it can- 
not be denied that, if by ethics is meant 7wthing but the science of 
the objective relations and consequences of conduct, viewed from 
a purely descriptive and non-emotional point of view, the ethics of 
development, being a branch of natural science, rests on as solid a 
foundation as human physiology; it may, indeed, be termed social 
physiology.^ So long as we confine ourselves to tracing the con- 

l"If by moral science," says Fouillee, "we mean the science of the necessary conditions 
of individual and social progress, we can understand how it was possible for Spinoza to write 

174 "^^^^ OPEN COURT. 

sequences of murder as affecting the stability of the social group 
and the sense of security of its members, its effects upon industry, 
trade, and other pursuits of our activity, we are within the limits 
of descriptive science. But in this there is nothing sufficiently 
characteristic to make a separate science, a science of ethics ; for 
in the above facts we have nothing but a combination of sociology, 
psychology, and political economy ; and, if this is all we have to 
deal with, we are only disguising our surrender of ethics with the 
obstinate preservation of the name. Although I believe that this 
will finally be the only view taken of the matter — that the right- 
and-wrong ethics will finally disappear — I do not believe that we 
have reached that state, or that ethics is understood in this bare 
and indifferent physiological sense. For us ethics implies a special 
kind of feelings — moral feelings — and a special kind of judgments 
— moral judgments. Ethics, in its present form, deals with the 
relations of human conduct considered not only in their external 
reality as mere facts or data to be used and elaborated by reason, 
according to the pure laws of formal thought : it deals with those 
relations in so far as they affect our emotional nature — our concep- 
tions and feelings of right and wrong. The part of science in mod- 
ern ethics is to bring certain forms of conduct within the pale of the 
moral feelings ; to show the connexion between the various forms 
of conduct and a recognised emotional standard. When the sur- 
geon is asked to justify himself for amputating his patient's limb, 
he explains that the operation is necessary in order to save the pa- 
tient's life : his science enables him to establish the morality of 
his conduct by showing the agreement of his action with a recog- 
nised moral judgment — that it is right to save a man's life. 

Ethics, then, must take account of an emotional factor, which, 
being indispensable to all ethical judgments, has to be considered 
as a criterion ; and this criterion, by its very nature, is purely sub- 
jective. To say that the amputation of a gangrened limb will save 
a man's life is not an ethical proposition ; it is the statement of a 
matter of fact, not of a moral judgment. The moral judgment is 
passed when we say that we ought to save the man's life, or that 
it is our duty to save the man's life. Indeed, Dr. Carus himself, by 
his frequent references to the ought, the sense of duty, and other 
emotional conditions, as inseparable from morality, has virtually 

a science of morality, an ethics." (A. Fouillee, La liberie et le dHerfninisme, sme. 6d., p. 52.) 
Here, however, the subjective element, apparently excluded, is virtually included in the term 
"progress." Unless progress is maintained to be a moral end, something that ought to be aimed 
at, the above description may apply to biology and to sociology, not to ethics. 


surrendered his objective standard.^ Although he has written an 
essay intended to prove that ''the criterion of ethics is an object- 
ive reality,"^ yet he speaks of ethics as having for its object to 
teach us our duty;^ and this is to recognise that the objective cri- 
terion, whatever it may be, must be ultimately subordinated to a 
subjective criterion ; for, while the apprehension of a fact and its 
effects as simple relations of reality is a mental process guided by 
entirely objective conditions, the apprehension of the same fact as 
a duty is guided more specially by subjective, emotional conditions, 
which, whatever our theory as to the nature of the moral feelings, 
maybe included under the two general terms, "moral approba- 
tion" and "moral disapprobation." 

Dr. Cams may, perhaps, say that this is a misconstruction of 
his views; that, while he recognises the sense of duty, that sense 
of duty is governed by the actual facts of reality, and that it is to 
these facts that we must ultimately refer as being super-ordinate to 
all subjective states. He may say that once development has been 
ascertained by scientific research to be an unavoidable law, we 
will, as a matter of fact and of necessity, modify our sense of duty 
so as to make it correspond with what we necessarily must do. 
But to this the obvious answer is, that development is not a law 
of human nature individually considered : that some individuals 
neither wish to, nor do, "develop," and that their condition is as 
much a matter of law and of must as the condition of those who 
wish to, and do, "develop." The developmentalist must show 
why his line of action is "better" than theirs; he must show that 
his line of action is preferable or more desirable ; and, in doing 
this, he cannot help appealing to those subjective states in which 
preference and desire consist. And if, with Dr. Cams, we reject 
the hedonistic theory, in which these states are reducible to pleas- 
ure and pain, we must accept the ought and the "moral feelings " 
of the intuitionist, although putting on them a scientific interpreta- 
tion ; accept them, be it understood, as standards, guides, or crite- 
ria; for nature presents to us two opposite roads, either of which 
we can, or believe we can, follow; and nothing can determine us 
to follow one or the other except either our desire for happiness or 

ISse, €.£:., Fundamental Problems, pp. 191, 202, where "the ought in our breasts," which is 
identified with Kant's categorical imperative, is declared to be "an undeniable fact" insepara- 
ble from " our moral consciousness " ; and where it is affirmed that, without the moral ought, 
" human society could not even exist, nor could it ever have risen into existence." 

2 The Monist I, 4, to which I have already referred. 

ilbid., p. 560. Compare Ethical Pj-obletn, p. 7, and Religion 0/ Science, p. 28. 


our sense of duty (assuming, with Dr. Carus, that the two are dif- 
ferent from each other). 

Furthermore, when we come to examine this psychological 
characteristic of moral judgments, we find it in irreconcilable con- 
flict with the fundamental principles of monistic philosophy. We 
cannot rest satisfied with the assertion that the moral feelings are 
the concomitant emotional states of our general development, or 
that they are ''social instincts" which have grown together with, 
and as necessary elements of, social progress, being but the con- 
sciousness, on the part of every individual, of his relations to, and 
dependence upon, the other individuals constituting the society of 
which he is but a subordinate part.^ It becomes indispensable to 
see if those feelings be of such a nature as will agree with our sci- 
entific doctrines, and whether the sub-criterion of development 
consist with the supreme criterion — the cosmical laws. It must be 
remembered that, according to our view of these laws, a scoundrel 
is as necessarily a scoundrel as a horse is a horse ; and such being 
the case, I may appeal to consciousness, and ask : When we are 
convinced that the scoundrel is as much a necessary outcome of 
cosmical laws as the tiger or the hyena, shall we, or can we, attach 
to our judgment of his conduct any feeling of moral disapproba- 
tion? If I may, in this matter, judge of the consciousness of others 
by my own consciousness, I think the general answer to such ques- 
tion is not uncertain. And the reason, in my opinion, is, that the 
moral feelings are not only the psychical correlates of our physical 
and social evolution : they have been derived, among other sources 
and experiences, from the conception of man as a free agent, and 
from the exclusion of man from the universal realm of nature ; that 
is, they owe their origin to, and are based on, conceptions entirely 
antagonistic to the conceptions of monism. To say it is a man's 
duty to do a certain action, or that he ought to do a certain action, 
is to say that we can reasonably expect him to do that action ; is 
to suppose that he can, irrespective of his special constitution, 
do the action ; it is, in short, to suppose that it is possible for every 
man to act in a certain manner ; and this is obviously a lack of 
recognition of that law of causation that asserts that a given man 
can act in only one way, whatever that way may be; although, in 
our uncertainty as to his real nature, it is not unreasonable to think 
that he 7nay act as desired. 


1 Such is the view taken by Dr. Carus. (See Ethical Problem, pp. 39, 56.) 



COMPARATIVE RELIGION has made much headway; but 
while the religions of Asia (Mohammedanism, Buddhism, 
Brahmanism, Confucianism, and Taoism), are very diligently stud- 
ied, the religion of our Saxon forefathers, of the Teutons in Conti- 
nental Europe, of the Norse and of the Icelanders, is much neg- 
lected. And yet it is of great importance — in some respects, perhaps, 
more important than the religions of the East, which at present 
stand in the foreground. For, while the Eastern religions are of 
foreign growth, the mythology of our ancestors has very largely 
entered into the present make-up of oui- Christianity. 

It will be astonishing to many people how many ideas, cus- 
toms, and aspirations of the old Northern world-conception have 
been embodied in Christianity and are now commonly regarded as 
peculiarly Christian. 

When the Roman See succeeded in being recognised by the 
new converts of Great Britain, and when the Anglo-Saxon Win- 
frid converted the Germans on the Continent, making them all 
spiritually subject to Rome, when, finally, the Franconians adopted 
the Roman form of Christianity, the ecclesiastical supremacy of 
Rome in Western Europe was firmly established ; but the con- 
quest of these large tracts populated by nations of Teutonic blood 
at the same time began gradually to change the Christianity of 
Rome. Innumerable dignitaries of the Roman Church, who came 
from the North, introduced many of their Northern views, festi- 
vals, and ideals, embodying them as much as possible in church 
institutions. The celebration of the birth of Christ at the time of 
the old Yule festival is by no means an isolated nor the most im- 
portant incident of Northern influence. The most momentous in- 
novation, which was due to the influence of the Teutonic races, 


was the new spirit in which the doctrines of Christianity were re- 
ceived. While the old Christianity absolutely abandoned all worldly 
interests for the sake of salvation to be attained in a future life, the 
Teutons introduced their views of struggle and the ethics of strug- 
gle in this world. 

The Jerusalemitic Christianity had communistic tendencies and 
their communism practically constituted the most important feature 
of the new religion, so much so that those who would not submit 
on this point were supposed to be punished immediately by the 
Holy Ghost with death. The Jewish Christianity naturally went out 
of existence, because it attempted to realise an impossible ideah 
However, before it became extinct in Jerusalem, it was transferred 
to Greece and found two formulations which are represented, the 
one in St. Paul, the other in the Fourth Gospel according to St. 
John. In St. Paul's Christianity the second advent of Christ still 
constitutes the central doctrine. The apostle expects the return 
of Christ during his lifetime, and admonishes everybody to be pre- 
pared for it. 

From Greece, Christianity spread to Rome, where Christianity 
adopted the Roman forms of worship, continuing at the same time 
the belief in various Italian deities with a new meaning under the 
name of Christian saints. 

In spite of many close similarities, Roman Christianity was so 
different from Greek Christianity that they were never united. 
While the West of Europe fell to Rome, Greek Christianity spread 
all over Russia, where it became the state religion, and the Em- 
peror of Russia has come to be recognised as the official head of 
the entire Greek Church. 

Although Rome incorporated in its own institutions a great 
number of the changes that the conversion of the Teutons wrought, 
the difference between Roman Christianity and Teuton Christianity 
became so great in the course of time that it led, in the sixteenth 
century, to that great schism which is known as the Reformation. 
The abuses and the misgovernment which prevailed in those days 
in the church were the cause of the Reformation, but they were by 
no means the sole factor that led to the final and complete split 
dividing the old church into two camps, the Teutonic Christianity 
represented by the English, the Germans, the Dutch, the Swedes, 
the Norwegians, and the Icelanders, and the Roman Christianity, 
embodying the Romance nations, and including the Celts of Ireland. 

The difference between these two kinds of Christianity lies 
deeper than is generally supposed. The Roman Church had its 



Hel, the Goddess of the Nether World. (By Johannes Gehrts.) 


counter reformation, and almost all the abuses of which Luther 
complained were abrogated, or at least changed, so as to show no 
longer those features which made them objectionable ; and yet the 
split between the two kinds of Christianity remains and will remain 
so long as the main differences of national character, of habits, and 
of ethics distinguish the adherents of both forms of religion. 

In order to appreciate the difference that obtains between Teu- 
ton and Roman Christianity, we must go back to the world-concep- 
tion of the ancestors of the Teutonic races, as it took shape in 
their religion. There we find the character of the race in simple 
and strong outlines. The religion of our forefathers is illustrated 
in its practical application in Tacitus's account of the Germans, 
which is the most valuable information we have on the subject.^ 
Their mythology is not as artistically finished as the mythology of 
the Greeks, but it is superior to Greek mythology by being philo- 
sophically deeper and practically sounder. 

The significance of Northern mythology consists in the recog- 
nition of the struggle that is going on everywhere in the world. 
Death is inevitable, but death is transfigured when it is the death 
of a hero who fights courageously and, if possible, victoriously. 
Human ideals are represented in the Asas, and the Asas are the 
main gods of the Teutons, but the Asas have originated, they have 
to fight for their lives, and will finally perish again. 

The struggle for existence was perhaps nowhere severer than 
in the climate of Northern Europe, and the ethics of struggle were 
perhaps more important to the races of the cold north than to the 
people of the sunny south, and the Teutons learned the lesson. It 
is remarkable that all the Germanic races do not look upon strug- 
gle as being in itself an evil, nor do they look to victory as the 
main thing to be achieved. Their highest ambition is to fight the 
struggle nobly and squarely, not to shrink from either wounds or 
death, not to show cowardice of any kind, not to take advantage of 
a weak foeman. The most hated enemy's life was safe as soon as 
he was in a condition of helplessness, be it that he was without 
arms, that he was wounded or disabled from defending himself for 
some other reason. To be conquered in a duel or to be slain in 
battle was not regarded as a disgrace ; but the use of foul means 
for the sake of gaining a victory was considered a crime which 
brought contempt and shame upon him who dared to do it. 

1 Tacitus's Germania is a short treatise, but it is of great historical importance. It should be 
a text-book in our schools, and every one who has a drop of Teutonic blood in his veins, be it 
Saxon, or German, or Norse, ought to have read and reread that ancient account of the habits and 
life of his ancestors. 


As an instance of this nobility of the Teutonic ethics of strug- 
gle, we refer to an incident which is told in the Nibelungenlied. 
When Hagen, standing at the door of Atli's hall, overcomes all the 
Huns who try to force an entrance, he is at last met by Riidiger, a 
vassal of Atli and a personal friend of Hagen. Hagen reproaches 
Rudiger, not for coming to fight him, for that was Riidiger's duty, 
because he had sworn allegiance to Atli, but for combating a man 
whose shield has suffered serious injuries in former combats. 
While Hagen is worn out, Rudiger comes with fresh vigor, and 
since Rudiger would be ashamed of taking advantage of the insuffi- 
cient armor of his foe, he gives him the necessary equipment. Be- 
fore Rudiger proceeds to fight, he hands his own shield to Hagen 
and takes the dilapidated shield of his adversary in order to equal- 
ise the conditions of the fight. 

It is this ethics of struggle which made the Teutonic races so 
strong, and if the Saxon is taking possession of the world it is not 
so much due to a physical superiority of the Teutonic race, but to 
the superior views which they hold dear as to the methods that are 
to be employed in fighting their adversaries. 

Although infinitely superior to common mortals, the Asas, or 
gods, are not above error and sin. Indeed their conduct, although 
upon the whole quite noble and elevating, is not free from re- 
proach. They made mistakes, and having from carelessness got 
into trouble, they committed the worst sin imaginable to a Teu- 
tonic mind, — they broke their faith. This is the reason why the 
present condition of the world is full of evil and the Asas fight 
bravely against the powers of evil until at last, on doomsday, 
which is called Ragnarok, a final battle will take place in which 
the gods as well as their enemies will be slain, and the whole world 
will be destroyed. Yet this is not the end of all, for after the de- 
struction of the world through the fire of Muspil a new world will 
originate and the old gods will reappear with new chances for a 
better and more sinless life. 

The enemies of the Asas are the giants who represent the 
forces of nature. Although morally and intellectually inferior to the 
Asas, the giants are in many respects much more powerful, — which 
finds expression in the tale of Skrymer, where we read how Asa- 
Thor drank from a drinking-horn and could not empty it. He tried 
to raise a cat, and could not lift it from the ground. He wrestled 
with a toothless old woman and could not overcome her. The 
drinking-horn which he could not empty was the ocean (his 
attempts to do so resulted in the phenomenon of the tides); 


the cat which he could not lift was the Midgard serpent, the evil 
dragon which encompasses in its coils the whole world ; and the 
toothless old woman whom the strongest of the gods could not 
throw to the ground was old age. 

The literature on the religion of the Teutonic races has hereto- 
fore been almost exclusively written in German, Danish, Icelandic, 
Swedish, or Norwegian, and the standard works on the subject by 
Grimm, Simrock, Lachmann, Felix Dahn,i and others, are well 
known the world over. A few years ago, however, R. B. Ander- 
son, professor of the Scandinavian languae^es in the University of 
Wisconsin, published a series of English-written books on Norse 
mythology and Viking sagas, which are a boon to the English- 
speaking world, especially to students of comparative religion and 
mythology, and we recommend them heartily to our readers. As 
Professor Anderson is very well versed in the traditions of his fore- 
fathers, his works are a most reliable source of information, and 
since they are at the same time written in a very popular style, it is 
hoped that they will be read and appreciated by our public and will 
fill a great gap in our libraries. 

Professor Anderson says in his book Norse Mythology -P- 

"Greek Mythology is frivolous, the Norse is profound. The 
frivolous mind lives but to enjoy the passing moment ; the pro- 
found mind reflects, considers the past and the future. The Greek 
abandoned himself wholly to this life. The Norseman accepted 
life as a good gift, but he knew that he was merely its transient 
possessor. Over every moment of life hangs a threatening sword, 
which may in the next moment prove fatal. Life possesses no hour 
of the future. And this is the peculiar characteristic of the heroic 
life in the North, that our ancestors were powerfully impressed 
with the uncertainty of life. They constantly witnessed the inter- 
change of life and death, and this nourished in them the thought 
that life is not worth keeping, for no one knows how soon it may 
end. Life itself has no value, but the object constantly to be held 
in view is to die an honorable death. 

"In comparing the Greek mythology with the Norse, it was 
stated that the Norse has a theoktonic myth, while the Greek lacks 

"^Walhall by Felix and Therese Dahn (published by Geibel & Brockhaus, Leipsic) is a very 
attractive work. Not only is Felix Dahn, the famous author of Der Katnpf um Rom,\.\\^ best 
authority on the subject of Teutonic law, customs, and mythology, but he has found in Johannes 
Gehrts an illustrator of great force. We here reproduce with the permission of the publishers 
two pictures by Gehrts, one representing Hel, the goddess of the lower world, and the other Rag. 
narok or Doomsday, the last battle between the gods and the powers of evil. 

2 Other works by the same author are The Younger Edda and Viking Tales of ilie Xorth, 
published by S. C. Griggs & Co., Chicago. 


the final act of the grand drama. The Greeks knew of no death of 
the gods ; their gods were immortal. And yet, what were they but 
an ideal conception of the forms of life? And this life, with all its 
vanity, pomp, and glory, the Greek loved so dearly that he thought 
it must last forever. He imagined an everlasting series of changes. 
But what will then the final result be? Shall the thundering Zeus 
forever continue to thunder? Shall the faithless Aphrodite forever 
be unfaithful? Shall Typhon forever go on with his desolations? 
Shall the sinner continue to sin forever, and shall the world con- 
tinue without end to foster and nourish evil? These are questions 
that find no satisfactory answer in the Greek mythology. 

"Among the Norsemen, on the other hand, we find in their 
most ancient records a clearly expressed faith in the perishableness 
of all things ; and we find this faith at ever}^ step that the Norse- 
man has taken. The origin of this faith we seek in vain ; it con- 
ceals itself beneath the waters of the primeval fountains of their 
thoughts and aspirations. They regarded death as but the middle 
of a long life. They considered it cowardice to spare a life that is 
to return ; they thought it folly to care for a world that must neces- 
sarily perish ; while they knew that their spirits would be clothed 
with increased vigor in the other world. Happy were they who 
lived beneath the polar star, for the greatest fear that man knows, 
the fear of death, disturbed them not. They rushed cheerfully upon 
the sword ; they entered the battle boldly, for, like their gods, who 
every moment looked forward to the inevitable Ragnarok, they 
knew that life could be purchased by a heroic death. 

"The very fact that the gods in the creation proceeded from 
the giant Ymer foreshadowed their destruction. The germ of death 
was in their nature from the beginning, and this germ would grad- 
ually develop as their strength gradually became wasted and con- 
sumed. That which is born must die, but that which is not born 
cannot grow old. 

"The gradual growth of this germ of death, and correspond- 
ing waste of the strength of the gods, is profoundly sketched 
throughout the mythology. The gods cannot be conquered unless 
they make themselves weak ; but such is the very nature of things 
that they must do this. To win the charming Gerd, Frey must 
give away his sword, but when the great final conflict comes he 
has no weapon. In order that the Fenris-wolf may be chained, 
Tyr must risk his right hand, and he loses it. How shall he then 
fight in Ragnarok? Balder could not have died had not the gods 
been blind and presumptuous ; their thoughtlessness put weapons 

1 84 


into the hands of their enemy. Hoder would never have thrown 
the fatal mistletoe had not their own appointed game been an m- 

ducement to him to honor his brother. When Loke became sepa- 
rated from Odin the death of the gods was a foregone conclusion. 
"Our old Gothic fathers, in the poetic dawn of our race, in- 
vestigated the origin and beginning of nature and time. The divine 


poetic and imaginative spark in them lifted them up to the Eter- 
nal, to that wonderful secret fountain which is the source of all 
things. They looked about them in profound meditation to find 
the image and reflection of that glorious harmony which their soul 
in its heavenly flights had found, but in all earthly things they dis- 
covered strife and warfare. When the storms bent the pine trees 
on the mountain tops, and when the foaming waves rolled in 
gigantic fury against the rocky cliffs, the Norseman saw strife. 
When the growl of the bear and the howl of the wolf blended with 
the moaning of the winds and the roaring of the waters, he heard 
strife. In unceasing conflict with the earth, with the beasts, and 
with each other, he saw men stand, conquer, and fall. If he lifted 
his weary eye toward the skies he saw the light struggling with the 
darkness and with itself. When light arose out of darkness, it was 
greeted with enthusiasm ; when it sank again into darkness, its rays 
were broken and it dissolved in glimmering colors ; and if he looked 
down into the heart of man, into his own breast, he found that all 
this conflict of opposing elements in the outward world did but 
faintly symbolise that terrible warfare pervading and shattering his 
whole being. Well might he long for peace, and can we wonder 
that this deep longing for rest and peace, which filled his heart in 
the midst of all his struggles, — can we wonder, we say, that his 
longing for peace found a grand expression in a final conflict 
through which imperishableness and harmony were attained? 

"This final conflict, this dissolution of nature's and life's dis- 
harmony, the Edda presents to us in the death of the gods, called 


Mr. Louis Prang's new Easter cards and booklets are as dainty as ever. They 
offer pictures of flowers such as Easter lilies, irises, morning-glories, violets, daffo- 
dils, wild roses, most of them being accompanied by appropriate verses, some of 
them new and original, others quotations from Shakespeare, Wordsworth, Long- 
fellow, and Bryant. They glorify the beauties of spring flowers and the resur- 
rection of Jesus, the latter being expressed exclusively in traditional forms. The 
immortality idea, which would be acceptable also to those outside the pale of or- 
thodox churches, is not yet represented. The religious sentiment, however, is car- 
ried out into the temple of nature, whose blossoms also are a revelation of God, as 
one of the verses declares : 

" Were I in churchless solitudes remaining. 
Far from all voice of teachers and divines 
My soul would find, in flowers of God's ordaining 
Priests, sermons, shrines." 

Wundt's Outlines of Psychology have been translated into English, and all 
readers may now become acquainted with the leading ideas of one of the most 
prominent of modern psychologists. Wundt is not easy reading for the beginner ; 
but his doctrines are at least presented here in a condensed form and more system- 
atically and less technically than in his large Elements of Physiological Psychology. 
(Leipsic : W. Engelmann. New York : G. E. Stechert.) 

The most recent issue of the Old South Leaflets is ' ' William Penn's Plan for 
the Peace of Europe." These leaflets which are published at cost price by the 
" Directors of the Old South Work," Boston, are reprints of original documents of 
American history and may be recommended to students and historical clubs. (Cata- 
logue upon application.) 

An autograph portrait of the eminent English mathematician Augustus De 
Morgan will be found in the January number of The American Mathematical 
Monthly (Springfield, Mo.), accompanied by a biography by Dr. G. B. Halsted, 
from whose store of mathematical curios the portrait is probably taken. 

M. P. Hoffmann, Professor at the University of Ghent, publishes a pamphlet 
under the title L^ Opinion publique en matiere de morale in which he investigates the 
moral force of public opinion, which he identifies with the public conscience. 
Public opinion is an evidence of the force of liberalism, which in spite of its former 
negativism has triumphed over the old regime, and is working out the new ideals of 
mankind. Professor Hoffmann finds that the discrepancies which obtain in public 
opinion, far from being injurious, are rather the main agent of their purification. 


Few persons are aware that Wagner devoted himself to belles lettres, but he 
■was a voluminous writer all through life, and particularly during his unsuccessful 
sojourn in Paris he was more than once compelled to drop his musician's wand in 
order to resort to the pen for sustenance. From this last period The Open Court 
Publishing Co. have selected as a type of his literary productions a little sketch or 
novelette entitled A Pilg7-iniage to Beethoveri, appreciatively translated by Mr. O. 
W. Weyer of Elmira, New York, which is now published in board covers and on 
extra paper, with a handsome photogravure reproduction of a famous copyright 
portrait of Beethoven, which in itself makes the book a valuable possession. The 
sketch itself is a glorification of Beethoven ; and we may add that it is obtainable 
in no other separate form either in English or German. It gives under the guise of 
a visit to Beethoven Wagner's views of musical art. (Chicago : The Open Court 
Publishing Co. Price, 50 cents.) 

The editors of the Vierteljahrsschrift filr wissejischaftliche Philosophie propose 
a prize of five hundred marks for the best solution of the following problem : 

" Nachweis der metaphysisch-animistischen Elemente in dem Satz von der 
Erhaltung der Energie und Vorschlag zur Ausschaltung dieser Elemente." 

The essay must be written in German, but competition is not limited to any 
nationality. Size should not exceed fifty or sixty pages of said magazine. Latest 
term, October i. Address the editors of the Viertelja/irssckrifi, Privatdozent Dr. 
Fr. Carstanjen, ZUrich V Englisch Viertel 49, or Dr. O. Krebs, Ziirich V Minerva- 
strasse 46. 

Instead of the author's name each essay is to be superscribed by a motto. An 
accompanying envelope, also superscribed by the motto, is to contain the author's 
real name and address. The judges will be : Prof. Dr. Ernst Mach, of Vienna 
Prof. Dr. Alois Riehl, of Kiel, and the two editors of the Vierteljahrsschrift. 

The University of Pennsylvania began with January of this year the publica- 
tion of a quarterly magazine entitled Americana Germanica, which is devoted to the 
comparative study of the literary, linguistic, and other cultural relations of Ger- 
many and America. The special subjects with which the quarterly will deal are 
German literature written or reprinted in America ; American translations of Ger- 
man literature ; influence of American literature in Germany, and German liter- 
ature in America; the linguistic relations of Germany and Amsrica, including the 
German dialects spoken in the latter country. All other cultural relations also will 
be treated. The editor is Mr. Marion Dexter Learned of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, and the contributing editors include the names of many prominent pro- 
fessors at American universities. Most of the contributions to the first number 
will have interest for specialists only. The appearance of the magazine is good 
but the proof-reading both of the German and the English might be improved 
(Yearly, $2.00. Macmillan & Co.) 

A modest little quarterly of twenty four quarto pages, called The Journal of 
Communication, and devoted primarily to linguistic, metric, and numeric progress 
has been recently started by Mr. Robert Pirs of New York (320 East 14th Street) 
The journal is quite unique and departs in many respects from conventional typog 
raphy. But it is printed in good form and edited with sense. Mr. Pirs's views of 
spelling-reform are tolerant and enlightened, and his little magazine will no doubt 
do good work in many directions which in English-speaking countries are still in 
need of improvement. (Yearly, $1.00.) 


Americans will be glad to learn that the Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co. of New 
York have arranged for the publication of an American edition of The Expositor, 
a scholarly English theological magazine edited by Dr. W. Robertson Nicoll. The 
American editor is to be Dr. Charles Cuthbert Hall, recently called to the presi- 
dency of the Union Theological Seminary, New York, who will keep the Review 
department up to date. Besides its eminent English contributors, many foremost 
American theologians will write for The Expositor. The magazine appears monthly, 
and in outward form is quite tasteful. (Three dollars a year. Specimen copies on 

Scientific readers who followed a number of years ago the account of the first 
photography of flying bullets by Prof. Ernst Mach, will learn with pleasure of the 
resumption of these investigations by his son Dr. Ludwig Mach who recently has 
published the results of his researches in the Proceedings of the Vienna Academy 
(Sitzung vom g. Juli 1896). Dr. Ludwig Mach assisted in the original experiments 
which in his present communication are exploited to the full. It is not known to 
many that a pretty full account of the experiments on the photography of flying 
bullets was published in the Smithsonian Reports some years ago, and may be had 
by applying to the Director of the Smithsonian Institute. This report, or rather 
article, was by Mr. Boys, who had reproduced Professor Mach's experiments in 

The Critical Revieiu of 1 heological and Philosophical Literature, edited by Dr 
S. D. F. Salmond, published at Edinburgh, and imported by Charles Scribner's 
Sons, forms in its bound annual form a remarkably complete survey and compend- 
ium of the yearly literature of its subjects. We have before us the volume for 1896. 
It consists entirely of Notices and Reviews, but they are all by prominent theologi- 
ans of Great Britain and compose as instructive and interesting a body of reading 
as the majority of theological magazines that are made up wholly of independent 
articles. (Bound Annual Volume, $2.00.) 

Messrs. Gulab Singh Paras Pershad, bankers of Meerut, N. W. P., India, in- 
form us that they will publish a monthly magazine in English devoted to the cause 
of Jainism, in which they promise to prove that Jainism " is the true and the first 
religion in the face of the world." Rate of subscription, with postage, $3.00 or 12 

The story Karma was translated by Count Tolstoi into Russian and from the 
Russian into French, whence it was again translated into English and published in 
the International Magazine, whose editors did not know that it had first appeared 
in English. Having now seen the original, they comment in their February num- 
ber on the fate of the story as follows : 

" It is interesting to note the little changes that have slipped in in its journey- 
ings through foreign tongues, principally in the spelling of names. It shows the 
way the translators have had to change the spelling to suit the sounds in their own 
alphabets. For instance, what started out ' Mahaduta ' has come back to us as 
' Madagoute, ' ' Mallika ' is changed to ' Malmek,' and so on ; while the Brahman- 
istic terms that Mr. Carus used originally have been dropped entirely and the Eng- 
lish now stands without them, simply giving the equivalents. Samana has disap- 
peared and the word monk, which it means, has been substituted ; convent is used 
instead of vihara, and many other similar changes have been made." 


One of the most notable ventures of the year in theological literature is the 
publication, by the Chicago University, of The American Journal of Theology, a 
quarterly of enormous size and encyclopaedic pretensions, embracing not less than 
288 large octavo pages. It will be contributed to by a vast host of theologians from 
all quarters of the world, and will engage itself with the entire field of theological 
study, emphasising no subject unduly but maintaining in each number a balance of 
interest between all. It is commendable that the Journal is limited to no school of 
theological opinion, and not less so that it is bent upon the application of strictly 
scientific methods to theology. We have in the present initial number articles by 
Dr. Bruce, of Glasgow, Prof. Gregory, of Leipsic, Dr. Briggs, of New York, Dr. 
Menzies, of St. Andrews, Scotland, Dr. Sanday, of Oxford, England, and Dr. Strong, 
of Rochester, N. Y., besides an extremely comprehensive body of book reviews. 
The American Journal of Theology unites American enterprise with German learn- 
ing and thoroughness, — even bids fair to outdo the latter. If matters of mind and 
science continue to progress in America as they have in the last decade and a half, 
the "modern Greeks" will soon have to look to their laurels. Germany did go to 
Canossa, and her future intellectual emperors may some day stand bowed and bare- 
foot before the glowering chimneys of Chicago. (Three dollars a year ; single num- 
bers, 75 cents.) 

His Royal Highness Prince Prisdan Choomsai, the brother of His Majesty the 
King of Siam, is apparently a man of a deeply religious cast of mind. Of late, he 
visited Ceylon, the island so sacred to the Buddhists, and there joined the order of 
bhikshus. He is at present in his forty-sixth year, and has distinguished himself 
in his career by a punctilious fulfilment of his duties in the service of his country. 
He has received a good, scientific education in London and is generally spoken of 
as a highly cultured gentleman. As the Prince held high positions, both military 
and civil in the country over which his distinguished brother rules, it is but natural 
that many honors were showered upon him during his career by all the potentates 
of Europe, and he is in possession of the highest orders, Russian, German, and 
English. He has now deposited all the insignia of his worldly honors, and decided 
to devote himself henceforward exclusively to a religious life. When, in token of 
renouncing his former position, he broke the sword which he had carried in the 
service of his country for many years with honor, he addressed the congregation of 
priests that witnessed the ceremony, and spoke in conclusion as follows : 

"May you all be guided by the same Dharma^ which through my past and 
present Kusala karma ^ enables me to take the step I now do in your presence. 

" Let us adore and praise the Lord Buddha, his Dharma, and Sangba. 

" May this sword now broken in commemoration of my severance from the 
world of turmoil be the emblem of my resolution, and the pledge of my vow hence- 
forward, and if in any future existence I ever were given such a weapon, may the 
same on being drawn against any being be turned into flowers, that I may make an 
offering of them to the triple gem, the true saviour of the world, as I now do with 
this broken sword : so help me the united Kusala karma of my own and of those 
who cry Sahdu^ and approve of my action to-day." 

1 Religious truth or law. 

2Kusala means "good, excellent, meritorious," and Kusala karma is that kind of conduct 
which tends toward enlightenment and salvation. 

3 "Good, excellent." The word S'at/Aa is used in the Buddhist ritual in exactly the same 
fashion as is Amen in Jewish and Christian services. 

I go 



Harrowing tales of starvation and death are coming from all directions. The 
conditions of the famine-stricken people in the affected provinces are simply awful 
and heart-rending. The miserable wretches are dropping senseless and dead on the 
road side, in the jungles, in their homes, in the poorhouses are dying by thousands. 
Thousands of homes are full of ghastly looking skeletons, barely able to move about, 
famished children, unable to bear any more the pangs of hunger, crying out for a 
morsel of bread. These are the very words of the eye-witnesses. No sadder spec- 
tacle can be conceived. The Government of India is doing all that it can do. But 
the government aid falls far short of the dire necessity of the people. The Hindus, 
Brahmos, and Christians have assisted in giving aid to the people. That help is 
also inadequate in comparison to the gravity of the situation. The famine is most 
widespread. The present crisis is so severe and the prevailing distress is on such 
an extensive scale that gifts in money and grain will have to be exceptionally large. 
The public charity cannot reach the middle class people, who are pining away their 
miserable days without food or raiment, secretly and silently without a murmur, 
trying even in their abject misery, to evade public notice. After mature consulta- 
tion with Babu Narendra Nath Sen, editor Indian Mirror, the most influential In- 
dian paper, and the Buddhist priest Rev. N. Sadhananda, the Maha-Bodhi Society 
has started an Indian Famine Relief Fund, whose chief object 2vill be to kelp the 
middle class in their distress as much as it can. ' To feed the hungry and clothe 
the naked are reckoned as higher virtues by every religion.' Mr. C. C. Bose, man- 
ager of the Maha-Bodhi Journal sent telegrams to Burma and Ceylon papers and 
appeals also to the American people. The Bengal Chamber of Commerce made a 
similar appeal to America. The charity of India will be fully well organised, the 
donations will be publicly acknowledged, and the accounts published in the papers. 
Babu N. N. Sen has become the treasurer. 

Mr. Bose's appeal reached the Anagarika H. Dharmapala, who is constantly 
on the wing, lecturing at Des Moines, la., and he made at once an appeal to the 
Governor of the State and to the Legislature. The Rev. Mr. Harvey of the Unitarian 
Church organised a relief committee, and Governor Drake took steps to collect corn 
for transportation to India. After his return to Chicago, Mr. Dharmapala found 
the city already in a state of agitation. Hon. C. C. Bonney, President of the 
World's Fair Congresses and of the Religious Parliament, Judge Waterman were 
members of the Committee, and Mr. Gandhi, the Jain, was active in stirring the 
sympathy for the starving millions of India. 

Mr. Dharmapala writes from Chicago : 

" Daily about four hundred are dying, and deaths will take place till the end 
of May next. If we start without delay to send grain and corn, we may at least 
save about five thousand in the month of April or May. To save one man from 
grim death is something ; and it is a comfort to know that there is a possibility of 
saving at least some of them." 

The American Maha-Bodhi Society, ijjo Motion Building, 324 Dearborn St., 
Chicago, will receive and forrcard contributions. 

Prof. Luigi Cojazzi has translated Hermann Gruber's book on Positivism into 
Italian, the third edition of which lies now before us. The original work, which is 
written in German, was reviewed at some length in a back number of The Monist. 
The present Italian translation is revised and much enlarged. It devotes more 


attention to American Positivism, without, however, bringing out the differences 
that obtain between the French school of Comte and the monism of The Monist. 
Gruber has added brief expositions of Ingersoll's Agnosticism, of the aspirations of 
the societies for ethical culture, and of the Positivism of the Open Court Publish- 
ing Co. Considering the radical difference of view held by the author, who is a 
Jesuit, we must recognise his impartiality and honest endeavor to be fair to views 
that are antagonistic to his own. He sets in this respect a noble example to oth- 
ers. His work certainly belies the common notion of Jesuitic ethics. 

Contributions to the Analysis of the Sensations. By Dr. Ernst Mach. 
Translated by C. M. Williams. Chicago : The Open Court Publishing Co. 
1897. Cuts, 37. Pages, 208. Price, $1.25. 
The translator, Mr. Williams, finely characterises the value of Professor 
Mach's book when he says : " The matter contained in a book is by no means pro- 
portioned to its size. If this were so, the following treatise, rich as it is in sugges- 
tions bearing on some of the fundamental problems of scientific and philosophical 
theory must be a bulky one." And this is a fact. There are few works of the 
same size that can boast of having contributed so much to thought and science as 
Professor Mach's Analysis 0/ the Sensations. Its range is a broad one, covering in- 
deed the whole foundation of science, which it examines mainly from the side of 
biology. The relation between feeling and its physiological counterpart is investi- 
gated in the light of the important principle that as many processes in the nerves 
are to be posited as there are distinguishable qualities of sensation ; and it is a de- 
lightful task to follow the author's fruitful application of this principle to our varied 
sensations of space, time, and sound, all of which he has wonderfully illuminated. 
There are few finer pieces of research to be found than these chapters, which are 
admirably succinct and acute. In this connexion it is to be remarked that we are 
dealing here not with a text-book on psychology, but with a work of purely original 
research, which makes considerable demand at places on the attention of unprofes- 
sional readers, but unfailingly compensates such effort by a heightened stimulus. 
The Introduction and concluding chapter are purely philosophical in character, 
and treat of the foundations of knowledge and of the theory of scientific research. 
Much new matter, both in notes and appendices, has been added to the English 
edition, the value of which has also been increased by an analytical index. i. 

While going to press, we received Abbe Victor Charbonnel's book, Congres 
universel des religions en igoo. Histoire d'une idee. He explains in 300 pages 
small octavo, the origin of the plan and the difficulties which it had, and still has 
to encounter. In the conclusion he sums up the objections, and insists on the ad 
visability of holding a Congress. (Armand Colin, 5 Rue de Mezieres, Paris.) 


To the Editor of the Open Court. 

Sir: — As a minister and missionary of the Universalist denomination, I am 
moved to offer a few words relative to the Salutatory in The Open Court for January. 

I emphatically endorse your view that Agnosticism is the main disease of the 
age. I see its damaging effects every day, and find it most difficult to stay. 



I also approve of your comments and criticisms upon both Conservatives and 
Liberals. This is the sort of talk the people need, particularly the Liberals. 

It appears to me that the unavoidable inference of your words, whether you 
are aware of it or not, is that the Universalist Church occupies the right and true 
religio-philosophical ground. But let me note some contras. 

You say : "The sin against the spirit, as expressly stated in the Scriptures, 
cannot be forgiven, and those who persist in it will be blotted from the pages of 
the book of life" (p. 2). 

Our Universalist view is this : 

1. The sin against the Holy Spirit is difficult to determine ; has not been satis 
factorily settled by representative churchmen. Your view that it is a sin against 
the intellect would identify the holy spirit with the ititellect. But by common and 
Biblical usage there is a difference. However, your view is far more helpful than 
that of the churchmen. 

2. That the "shall" and "shall not" of Matt. xii. is a Hebraism indicating, 
not actual negation or impossibility, but exceeding difficulty. That the "never 
forgiveness" of Mark iii. should be "not forgiveness," and that the "eternal 
damnation" in the same connexion refers to the well-known "age-lasting or quality 
{(iiuv) damnation," not to endless {aTtl.zvr-qroO damnation. 

On page 8, you say: "How inconsistent .... which accepts the eternal bliss 
of a heaven locality and ceases to retain its correlative symbol .... doom of error 
and sin." 

I suppose by "doom of error and sin" is meant doom of sinners either by an- 
nihilation or a place of endless woe. (I believe in the destruction of the Devil and 
all his angels.) 

Universalism once tried to teach the doctrine of eternal bliss immediately after 
death in a heavenly place or state, but it caused a schism. We now believe the 
future state to be one of moral and spiritual environment, similar to the present. 
But it is a state of progressive growth, including, when necessary, retributive and 
severe punishment. Each receiving just recompense for the deeds done in the 
flesh, but none, owing to God's nature, can merit annihilation or endless woe. 

I believe that in Biblical usage "immortality" {aQavaToq) is applied only to the 
being of God and to glorified bodies of the dead, not to their souls or spirits (see 
Cox, XV). Universalism does not teach a physical resurrection, as we know phys- 
ical bodies. It teaches that the life or body which here clothes our personality is 
changed to a different and a spiritual garment. 

The "symbolism of hell" teaches that punishment is purifying for three rea- 
sons. Universalism worships " God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ," who is 
" the way, the truth, the life." Truly, "no man cometh to the Father but by 

I believe as a Universalist that it is science to say that immortality is a fact, in 
that it is demonstrable in the influences of our lives after we are gone, — in the lives 
of those who come after us. I believe also that there is a higher view which is as 
yet perhaps only indicated by Christian philosophy and shadowed by its science 
viz., that of a self-conscious personal immortality. This latter might be indicated 
certainly not denied, by the former view which sees and proves immortality as in- 
fluential in the lives of posterity. — I have no faith in spiritism. 

Sincerely yours, 

Henry L. F. Gilhspie. 
Manchester, Iowa, January 30, 1897. 



Devoted to the Philosophy of Science. 

Editor : Dr. Paul Carus . \ t \ Edward C. Hegeler 

Assistant Editor: T. J. McCormack ^ ] Mary Carus 


On the Principle of the Conservation of Energy. By Prof. Ernst Mach. 

The Present State of Mathematics. By Prof. Felix Klein. 

Pathological Pleasures and Pains. By Prof. Th. Ribot. 

Germinal Selection. By Prof. August Weismann. 

Are the Dimensions of the Physical World Absolute ? By the late Prof. J. Delboeuf. 

The Unseen Universe. By Sir Robert Stawell Ball. 

On the Part Played by Accident in Invention and Discovery. By Prof, Ernst Mach. 

The Logic of Relatives. By Charles S. Peirce. 

Notion and Definition of Number. By Prof. Hermann Schubert. 

Nature and the Individual Mind. By Prof. Kurd Lasswitz. 

Philosophical Terminology and Its History. By Prof. Rudolph Eucken. 

On the Origin and Import of the Idea of Causality. By Prof. F. Jodl. 

The Darwinism of Darwin, and of the Post-Darwinian Schools. By the late G.J. Romanes. 

F. R. S. 
Science and Faith. By Dr. Paul Topinard. 

Criminal Anthropology Applied to Pedagogy. By Prof. Cesare Lombroso. 
Naturalism. By Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan. 
Bonnet's Theory of Evolution. By Prof. C. O. Whitman. 
Outlines of a History of Indian Philosophy. By Prof. Richard Garbe. 
Modern Physiology. By Prof. Max Verworn. 
Our Monism. By Prof. Ernst Haeckel. 
Psychology of Conception. By James Sully. 
The Principles of Welfare. By Prof. Harald Hoeffding. 
On Thought and Language. By Prof. Max Mueller. 
Chinese Philosophy. By Dr. Paul Carus. 
From Animal to Man. By Prof. Joseph Le Conte. 
Arrested Mentation. By G. Ferrero. 

Correlation of Mental and Physical Powers. By J. Venn. 
The Nervous Centre of Flight in Coleoptera. By Dr. Alfred Binet. 

Price, 50 cts. ; Yearly, $2.00. In England and U. P. U., 2s. 6d. Yearly, ps. 6d. 


CHICAGO : 324 Dearborn Street. 
LONDON : 17 Johnson's Court, Fleet Street, E. C. 

^^The Religion of Science Library is the best solid line of books in inex- 
pensive editions now publishing in this country." — The Book and Newsdealer. 

The Religion of Science Library. 

A Collection of standard works of The Open Court Press, issued bi- 
monthly. Yearly, $1.50; single numbers, 15, 25, 35, and 50 cents, accord- 
ing to size. The books are printed on good paper, from large type. 

The Religion of Science Library, by its extraordinarily reasonable 
price, will bring a number of important books within reach of all readers. 

The following have already appeared in the series : 

No. I. The Religion of Science. By Paul Carus. 25 cents. 

2. Tliree Introductory Lectures on the Science of Thought. By F. Max Muller. 

25 cents. 

3. Three Lectures on the Science of Language. By F. Max Muller. 25 cents. 

4. The Diseases of Personality. By Th. Ribot. 25 cents. 

5. The Psychology of Attention. By Th. Ribot. 25 cents. 

6. The Psychic Life of Micro-Organisms. By Alfred Binet. 25 cents. 

7. The Nature of the State. By Paul Carus. 15 cents. 

8. On Double Consciousness. By Alfred Binet. 15 cents. 

g. Fundamental Problems. By Paul Carus. Pages, 373. 50 cents. 

10. The Diseases of the Will. By Th. Ribot. 25 cents. 

11. The Origin of Language, and The Logos Theory. By Ludwig Noir6. 15 cents 

12. The Free Trade Struggle in England. By Gen. M. M. Trumbull. 25 cents. 

13. Wheelbarrow on the Labor Question. 35 cents. 

14. The Gospel of Buddha. By Paul Carus. 35 cents. 

15. Primer of Philosophy. By Paul Carus. 25 cents. 

16. On Memory, and The Specific Energies of the Nervous System. By Prof 

EwALD Hering. 15 cents. 

17. The Redemption of the Brahman. A Novel. By R. Garbe. 25 cents. 

18. An Examination of Weismannism. By G. J. Romanes. 35 cents. 

19. On Germinal Selection. By August Weismann. 25 cents. 

20. Lovers Three Thousand Years Ago. By T. A. Goodwin. 15 cents. 

21. Popular Scientific Lectures. By Ernst Mach. 35 cents. 

22 Ancient India: Its Language and Religions. By H. Oldenberg. 25 cents. 

23. The Prophets of Israel. By C. H. Cornill. 25 cents. 

24. Homilies of Science. By Paul Carus. 35 cents. 

The following are in preparation : The Philosophy of Ancient India, by 
Prof. Richard Garbe. Buddhism and Christianity, by Dr. Paul Carus. The 
Lost Manuscript, a novel, by Gustav Freytag. 


LONDON : 17 Johnson's Court, Fleet St., E. C. 

Chicago and Its Administration, by Hon. Lyman J. Gage, 


^be ©pen Court 


2>evote& to tbe Science of IRellaion, tbe IReltgfon of Science, an& tbe 
]6stensfon ot tbe IReligious iparliament UDea 

Editor: Dr. Paul Carus, Attnrint,, . j E. C. Hegkler, 

Assistant Editor: T. J.McCORMACK. Assonaies. ^ j^^^^^ Carus. 

VOL. XI. (no. 4) April, 1897. NO. 491 


Chicago and Its Administration, The Hon. Lyman J. Gage 193 

Schiller as a Prophet. With Portrait. Editor 214 

The Lion and the Ass. A Fable by Martin Luther. Translated by W. H. 

Carruth 221 

Is the Church Responsible for the Inquisition ? Illustrated. Editor . , . 225 

Chicago Seventy-Six Years Ago. As it Appeared to a United States Senator. 

From the Diary of Col. Wm. H. Trimble of Hillsboro, Ohio. . . 244 

George Julian Harney. The Last of the Chartists. His Eightieth Birthday. 246 

Commercial Morality. George Jacob Holyoake, Brighton, England. . . 249 

RatzeVs History of Mankind 251 

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VOL. XI. (no. 4.) APRIL, 1897. NO. 491 



THE characteristic element in the common notion of a city is 
an aggregation of dwellings, either in actual contact each with 
each or separated only by such little space as convenience of light 
and ventilation requires, — a cluster of compacted habitations such 
as was anciently surrounded by a common wall. And perhaps we 
may, without any violent stretch of imagination, regard these hab- 
itations, even in a great city like our own, as but the multitudin- 
ous apartments of one vast house, and all the citizens as members 
of one household, 

"A palace," says Dr. Johnson, "must have passages"; and 
our great house has no lack of extensive and spacious corridors, 
1,183^ miles of paved streets, enough to make a continuous road 
from St. Louis to Boston, some of it admirable, a good deal barely 
tolerable, not a little intolerably bad. 

And as our house is not yet completed, but is all the time en- 
larging, — 6,444 new apartments were added in 1896 at a cost of 
nearly ^22,730,615, and the work has not stopped yet, — so there 
are yet other main passages which might naturally be expected 
to have, and do have, a rough and unfinished appearance, 1,494^^ 
miles of unpaved roadway, most of it provided with sidewalks, of 
which we have in all 4,863^5. miles of various degrees of excel- 
lence. And as a great house, besides its stately halls and galler- 
ies, has also its back stairways and dark oassages, with many a 

iLack of time preventing the Hon. Lyman J. Gage from personally preparing for publication 
the MS. and proofs of this article, he authorised the editor of The Open Court to have the stat 
istical figures revised and a few lines added concerning the latest reform movement. The latter 
was done by Mr. Ela, the former by Mr. Charles A. Lane, whose courteous assistance is hereby 
acknowledged. — Editor. 



nook and corner handy to conceal the delinquencies of the slov- 
enly housekeeper or unconscientious servant, who is prone, like 
Shakespeare's Puck, '<to sweep the dust behind the door " ; so we 
have abundant counterparts to these in our 1,340 miles of alleys, of 
which only io8|^ miles are paved, so that it may safely be affirmed 
that that portion to the condition of which we can "point with 
pride " is very small. 

The halls and corridors of this house of ours are lighted with 
more or less regularity and constancy, by 54,203 lamps, of which 
over 42,180 burn gas and over 10,000 gasoline, while 1,765 shine 
with electric light. Our total expenditure last year for keeping our 
lamps trimmed and burning was ^1,058,496.88. Our electric light 
plant is valued at nearly $750,000. 

Our municipal house has, of course, the modern improve- 
ments, being supplied daily with 254,208,509 gallons of water (in- 
cluding a good deal of solid ground, as any one may see by letting 
some of it stand a little while), by means of an apparatus valued at 
$25,369,215.21, including nearly 1,692 miles of pipe, to which great 
additions will (evidently) have to be made before our vast stretch 
of unpaved streets is fully supplied. The same is equally true of 
the not quite 1,306 miles of sewers with which our house stood 
equipped last New Year's day ; they included more than 57 miles 
laid during 1896 ; they have doubtless been largely added to during 
the current year, and will need still greater additions in the years 
to come. 

Indeed, these modern improvements of ours, stupendous as 
their extent is, fall a good deal short of the magnificent proportions 
of the mansion which they undertake to supply ; and its inhabit- 
ants have opportunity now and then, — some of them pretty much 
all the time, — to draw the lessons of patience which, in a single 
dwelling, prompted Henry Ward Beecher's essay on '•' Brown Stone 
Fronts as a Means of Grace." 

The family that inhabits our municipal house has gathered 
itself "out of all nations and kindreds and peoples and tongues." 
According to the last school census there were then more than a 
million and a half — to be exact, 1,616,635 — of us. The school cen- 
sus reports not quite two-thirds of our family as Americans. Ac- 
cording to the proportion disclosed by the census of 1890, nearly 
two-thirds of these are children of foreign-born parents, so that 
only about 320,000 are of native American parentage, including 
nearly 25,000 of African descent. 

The number of those whose tone of thought and habits of life 


are in general harmony with our national institutions and traditions 
is, we may reasonably apprehend, considerably short of the greater 
number, and let us hope a good deal more than the 320,000. 

The school census reports 121,436 Irish, an element which cer- 
tainly shows a remarkable aptitude for making itself at home in our 
political institutions, surprising in view of the very generally ac- 
cepted assertion that it is impossible for Ireland to get along with 
Saxon laws and methods. The number of these is increased to 
226,636 by counting those of foreign or mixed parentage. The 
same estimate shows 187,000 Scandinavians, for the most part very 
hopeful material for American citizens, 20,184 of the same blood 
and training as the founders of New Amsterdam, and 427,527 Ger- 
mans, among whom may be found many of our best citizens and 
comparatively very few of our worst. 

More strange to American ways are (for the most part) the 
Bohemians and Poles, who collectively number 85,620 according 
to the school census, and 81,844 more than that American-born are 
reported of foreign-born parentage. 

The school census also gives a total of about 30,000 Russians, 
a term applicable to races more diverse than the most unlike of 
those whom we have been considering ; a Russian may be by race 
and education, German, Scandinavian, Finn, Slav, Tartar, or Es- 
quimaux. Then, too, there are 22,340 Italians. And to make up an 
assortment, there are among us about 1000 Chinamen, over 700 
Greeks, together with a liberal sprinkling of Arabs, Persians, Jap- 
anese — people, indeed, from all four corners of the earth, aggre- 
gating in the unclassified columns of the school census over 15,000 
souls. Our sister republic, Mexico, has a surprisingly select rep- 
resentation, 100 plus 2. Perhaps she still remembers that in ear- 
lier days her elder sister has been somewhat over-bearing and 

Of the 380,245 voters who registered for the presidential elec- 
tion of 1896, nearly one-half, were foreign born. And of the men 
of 21 years of age and upwards, the census of 1890 represents only 
a little over 127,000 as native Americans, nearly 198,000 (more 
than 60 per cent, of the whole) having been born in foreign coun- 

On the whole, however, we may infer that if the principles of 
Christian civilisation on which this nation was founded do not pre- 
vail in Chicago, it is not because of any necessity of heredity, other 
than the common heredity of original sin. 


Closely connected with the question what are we, is that other 
(if indeed it is another), what are we doing? 

The sites of great cities are generally determined by their con- 
venience as distributing points. This is pre-eminently the case with 
Chicago. The safe landing-place which the mouth of the Chicago 
river, afforded at the western extremity of the chain of lakes ; then 
the convenient communication with the Mississippi through the Illi- 
nois and Michigan Canal, and later still the converging of multi- 
tudinous railroads, are the triple source of the greatness of Chicago. 
And as she was created for distribution, so that has been her pre- 
dominant employment ever since. Manufacturers too have been 
attracted by the convenience of the place for collecting their ma- 
terial and sending out their products ; but still the decided major- 
ity are engaged in the work of distribution either directly, or by 
supplying the means of distribution or ministering to the wants of 
those who distribute. These two latter classes include many who 
may be disposed to assert for themselves the title of producers, and 
may feel a certain superiority over those whom they call "middle- 
men." But if they are only furthering the business or serving the 
personal wants of the distributor, then his work is all that theirs 
ultimately amounts to ; and judged by what it accomplishes, their 
work can have no greater merit or dignity than his. If we do not 
judge by the result accomplished, then the distinction between 
producer and distributor becomes altogether idle ; and we are 
thrown back upon the truth that the dignity and merit of a man's 
work consist not in what is accomplished by it, but in the intelli- 
gence and conscience which prompt and direct it. More than that, 
one who accomplishes nothing at all, who can only lie still and 
suffer, may rank in moral worth and dignity immeasurably above 
one who works out the most useful results simply because he does 
not see how else he can so conveniently get a living, and who would 
drop his work almost as suddenly as lightning, and quite as reck- 
lessly, the moment he saw how he could live comfortably in idle- 

Some idea of the extent of our commerce and (indirectly and 
not very accurately) of our consumption of food may be derived 
from the fact that in 1893 (these figures chance to be at hand) 
there were received 4,664,000 barrels of flour, while 4,105,117 were 
shipped, a difference of 558,883. Of wheat 35,355,101 bushels 
were received and 24,715,738 shipped, a difference of 10,639,363 
bushels. Of Indian corn the receipts were 91,255,154 bushels, and 
the shipments 78,9i9»78i bushels, a difference of 12,335,373. The 


receipts of butter were 150,742,418 pounds, and the shipments 
145,700,000 pounds, a difference of 5,042,418 pounds. The receipts 
of cheese were 59,000,000 pounds, and the shipments 51,000,000. 

The receipts of lumber were 1,600,000,000 feet, and the ship- 
ments 733,000,000 feet. The enormous amount of 925,000,000 feet 
is said to have been used in the city during the year. 

The United States census of 1890, which attributed to Chicago 
a population of about 1,100,000, enumerates not quite 10,000 man- 
ufacturing establishments, employing about 191,000 workmen, not 
including clerks, superintendents, proprietors, or officers of cor- 
porations. Of these workmen about 12,000 were employed build- 
ing or repairing railroad cars and engines, the only object of which 
is obviously to provide means of distribution. Between 10,000 and 
11,000 were employed in printing and publishing establishments. 
So far as their work did not tend merely to the wasting of ink to 
spoil paper— which as every one's observation may teach him, is 
just what a very large proportion of printing amounts to — it is 
simply the distribution of thought. 

There were also (in round numbers) 5600 carpenters, 6000 
masons and 2200 plumbers, a great proportion of whose work was 
necessarily applied to provide dwellings, offices, and warehouses 
for those who were engaged in distribution or in ministering to the 
wants of those so engaged. The workmen thus particularised 
amount to more than 36,000, and there are still other deductions, 
each by itself comparatively small, but all together very consider- 
able, to be m.ade from the 153,000 remaining. And of the work of 
that remainder a great part, the extent of which can hardly be as- 
certained with exactness, is merely subsidiary to distribution in the 
way which has already been pointed out. 

A census for the year preceding that of the World's Fair, 
taken by the City Department of Health, does not distinguish be- 
tween manufacturers and wholesale dealers, nor between the clerks 
and the workmen in any manufacturing establishment. It shows a 
total number of 572,000 persons employed in all branches of busi- 
ness, of whom over 72,000 were engaged, directly or indirectly, in 
some kind of transportation service, besides 10,400 bridge and car 
builders, 6326 pavers, 5000 persons, manufacturers, or wholesale 
dealers in bicycles and baby wagons, 2684 in vehicles of a larger 
growth, 574 harness makers or wholesale dealers, and 427 ship 
chandlers, a total of over 26,000 whose work is evidently altogether 
subsidiary to transportation. There were over 32,000 others en- 
gaged in wholesale trade, besides many more who, as I have already 


said, cannot in the returns be distinguished from manufacturers. 
Banking, insurance, commercial agencies of various kinds, real 
estate and abstract-making employed between ii,ooo and 12,000 
more. There were also 120,000 persons engaged in various retail 
trades, a considerable number of them doubtless at handicraft of 
one kind or another, but again a very large portion of these serving 
the wants of the distributers. Of those who, as distinguished from 
distributers, would be classed as producers, the various building 
trades occupied nearly 64,000, and printing and publishing 20,000. 
On the relations of these to the municipal family I have already 
remarked in connexion with the United States census. 

The statistics of retail trade show 1403 dry goods stores, 730 
drug stores, 7000 of those places which by a disgusting euphemism 
have come to be called saloons so universally that it is useless to 
protest against it, 1056 bakeries^ — not so great an improvement as 
might be wished on Falstaff's proportion of "one half-pennyworth 
of bread to this intolerable deal of sack "; 2200 butcher shops, 1 228 
milk depots and 3336 groceries, 1,550,000 barrels of flour, 3,000,000 
barrels of beer. 

The statistics of the Health Department do not include phy- 
sicians or lawyers. According to the directories for the current 
year, we have a little over 3000 of the latter and not quite 2500 
physicians and surgeons of various degrees of regularity. 

There are those in every city, who, instead of being regarded 
as members of the household, deserve no better analogy than that 
of the vermin, the rats, and mice, and cockroaches, and those 
blood-thirsty insects which it is hardly in good taste to mention to 
ears polite but which will occasionally start up to disgust and horrify 
the most careful and diligent housekeeper, and which seldom fail to 
overrun that habitation where negligent and indolent householders 
tolerate and set example to dishonest and lazy servants. So in too 
many a city do those who live by, and for, beggary, fraud, mis- 
chief, and lawless violence, those whose business it is to cultivate 
and develop the vicious propensities of mankind, to tempt the sus- 
ceptible to their ruin and entrap the unwary, — these pernicious 
vermin of the municipal house not only creep in through unfre- 
quented lanes and lift up their heads here and there in obscure 
nooks, but plant themselves in the most conspicuous locations, 
swarm in the chief thoroughfares and thrive sometimes in partner- 
ship with those whose sworn duty it is to exterminate them. Citi- 
zenship implies the sacred duties of the guardian as well as the 
ward's accruing benefits ; but a culpable indifference too often 


characterises citizens of large municipalities. We become too in- 
dolent or too busy to attend to our public duty or too listless to dis- 
criminate between the faithful and the unfaithful public servant. 
To keep the municipal house clean and orderly we select men on 
account of the color of their hair or the cut of their whiskers, or 
the opinions which they profess on predestination, or the historic 
episcopate, or the canals of Mars, or the tariff, or the currency, or 
anything else wholly irrelevant to the business they have to do. 

When the servants and the stewards who are to oversee public 
functions are thus appointed and retained or dismissed for consider- 
ations as remote as possible from the duty they are to perform, is it 
any wonder that that duty should occupy a very low place in their 
thoughts, and that regard for it should not be strong enough to pre- 
vent them from following up various channels of a very different 
kind of usefulness? 

Fortunately these considerations now apply chiefly to the ser- 
vants of the county and of the various townships included in our 
municipality. In the spring of 1895 the city adopted a civil service 
law, and thereafter inaugurated a system of municipal house-keep- 
ing which puts our public service upon a rational basis. This law 
applies the merit system to appointments and removals in every 
department of the city government, and while — so far as appoint- 
ments are concerned — it applied gradually, as vacancies occur, it 
is being put in thorough operation, and its effects are already 
plainly perceptible in the increased effectiveness of the entire ser- 
vice. The extension of this system to the county and town officials 
and employees within the city will give our municipal menage a do- 
mestic service as nearly perfect as such things ever get to be. 

It is not absolutely impossible, however, that our municipal 
vermin may by suitable reformatory agencies be converted into 
useful and acceptable members of the household. That their 
young may be so converted, if seasonably taken in hand, there is 
every reason to hope. 

And there is no neglect more cruel to the subjects of it, or 
more dangerous to the future of our city, than that which leaves 
multitudes of children to grow up in haunts of vice and unclean- 
ness, or swarm in the streets, acquiring a precocious smartness 
which only aggravates the want of any respect for law or faith in 
virtue. And of all our inadequate public charities none call more 
urgently for re-inforcement than those which pick up children des- 
titute of any genuine parental care, and bring them under the dis- 
cipline of a virtuous home. 


Every one who has not altogether got rid of old-fashioned ideas 
would think family life not altogether complete without family re- 
ligion, manifested by occasional gatherings for worship and in- 
struction in faith and morals, and by some indication of those in- 
structions and of a regard to the object of worship in the daily con- 
duct of the members. How perfectly that conduct should exhibit 
and embody that regard and those instructions, is a question as to 
which the majority have perhaps rather vague notions, and some 
have notions which to some others would seem fanatical. But 
something of that nature almost every one will admit to be highly 
desirable and commendable. 

And this element is conspicuously recognised in our municipal 
habitation, which, like the stately mansions of old time, has among 
its multitudinous appartments not a few chapels and oratories. 

The City Directory shows in all about 780 places of public 
worship of every kind, some of them only small mission stations, a 
few which most people would regard only as rendezvous of cranks, 
but the vast majority of them centers of useful instruction and 
wholesome moral influence. The bulk of them may be grouped as 
follows : Baptist, 78 ; Presbyterian of all schools and Congrega- 
tionalist, 159; Episcopalian, 54; Lutheran, 124; Methodist, 138, 
and Roman Catholic, 106; leaving 121 unclassified. 

All the places thus grouped, and a large proportion of those 
which have not been classified, are devoted to the inculcation of 
everything which Protestants generally would consider essential to 
Christianity, the Roman Catholics differing from the rest only by 
adding some doctrines which they deem essential but which most 
Protestants regard as pernicious. But the computation roughly 
indicates that of those who have any conviction in matters of re- 
ligion which they are interested in maintaining, the immense ma- 
jority adheres to the essentials of what is commonly known as 
evangelical Christianity. 

If then the principles of that religion have not their legitimate 
practical application in the public life of Chicago, if vice and athe- 
ism often successfully arrogate to themselves the right of way, it is 
worth considering whether it is not because those whose duty it is 
to exert a contrary influence, are not enough in earnest in the prin- 
ciples they profess to co-operate with one another in the practical 
assertion of them. Such practical assertion would, of course, not 
consist in attempting the impossibility of compulsory religion, but 
in insisting on the eradication of haunts of vice, the suppression of 
brutal or indecent exhibitions and advertisements, and in the recog- 


nition and teaching of piety and virtue (without forcing upon any 
doctrines to which they have conscientious objections) in our public 

A recent issue of the Chicago Congregational Directory states 
the number of communicants of Protestant churches, other than 
Unitarian and Universalists, at 98,147. The numbers for the Bap- 
tist, Congregational, Presbyterian, and Methodist churches are pre- 
cise, the others estimates merely. That for the Protestant Episco- 
pal churches appears from the full statistics given in the Journal 
of the Diocesan Convocation to be less than half the actual number. 
Correcting this error, the whole number would be 104,531, but it is 
very probable that the numbers of the Lutherans also are under- 

In Protestant Churches there is almost uniformly a consider- 
able number of customary attendants and supporters of the church 
who are not communicants, of whom no account is generally taken 
in published statistics. The Protestant Episcopal statistics before 
referred to show that the number of parishioners of all ages is 
considerably more than twice the number of communicants. For 
the other denominations I have made a calculation based on a 
comparison of the membership roll of one Congregational church 
with a directory of the actual congregation for the same year, ad- 
ding to the numbers shown by the latter 44 per cent., for children 
under 14, being a fraction less than the proportion shown by the 
School Census. We thus arrive at a total 76 per cent, greater than 
the membership roll. Adding 75 per cent, to the number of com- 
municants of churches other than the Protestant Episcopal, and 
combining that result with the Diocesan reports before mentioned, 
we have, at a very moderate estimate, a total Protestant evangeli- 
cal population (in round numbers) of 190,000. To this should be 
added about 7000 for Unitarians and Universalists. Adding the 
estimated Roman Catholic population of 495,000, we have a total 
of 692,000 for what might be called the Christian population of 
Chicago, a minority by 183,000. 

This unfavorable showing is probably due in great measure to 
the fact which has been very generally remarked, and the cause of 
which has been a good deal debated, that great numbers of people 
who might naturally be expected to be Protestants, stand aloof 
from the churches. The statistics of the Sunday schools, however, 
would indicate that a large proportion of these people are not un- 
willing to have their children brought under religious influences. 


And there is thence reason to hope that another generation may 
show a smaller proportion of "Nothingarians." 

In 660 Protestant Sunday-schools there are 140,000 members, 
twelve Unitarian and Universalist churches not being included in 
the enumeration. Of Roman Catholic Sunday-schools I have no 
figures; but the total Roman Catholic population is estimated at 
495,000; (the Catholic Directory for 1896 places the number at 
600,000 for the Diocese of Chicago ;) and since our whole number 
between the ages of five and fourteen is a fraction more than a sev- 
enth of the whole, we may infer that there are something over 
70,000 persons between those ages who are in Roman Catholic 
Sunday-schools or receive Roman Catholic religious instruction in 
some way. We have then about 211,000 persons of the common 
school age who are being to a greater or less extent instructed in 
the most essential doctrines of the Christian religion, leaving about 
18,000, or not quite 8 per cent, of the whole, most of whom, it is to 
be feared, are without any religious instruction at all, while that of 
too many of the other 92 per cent, is too probably fragmentary, ir- 
regular and inadequate to a thorough grounding in the principles 
of virtue. 

Government is essential to the normal constitution of a family ; 
indeed there is strong reason for regarding the family as the arch- 
type and source of all political organisation. And the multitudin- 
ous family that inhabits our municipal house is not scantily pro- 
vided for in that respect. In fact, as was pointed out on a recent 
occasion, Chicago has eight or nine governments, leaving out of 
account the higher powers of the State, to which this, like every 
other family, is subordinate. But much the most important of 
these local governments is that which, it is to be hoped, will ulti- 
mately draw to itself the powers and functions of all the others. 

While there may be those who do not accord much weight to 
the authority of Scripture, no one v/ill dispute that of Abraham 
Lincoln ; so that we may assume it as a truth universally accepted 
that "a house divided against itself cannot stand." And here, 
though the division of functions and powers is far from being 
equal, the city government having much the greatest share, and 
though the harmonising control of the State exercised through its 
courts, is always at hand to preserve the peace; yet the elements 
of conflict and disintegration inherent in several overlapping juris- 
dictions have already given proof of their mischievous and distract- 
ing effect. 

The drainage canal is a public work transcending both in loca- 


tion and effect the largest limits which could reasonably be allowed 
to the municipal authority of Chicago; and therefore it has seemed 
wise that the extraordinary powers necessary to its location and 
construction should, during its progress, be lodged in a distinct 
organisation, if the salutary principles of local control over the pro- 
ceeds of money raised by special local taxation are to be preserved. 

But there is no reason — I might say, indeed, no excuse — for 
not applying to Chicago the ancient rule for English cities, exem- 
plified not only in the case of London, but also in Bristol and even 
York, Chester, and Gloucester, and familiar in our own country in 
the city of New York, thus making Chicago a county of itself, with 
the administration of all its municipal affairs entrusted to the Mayor 
and City Council. 

Any one learning for the first time of our curious entanglement 
of city and township boundaries would not know how to ascribe it 
to anything but oversight or forgetfulness by which, when the city 
territory was enlarged, the township boundaries were not rectified 
so as to coincide with those of the city. Nor have I ever heard it 
suggested that there were any functions of a township government 
which could not be just as well performed — indeed, most of them 
are now performed — by that of the city. 

It is not impossible that the existence of an additional number 
of official positions by which diligence in the service of some party 
or some party dictator may be incited and rewarded, has a great 
deal to do with the continuance of this anomaly. 

One dangerous absurdity incident to the separate town gov- 
ernments is the election from time to time by direct popular vote, 
of great numbers of constables. I am conscious of making a large 
demand on the faith of any one who did not actually see the ballot 
or the election notice when I say that at the last ordinary election 
for Mayor there were elected in the town of West Chicago, on a 
single ballot, sixty-four constables. When we consider the amount 
of mischief and annoyance which an unscrupulous constable can in- 
flict, and when we consider that hardly anybody knows sixty-four 
men, or half that number, who are both competent for the office 
and willing to undertake it, we may well wonder that the results of 
this blind election have not been more conspicuously mischievous. 

The principal function of the town governments in Chicago, the 
valuation of property for purposes of taxation, is exercised in a way 
which provokes general complaint and condemnation. But its 
faults, so far as they are chargeable to a law in force throughout 
the whole state, are chargeable to the citizens themselves, who 



elect to the assessorship, with what in matters outside of the sphere 
of politics we should not hesitate to call sottish stupidity, one or 
the other of the men who may be prescribed by two assemblies of 
politicians, and who have very seldom given any evidence what- 
ever of fitness for an office demanding no little financial skill, ex- 
tensive acquaintance with the business and property of the com- 
munity and invulnerable integrity. 

The most important function of the county government, the 
care of the poor, is very inadequately performed by the county 
commissioners, and is in great measure thrown upon the city po- 
lice, which last year gave free lodging to destitute persons in over 
176,980 instances, and also to some extent fed them — to what ex- 
tent does not appear from the report, which blends in one item the 
nearly 141,000 meals furnished to prisoners and lodgers. 

These figures report the work to December 31 only. The noble 
service of the Police Department during the early part of the cur- 
rent year affords a memorable instance of municipal philanthropy, 
manifested in such zealous and intelligent methods as to have chal- 
lenged the admiration of the world. 

In one important respect the analogy of municipal to family 
government does not hold : the family administration and expend- 
iture are generally regulated by that member who has to furnish 
the money; whereas our civic governors provide but an infinitesi- 
mal proportion of the money they spend, so that an irreverent jour- 
nalist a good many years ago styled them tax-eaters in contradis- 
tinction from tax-payers. Perhaps this fact has something to do 
with the frequent complaints from those in places of municipal 
authority, of the niggardly limitation imposed by State law on city 
expenditure, and the inadequate valuations of property for pur- 
poses of taxation ; whereas there is some room for question 
whether a rigorous business manager, regulating all employment 
and all expenditure strictly by the needs of the municipal business, 
would not contrive to make both ends meet without stretching the 
statutory limitation or begging the State Board of Equalisation, 
which is not generally deemed to need any prompting in that direc- 
tion, to shift a still larger proportion of burden from the rest of the 
State to the shoulders of his fellow citizens. 

Looking at the city government proper, its actual constitution 
is to a remarkable and beneficent extent free from those divisions 
of power and responsibility which have wrought such mischievous 
results in other cities. Virtually all its powers are vested in a 
mayor and aldermen, elected by the citizens for terms of two years. 


Upon the City Council, in which the mayor has a casting vote 
when the aldermen are equally divided, and over which he has a 
veto not to be overridden without a two-thirds vote, the State stat- 
ute which constitutes our municipal chart has conferred more than 
ninety enumerated powers, a number from which one would nat- 
urally infer that the State has been liberal in putting the powers of 
government over us into the hands of our own representatives. 

These powers thus conferred may be generally described as 
the making of rules for the conduct of the executive officers of the 
city government so far as it is practicable to regulate it by general 
rules laid down beforehand, and also for the conduct of individual 
citizens in their relations to each other, whether in business or 
recreation, in matters where State law does not interfere, and regu- 
lation of which by public authority becomes necessary or expedient 
from that closeness of contact or neighborhood in men's habita- 
tions and outdoor movements which is the characteristic feature of 
city life, and the occasions thence arising on which it becomes 
necessary or convenient to rely on the honesty or competency of 
persons with whom it is impossible to have had much previous ac- 
quaintance. To this latter class belong among other things, the 
supervision by license, of auctioneers and carriers of passengers or 
goods for hire ; to the former the regulation of street traffic so as 
to prevent us from running over each other or getting unnecessarily 
in each other's way ; of occupations capable of becoming danger- 
ous or annoying to persons in whose neighborhood they are carried 
on ; of the erection, preservation, and management of buildings, 
in the interest of safety and public convenience ; provision for 
remedying unsanitary local conditions and preventing the sickness 
or untidiness of individuals from imperilling the health of their 

These powers of the City Council also extend to providing 
against certain common dangers, such as fire, and to some extent 
supplying certain individual wants to which all are subject, such as 
water, roads, and lights. 

It needs but a very moderate degree of observation and re- 
flexion to convince any one how necessary is the exercise of these 
powers and others such as these, to make life in a city tolerably 
safe or comfortable, and how easy it is to exercise them in such a 
way that people not absolutely insane may be driven to think it 
would be far better to have no regulation at all. 

If citizens who wish to live quiet, peaceable, and honest lives 
would seriously consider what powers over the life, liberty, and 


happiness of themselves and their fellow citizens are conferred in 
the annual elections of aldermen, would they not take more pains 
than they do now, not merely to register and vote, but to combine 
their votes, whatever action primaries or conventions, Republican 
or Democratic may have taken, for men in some measure worthy 
of being intrusted with such powers. 

The executive powers of the city government are virtually con- 
centrated in the mayor. 

In this respect our system is immeasurably superior to those 
divisions of executive power among divers boards and commissions, 
created in divers ways, and of alternating membership, so that 
thorough concert of action is practically impossible, bad adminis- 
tration eludes responsibility among the windings of the official laby- 
rinth, each department laying the blame of its shortcomings on the 
refusal of some other to co-operate ; and even if a discontented 
people succeed at last in locating the fault, it cannot be dislodged 
until several terms of office, one after the other, have expired; and 
so through the public weariness or forgetfulness, the mischief very 
likely escapes expulsion after all. 

The evil last referred to does to some extent exist in regard to 
our board of aldermen, in which each ward is represented by two 
members, elected one each year, to serve for two years, so that 
only one-half of the board can be changed at any one election. 

This arrangement was doubtless designed, like analogous pro- 
visions in our own and other State constitutions, to afford some 
check to the too hasty fluctuations of popular opinion and favor. 
And we may admit that democratic power, like monarchical, would 
be the better for some salutary restraining influence on its extrav- 
agancies. But great danger of mischief and scanty hope of benefit 
lies in putting the restraining power in the hands of democracy's 
own creatures ; when they rebel against their creator it is much 
more likely to be for worse than for better. 

And moreover, this restraining power should be obstructive 
merely and not active, a power to prevent changes and serve as 
barrier against corrupt schemes, not a power to make changes and 
promote schemes according to its own pleasure, in defiance of its 

We may well question therefore whether there is any good 
reason for not permitting the people of any ward when dissatisfied 
with their aldermen to remove them both instead of one only. 

Do the people "love to have it so " ? 

Much evidence could be adduced in suppert of the proposition 


but it should be remembered that passivity, indifference, inertia 
are not true evidences of active approval. 

While all the dwellers in our municipal house, acting together, 
are mighty — even irresistible, the individual atom as related to the 
vast executive machine, is weak, if not powerless. His voice of 
protest is not heard, and his outcry at executive maladministration 
is lost, amid the political clamor at City Hall. There are signs, 
however, gratifying signs, that the growing evils of municipal mis- 
rule are to be met in a more effective way. The people will not 
much longer be tricked by the ingenious devices of low ringsters 
who play the game of politics for the sake of official plunder. The 
instinct of danger to our civic life is aroused. Agencies are in the 
process of evolution through which the lovers of good government 
can unite to correct many of the evils from which we have so long 
suffered. At least 80 per cent, of our people desire peace, good 
order, decency, honesty in administrative functions, a pure ballot, 
and an honest count. 

Indeed, the civil service and other municipal reforms which 
have lately been so encouragingly prosecuted are eliminating many 
of the evils against which the moral sense of the people has hitherto 
vainly protested. 

Although, as I have said, it very seldom happens that a city 
council has refused to confirm the mayor's appointments, yet it is 
quite possible that this apparent harmony between the two branches 
of the city government is based upon a tacit understanding that the 
recommendations of the confirming aldermen shall have weight in 
appointments to subordinate positions in the several executive de- 
partments, so that there is an unseen influence at work in the se- 
lection of those who are to carry out in detail the duties of the city 
administration, which impairs the mayor's control over the service 
for which he is responsible, and (it is to be feared) has an unfavor- 
able effect on the quality of that service. 

While no mayor has any right to be a party to any understand- 
ing by which he is to barter away the powers which the municipal 
constitution has lodged with him in trust, and while his having 
done so aggravates rather than extenuates his blameworthiness for 
the bad administration which naturally results, yet it would seem 
that the mayor who seeks to do his duty would have an obstacle 
which (while we do not tolerate the suggestion that it is insupera- 
ble) we must admit to be serious, removed out of his way, if he 
were enabled to make his appointments and removals independ- 
ently of the City Council ; or at least that the power of appointment 


should be, like that of removal, subject only to the veto of a num- 
ber equal to two-thirds of a full council. 

The worst hindrance to the efficiency of a government is a 
deadlock ; and very little better is a corrupt compromise by which 
a deadlock is avoided. We should insure against both of these by 
making the mayor's power over the administration of his own de- 
partment practically independent of the City Council. 

Of course there is danger that unlimited power may be abused, 
but to paralyze or cripple its efficiency for good is hardly a satis- 
factory safeguard. To say nothing of the criminal proceedings 
which are available against outrageous misconduct, the short term 
of office, involving the necessity of speedily giving account to the 
people, who will hold him fully responsible for the full power en- 
trusted to him, and from whom he will naturally be desirous of 
some further honor, if not of a renewal of this, besides the honora- 
ble ambition of acquitting himself well of his present trust, which 
must be strong in every man worthy to be thought of as Mayor of 
Chicago ; all these constitute a safeguard against misuse of power, 
to which the power of a board of aldermen to clog and shackel can 
add very little, and from which it detracts a great deal. 

A conscientious use of executive power is more likely to be 
promoted by leaving it in the hands of one who knows that he will 
be held to full accountability for the exercise of it, and that a right 
and judicious use of it will insure him high honor available for his 
future career than by making him share it with a numerous body, 
each one of whom need have little concern about his undivided sev- 
entieth of the responsibility and can have little to hope from his frac- 
tion of the honor; while his proportionate share of the spoils will 
be something quite appreciable. 

A good safeguard and an additional help to good administra- 
tion would be afforded by making all subordinate positions obtain- 
able only upon a thorough test of qualifications and tenable during 
good behavior, all removals to be only for cause stated, v/ith the 
privilege of a public investigation of all the alleged causes if the per- 
son removed desires it. 

As a general rule, the head of each department appoints, with 
the consent of the mayor, the chiefs of the several bureaus in that 
department, each chief of bureau appointing and removing his own 
subordinates with the consent of the head of the department. 
These chiefs of bureaus are in some instances entrusted with highly 
important duties, particularly in the Department of Public "Works, 
where there is a city engineer having the care of our vast system of 


water works and those extensions of it which are almost continu- 
ally being made, a superintendent of the water office, who sees to 
the collecting of the rates which we pay for the use of the water ; a 
superintendent of sewers ; a superintendent of streets, who has 
charge of the work of grading, paving, lighting, and keeping in 
order and repair our 2570 miles of street, — a work closely related 
both to that of the city engineer and that of the superintend- 
ent of sewers, both of whom may have frequent occasion in repair- 
ing, renewing or modifying their several systems of underground 
conduits to disturb the pavements, and whose structures may be 
favorably or unfavorably affected by the kind and quantity of the 
material piled above them ; as in New York, some years ago, the 
water mains in one of the streets were found to have been crushed 
by the weight of broken rock which had been laid over them to 
make a road bed. Hence is apparent the importance of having all 
these bureaus under the control of one head, who can, in case of 
need, decide their disputes and make them work in harmony to- 

A part of the work of the bureau of streets has recently been 
transferred to a superintendent of street cleaning, a change which 
has not as yet justified itself by any conspicuous results. Now as 
heretofore, so many of our streets as are well paved and well drained 
and are sometimes clean, namely just after a heavy and prolonged 
shower. At other times they are dirty in varying degrees, so that 
a bright and breezy day which otherwise would come with health 
and refreshing in its wings, comes to Chicago as a calamity ; for, 
undesirable as it is to have the street filth plastered on our footgear 
and the borders of our garments, it is immeasurably worse desic- 
cated and pulverised and showered into eyes, nose, and mouth. 

Closely connected with the cleaning of the streets is the re- 
moval of the garbage, ashes, and other rubbish which accumulates 
in every house, and which it would be oppressive to require the 
average householder to remove for himself. Till recently this work 
was under the charge of the Department of Health. 

In 1893 the supervision of the work was transferred to the 
newly created Street Cleaning Bureau, which has an inspector in 
every ward to see that the contractor does his duty. The terms of 
the contract are stringent, making the Superintendent that final 
judge of the question whether the contractor lives up to his under- 
takings or not, and making the contractor and his sureties liable 
for all additional expense which the city may incur by reason of 
having to relet the contract or to do the work through its own em- 


ployees. Nevertheless, it is notorious that the work which the 
contractors undertake to do, is not done. And it is difficult to de- 
tect any cause for this failure in the system or anywhere else than 
in the men who administer the system. 

The ordinances on this subject might be improved, so as to 
provide for a more complete service less burdensome to the house- 
holder; but the want of such improvements is no excuse for failure 
to do what little is provided for. 

The Department of Health, perhaps beyond any other, is em- 
powered to interfere with personal liberty, and it is hardly too much 
to say, to demand the sacrifice of the individual life to the necessi- 
ties or supposed necessities of public safety. 

The fundamental statute in sweeping terms gives the City 
Council power "to do all acts and make all regulations which may 
be necessary or expedient for the promotion of health or the sup- 
pression of disease;" and the Council in declaring the powers of 
the Commissioner of Health have gone to the full extent of the 
statute. He may not only draw a quarantine cordon around the 
city, but may in his discretion remove any person whom he decides 
to be suffering from infectious disease from his home to a pest 
house, or may leave the patient at home and shut off the house 
from all communication with the outside world. And lest this 
should not be enough, it is his duty (in the words of the City Or- 
dinance) "in case of pestilence or epidemic disease, or of danger 
from anticipating or impending pestilence or epidemic disease, or 
in case the sanitary condition of the city should be of such a char- 
acter as to warrant it, to take such measures, and to do and order 
and cause to be done such acts, for the preservation of the public 
health (though not herein or elsewhere or otherwise authorised) as 
he may in good faith declare the public safety and health to de- 

If we are not kept in good health, it certainly is not for want 
of plenary authority in the Commissioner. 

How serious a matter for the patient, removal from his home 
to the pest house may be, will appear from a report made by Dr. 
Cazier at a recent medical conference, of the result of his own ob- 
servation at the small-pox hospital. "The building," he says, 
"offers inadequate protection from storm and rain, is wholly with- 
out fire protection and in imminent peril of fire. The heat is ir- 
regular; the patients near the stove are overheated, while the re- 
mote ones freeze ; and thus the elements wage a ceaseless war, 



making the efforts of doctor and nurse alike futile ; pneumonia 
claims convalescents, and lives by the score are sacrificed." 

Inasmuch as the protective power of vaccination has made 
small-pox the least to be dreaded of all the more virulent class of 
diseases, it would seem as if these human sacrifices to the god of 
health were hardly necessary. 

On the other hand, that efficient and sometimes even stringent 
sanitary control is necessary appears from the statistics of mortal- 
ity. In i8g6 there were in Chicago 2076 deaths from zymotic di- 
sease, including 751 from typhoid fever and 956 from diphtheria. 
But it may be questioned whether the great — not of course the only 
— source of danger is not miasmatic poison rather than personal 

And perhaps it would not impair the efficiency of the Depart- 
ment of Health if its power to take heroic measures at the sacrifice 
of personal liberty and life were made dependent upon the advice 
of a consulting board composed of practising physicians and non- 
medical men commanding the public confidence for good judg- 

Another side of the protective work of the inspectors of this 
Department appears from the fact that in 1896 they condemned as 
unwholesome 125,000 pounds of meat on South Water Street and 
in Fulton Street Market, and about 2,000,000 pounds at the Stock 

Our municipal family contains its proportion of bad children 
— of those, indeed, who do not deserve to be deemed its children 
at all — besides many more who occasionally stand in need of some 
restraint, so that no department of our municipal government is 
more essential than the police. We had at the beginning of this 
year 3398 policemen, not including clerks, lock-up keepers, etc. 
During 1896 they made 96,847 arrests; but of these prisoners not 
quite half, more than 47,000, were discharged in the police courts. 
What proportion of these were improperly arrested, and what pro- 
portion improperly discharged, is a question which any one who 
has observed the proceedings of our police courts, would be un- 
willing to answer off-hand. 

Of the arrests 29 were for murder, 6 for manslaughter, and 607 
for assault with intent to kill. The mortality reports of the Health 
Department show 6g homicides, of which one third are classed as 
murders and the balance as manslaughter, whence we may infer 
that the number of arrests does not quite equal that of the actual 
crimes of this class. 


There were, in 1896, 1947 arrests for burglary, 1083 for robbery, 
and 149 for assault with intent to rob, 6780 for larceny, including 
459 for larceny of property which had been intrusted to the accused, 
401 for receiving stolen property, and 651 for obtaining goods or 
money under false pretenses. There were 241 arrests for keeping 
houses of ill fame, and 5547 of inmates of such houses, 310 for 
keeping gaming houses, and 1000 lacking 4 were of inmates of such 

There were 40 arrests for riot, 602 for malicious mischief, 1988 
for vagrancy, and, to come down to a petty nuisance very inade- 
quately dealt with, 194 for lounging on street corners. 

So far as the police are aware, only 19 drunkards and 21 mi- 
nors succeeded in finding any one to sell them intoxicating drink 
during the year 1896. 

There were some arrests of Aldermen, for what offences does 
not appear. 

There is a more genial side to the work of this department. 
During the same year it restored over 3318 lost children to their 
parents, assisted 6164 persons sick or hurt, rescued 42 persons 
from drowning, and extinguished 321 incipient fires, besides giving 
3395 fire alarms. There were also, as has already been stated, 
176,980 instances in which homeless persons were furnished with 

These figures emphasise the importance of this department 
and show also that it must be credited with a very considerable 
degree of efficiency. 

The system might however be improved by making the mayor's 
power of appointment and removal independent of the City Coun- 
cil, and by providing that no patrolman shall be appointed or pro- 
moted until his qualifications have been tested by a thorough ex- 
amination ; that no reduction or removal shall be made except for 
cause stated, and that the person reduced or removed shall be 
entitled (if he demand it) to an investigation by a board analogous 
to a court martial and to re-instatement if the charges are adjudged 
to be unfounded. 

Any splitting up of the control, and consequent dissipation of 
the responsibility by means of a non-partisan (that is, doubly par- 
tisan) commission, can only tend to introduce alternations of wran- 
gles and corrupt compromises where unity and integrity are essen- 

Close by the Department of Police is another with organisa- 
tion almost exactly parallel, the Fire Department, having at its 


head a fire marshal with powers similar to those of the superin- 
tendent of police. Under him is a force of 1135 men of all ranks, 
including 93 clerks, telegraphers, machinists, etc. The fire-fighting 
force is divided into 109 companies, operating (among other ap- 
paratus) 78 steam fire-engines and 4 fire boats. The fire apparatus 
is valued at ^855, 000, and that belonging to the alarm and tele- 
graph system at ^643,000. 

During 1896 there were 4414 fires, causing a total loss of 
$1,979,355. In less than half of these was the loss over $jo, and in 
only 161 cases did it exceed $1000. The number causing a loss of 
$30,000 or over was 4. Two firemen were fatally and 16 others seri- 
ously injured in the discharge of duty. The firemen rescued 71 
persons from imminent peril of death. 

This department appears to do its work with practically no 
complaint either as to efficiency or honesty. But a guaranty of 
permanence in its good condition might be afforded by modifica- 
tions such as have just been suggested for the Police Department. 

It would seem on the whole, that if the city government of 
Chicago does not work as it ought to, the cause is to a very slight 
degree in the system and practically altogether in the men who ad- 
minister it. And these men are much more effectually under the 
control of the citizens than if more of them v/ere elected by direct 
popular vote. It would be impossible to make good government 
easier of attainment than it is now, depending as it does solely on 
the election of an upright and capable mayor, and of two upright 
and capable aldermen in each of a majority of the wards. If any- 
thing is wrong in the city government, it is because (as we said of 
another city centuries ago) the "people love to have it so." 

Nor is there any reason to hope that if the people of Chicago 
have not virtue and capacity enough to get good government for 
themselves, they can get any help from the people of the rest of 
the State, who are not so very much more virtuous or wise, and who 
have immeasurably less at stake. Any change in that direction 
would be simply removing the cause of the evil from where we can 
get at it to where we cannot. 



ALL TRUE POETS are prophets both in the original sense of 
the word and in its commonly accepted significance. A 
prophet (or n pocpr}fq<t) is a preacher, one who propounds the law 
of the higher life, of the ideal. A prophet is, as the Hebrew call 
him, "a nabi," a revealer of truth, a messenger who speaks in be- 
half of the moral world-order, expounding the duties which it in- 
volves. Prophets are confronted with the same reality as their 
fellow creatures, but while other mortals see merely what is, proph- 
ets have the vision of what ought to be ; and by comprehending 
the law of being, they actually can foresee the future. 

When Amos, the shepherd of Tekoah, witnessed the tyranny of 
the powerful, the oppressiveness of the rich, and the debaucheries 
in which the whole people indulged at their national festivals, he 
saw at once the doom which this lack of discipline foreboded ; and 
he raised a cry of alarm among the revellers at Bethel, prophesy- 
ing the desolation that would follow in the wake of their feasts. He 
whose mind's eye is undimmed by passion can always see the curse 
that accompanies sin and self-indulgence. 

* Schiller was the prophet of the ideal, the revealer of the ought ; 
and at the same time his sensitive nature made him understand 
the signs of the time, so as to render his poetry predictions of the 
nearest future. The barometer does not better predict the weather 
than did Schiller's dramas the great historical events of the age ; 
and what is most remarkable is the exactness with which the Ger- 
man poet anticipated every change in the fate of the world in reg- 
ular succession. Thus Schiller wrote Die Rduber (the robbers) in 
1780-1781, and the French revolution ensued, an outburst of the 
same spirit which pervaded this drama. In 1783 Schiller dramatised 
the story of the bold adventurer Fiesko, who took possession of the 





throne of Genoa, and Napoleon soon afterwards seized the govern- 
ment of France and placed the imperial crown upon his head. In 
1791 Schiller wrote his famous trilogy Wallenstein, and the suc- 
ceeding years became a period of warfare which were paralleled in 
the history of Europe only in the campaigns of the great Duke of 
Friedland. Further on, in 1801 Schiller wrote W\& Jungfrau von Or- 
leans, describing a foreign invasion and the heroic struggle for lib- 
erty, foreshadowing Napoleon's conquests and the national rebirth 
of Germany which ended in the final expulsion of the Corsican in- 
vader. Wilhelm Tell, Schiller's last work, written in 1804, is a 
noble prophecy of the eventual union of the German tribes which 
took place in much the same way as the Swiss formed their con- 
federacy ; for united Germany also was the result of a self-defence 
against the external danger of a common foe. 

Schiller's anticipations of coming events must be startling to 
those who do not understand that the poet's nature by his very vis- 
ion of the ideal will necessarily and naturally presage the future. 
And there was no one among all the prophets of the world who had 
a clearer and more philosophical grasp of the significance of the 
ideal in its relation to the real than Schiller ; and thus Schiller has 
become a religious prophet announcing a deeper conception of God 
as based upon the matured thought of the philosophy of his time. 

Plato was the inventor of the conception of the ideal from 
which Philo (20 B. C.-40 A. D.) developed the doctrine of Words 
or \oyoi which manifest themselves as virtues in the spiritual lead- 
ers of the world. ^ Philo's logos doctrine contains the Christian 
view as expressed in the Fourth Gospel. It is a Platonic view that 
the logos is, as Philo says, ''the archetypal model, the idea of ideas," 
but it is already a genuine Christian thought, when he speaks of 
"the word of the Supreme Being" as ''the second Deity," and as 
"the image {eiHoov) of God, by whom all the world has been 
framed." The Greek conception of the ideal found another expres- 
sion in the philosophical writings of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, 
who distinguishes two things, the material (vXikov) and the formal 
{airiwdss), the latter being that which is the determinant in causa- 
tion, meaning literally "the cause-like" or simply "the causal." 

While the conception of the ideal is represented by Plato with 
a tinge of corporeality as if the ideas were beings or things who 

1 Thus Abraham is the educational virtue SiSowr/coAticT) oper^ ; Isaac the ingrained or natural 
virtue, <j>vcnKri aperij; Jacob the practice-virtue, a<7/cijTiKT) aperjj; Joseph, political virtue, as lead- 
ing a life of political usefulness (/Si'oj ttoAitikos), and Moses is the pattern of all virtues, he is the 
model and a unique manifestation of the word (6 Koyos), as the totality of all the words (Aoyot). 


existed somewhere in an unspatial space and an untemporal time, 
and while to Philo the logoi are forces performing work as we might 
think of light and electricity, or tools employed by the great ar- 
chitect of the world in his work of creation, Schiller conceives of 
the ideal realm as forms with the same scientific clearness that is 
possessed only by the trained mathematician. The realm of the ideal 
is not anything material, nor is it dynamical ; it is purely formal. 
Yet the formal is the most essential part of this material reality 
which is the world in which we live and move and have our being. 
The purely formal is not an idle illusion ; it is the recognition of 
the eternal, the immutable, the absolute, the laws of which pervade 
the whole universe and determine the destiny of stars as well as 
molecules, of nations and of every single individual not less than 
of mankind as a whole. Thus James Sime, compiler of the meagre 
sketch of Schiller's life in the Encyclopsedia Britannica, is right in 
his terse characterisation of the poet when he says : 

" Schiller had a passionate faith in an eternal ideal world to which the human 
mind has access ; and the contrast between ideals and what is called reality, he 
presents in many different forms." 

This side of Schiller's poetry is little known among the Eng- 
lish-speaking nations. Goethe's philosophy has become accessible 
through the excellent translations of several ingenious translators, 
men like Bayard Taylor and others. It appears that it is even more 
difficult to translate Schiller than Goethe. Schiller's verses sound 
like music ; yet is their language simple, and a native German 
needs no effort to understand their meaning at once. It seems 
almost impossible to reproduce their elegant diction adequately. 
The best translations of Schiller's poems are not entirely free from 
the grossest blunders, which prove that the translators were unable 
even to parse the original sentences, let alone to grasp their signifi- 

The most important poem that sets forth Schiller's confession 
of faith in its philosophical foundation is his anthem on "the Ideal 
and Life," the most significant verses of which are as follows^: 

" Smooth, and ever clear, and crystal-bright, 
Flows existence zephyr-light. 
In Olympus where the blest recline. 
Moons revolve and ages pass away 
Changelessly, 'mid ever-rife decay. 
Bloom the roses of their youth divine. 

lEdgar Bowring's translation is the best that could be had. The first verse, which is very 
good, remains here unaltered. The other verses are more or less changed for reasons which 
comparison with the original will explain. 


Man has but a sad choice left him now, 
Sensual joy and soul-repose between ; 
But upon the great Celestial's brow, 
Wedded is their splendor seen. 

" Wouldst thou here be like a deity, 
In the realm of death be free, 
Never seek to pluck its gardens fruit 
On its beauty thou may'st feed thine eye ; 
Soon the impulse of desire will fly 
And enjoyment's transient bliss polute. 
E'en the Styx that nine times flows around 
Ceres' child's return could not delay ; 
But she grasped the apple — and was bound 
Evermore by Orcus' sway. 

" Yonder power whose tyranny we bemoan. 
On our bodies has a claim alone. 
Form is never bound by time's design. 
She the gods' companion, ^ blessed and bright 
Liveth in eternal realms of light 
'Mongst the deities, herself divine. 
Wouldst thou on her pinions soar on high. 
Throw away the earthly and its woe ! 
To the ideal realm for refuge fly 
From this narrow life below. 

This same idea of the ideal realm of pure forms is further em- 
phasised in the thirteenth verse, beginning with the lines : 

" In den heiteren Regionen, 
Wo die reinen Formen wohnen." 

Which may be translated as follows : 

' ' In yon region of pure forms. 
Sunny land e'er free from storms. 
Misery and sorrow cease to rave. 
There our sufferings no more pierce the soul. 
Tears of anguish there no longer roll. 
Nought remains but mind's resistance brave. 
Beauteous as the rainbow's colored hue. 
Painted on the canvas of the cloud, 
E'en on melancholy's mournful shroud 
Rest reigns in empyrean blue." 

Schiller, utilising to some extent Greek mythology, contrasts 
pure form with reality. Peace of soul exists alone in the realm of 
pure form; there no suffering exists j^ for what is painful struggle 

\Die Gespielin seeliger Naturen, means the companion of the blessed ones, i. e., the gods, 
and not (as Mr. Bowring has it) "blissful Nature's playmate." 

2 Schiller's description of the region of pure forms reminds us of St. John's revelation, where 
we read : "And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes ; and there shall be no more death, 


in real life, appears in the domain of the ideal merely as beauteous 
contrast. Pure form is divine, while its bodily realisation is min- 
gled with that element that is of the earth earthy. Therefore the 
poet exhorts us, in the second stanza, not to lust after the fruit of 
sensuality j once bound by its spell, we are caught in the maelstrom 
of desire, leading to disgust, and the desire itself will leave us, 
which reminds one of Schopenhauer who declares that life is an 
oscillation between wants and ennui. But that is not all. Schiller 
adds that enjoyment involves us in the doom of death, — an idea in 
which Greek views are strangely mixed with the resignation of the 
Buddhist. So long as we are able to discard all earthly sorrow, 
and seek refuge in the realm of the ideal, we need not fear death. 
Death is the fate of Eve who tasted the forbidden fruit of sensual 
desire, but death has no power over Proserpine, Ceres's daughter, 
the goddess of spring, whose return to life from the domain of Or- 
cus, Styx cannot prevent. 

And what is the ethics to which Schiller's philosophy of pure 
form leads? Schiller says : 

" Man before the law feels base, 
Humbled and in deep disgrace. 
Guilt e'en to the holy ones draws nigh. 
Virtue pales before the rays of truth. 
From the ideal every deed, forsooth. 
Must in shame and in confusion fly. 
None created e'er surmounted this. 
Neither a bridge's span can bear. 
Nor a boat o'er that abyss. 
And no anchor catches there. 

" But by flying from the sense-confined 
To the freedom of the mind. 
Every dream of fear thou'lt find thence flown, 
And the endless depth itself will fill. 
If thou tak'st the Godhead in thy will. 
It no longer sits upon its throne.^ 
Servile minds alone will feel its sway 
When of the law they scorn the rod, 
For with man's resistance dies away 
E'en the sovereignty of God." 

neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain : for the former things are passed 

1 Schiller's expressions that "God descends from his throne" and "abdicates his sover- 
eignty," have been misunderstood by Mr. Bowring. He translates : 

(The Godhead) 
" Will soar upwards from its earthly throne." 



This is an ethics both of modesty and of moral endeavor. 
Since the ideal can never be attained in its purity, even the holy 
man is not free from guilt, and absolute perfection can never be 
realised. Nevertheless, the ideal is not a beyond ; it is an imma- 
nent presence which can find its incarnation in man. And the ideal 
ceases to appear as an implacable condemnation of our shortcom- 
ings as soon as it dominates our entire being. He whose will is 
determined by the ideal, can say of God, " I and the Father are one." 
God is no longer above, but within him. Says Schiller : 

" Nehmt die Gottheit auf in euren Willen, 
Und sie steigt von ihrem Weltenthron." 

This looks hke outspoken atheism, but it is the same atheism 
for which Socrates drank the hemlock. It is the same blasphemy 
for which Christ was crucified. It is an expression of that moral 
endeavor which renders man divine and gives rise to the ideal of 
the God-man. 

In the same sense that permeates these lines of his poem "The 
Ideals and Life," Schiller expresses himself in his "Words of 
Faith," which contain Schiller's poetical formulation of Kant's 
postulates of Freedom, Virtue, and God. Schiller says : 

" These words I proclaim, important and rare, 
Let from mouth to mouth them fly ever. 
The heart to their truth will witness bear, 
Through the senses you'll prove them never. ^ 
Man will no longer his worth retain. 
Unless these words of faith remain. 

" For Liberty man is created; he's free, 
Though fetters around him be clinking. 
Let the cry of the mob never terrify thee, 
Nor the scorn of the dullard unthinking ! 
Beware of the slave when he breaks from his chain, 2 
But fear not the free who their freedom maintain. 

" And Virtue is more than an empty sound, 
It can in life be made real. 
Man often may stumble, before it be found. 
Still, he can obtain this ideal. 

And that which the learned in their learning ne'er knew. 
Can be done by the mind that is childlike and true. 

1 Schiller has here in mind the contrast made by Kant between sensation rising from the out 
side and thought, having its roots in the pure forms of our mind. Schiller means to say that the 
three ideas, "freedom (i. e., moral responsibility) virtue, and God," are not sense-given. 

2 While Schiller says, "the slave must be feared when he frees himself, not the free man," 
Bowring translates, " Fear not the bold slave, nor the free man." 


" And a God, too, there is, a purpose sublime, 
Though frail may be human endeavor. 
High over the regions of space and of time 
One idea supreme rules forever. 
While all things are shifting and tempest pressed, 
Yet the spirit pervading the change is at rest. 

' ' Preserve these three words, important and rare, 
Let from mouth to mouth them fly ever, 
The heart to their truth will witness bear. 
Through the senses you'll prove them never, 
Man will forever his worth retain. 
While these three words of faith remain." 

When Schiller speaks of God as **a purpose sublime"; liter- 
ally, "a. holy will," " ein heiliger Wille,'^ and as "the idea supreme," 
^'der hochsie Gedanke,^' dinA when he contrasts God with the rest- 
lessness of the world, stating that "a spirit of rest pervades all 
change," Es beharret im Wechsel ein ruhiger Geist, we do not believe 
that these expressions were framed under strain of versification. 
They must, in our opinion, be regarded as carefully worded defini- 
tions which are the matured product of the poet's thought, and 
considering their deep significance, we make bold to claim Schiller 
(not less than Goethe)^ as one of the most clear-sighted prophets of 
the Religion of Science. 

Schiller's religion was not limited to any sect, and indeed he 
avoided giving allegiance to any particular creed, because his re- 
ligious faith, although very definite, was broader and more deeply 
rooted than any one of those confessions of faith which the Chris- 
tian dogmatism of his time could offer him. He took the religious 
problem too seriously to accept any set of formulas without making 
them his own and transforming them into a religion that was ten- 
able before the tribunal of both his philosophy and his conscience. 
This apparent lack of religion was an evidence of his extraordinary 
religious seriousness, which he expressed in the famous distich : 

" What my religion ? I'll tell you ! There is none among all you may mention 
Which I embrace. — And the cause? Truly, religion it is! 

1 Goethe says : 

" Und alias Drangen, alles Ringen 
1st ewige Ruh' in Gott dem Herrn." 



THE OLD LION fell ill and summoned all the animals to at- 
tend his last diet and to make his heir, the young lion, king 
in his stead. The animals came obediently and accepted the old 
lion's last will. But after the old lion was dead and buried with 
splendor befitting a king, there came forward certain false and 
faithless counsellors of the king, who had received many favors at 
his hands and been helped by him to great honors. These now 
sought to lead a lawless life and to rule in the kingdom after their 
own pleasure, and wished therefore no lion for king, saying : 
^'Nolumus hunc regnare super nos " (We do not wish this one to reign 
over us). They pointed out what a cruel sway the lions had held 
hitherto, how they had torn and eaten innocent animals, so that no 
one could feel secure from them. Thus it is wont to be : that of 
those in authority all the good is suppressed and only the evil is 

From these remarks a great murmur arose among all the es- 
tates of the kingdom ; some wished to keep the young lion, but 
the great part were even fain to try another. At last they were 
called together that they might choose according to the word of the 

1 Luther had serious misgivings when he established among the Protestants the principle of 
making the sovereign of each country sutnmus episcopus, or head of the church, but in those dis- 
turbed times he sav? no other way of arranging the matter. Since his policy has become one of 
the strongest foundation-stones of secular church government he is generally believed to have 
upheld the idea of a monarchical government " by God's grace." However, the fable of the 
" Lion and the Ass," which is scarcely ever mentioned, let alone read in the religious curriculum 
of the Lutheran schools of Germany, proves that Luther had very radical views on questions of 
politics and government. 

This fable was printed, according to the best authorities, in 1528, two years before Luther ap- 
plied himself to the editing of the old collection known as jEsop's Fables, and bore the title 
"A New Fable of iEsop, recently found in German." 


greater number and quiet the matter. Thereupon the false, faith- 
less counsellors made the fox their speaker, who should say their 
word before the estates of the kingdom, and gave him cunning in- 
structions and directions how he should nominate the ass. At first, 
indeed, it seemed laughable even to the fox that an ass should be 
king; but when he heard their considerations : how independent 
they could be under the rule of the ass and could sway him as 
they would, the knave liked the prospect and helped faithfully, 
pondering how he should present the matter cleverly. 

The fox appeared before the estates of the kingdom, cleared 
his throat, and, calling for silence, began to speak of the dangers 
and difficulties of the kingdom, and implied by his whole speech 
that it was all the king's fault, and he ran down the lion family so 
that the populace quite fell away from them. But when a great 
doubt arose as to which animal should be chosen, he again called 
for silence and attention and proposed the ass family, and spent a 
good hour praising the ass, saying that the ass was neither proud 
nor tyrannical, did much work, was patient and humble, admitted 
the consequence of other animals, was not hard to keep, neither 
was he cruel and did not devour other animals, and was satisfied 
with little homage and low taxes. 

Now when the fox observed that this tickled the populace and 
pleased them well, he capped the climax by saying : "Besides, 
gentlemen, we have to consider that he is, perchance, appointed 
and created by God for this office ; this may be seen in the fact 
that he bears forever the cross upon his back." 

When the fox referred to the cross all the estates of the king- 
dom were astonished, and shouted with loud acclaim : "Now we 
have found our proper king, who can manage both civil and eccles- 
iastical matters. " Then each commended something in the ass; 
one said that he had fine long ears which would be good for hear- 
ing confession ; another said that he had a good voice which would 
be fit for preaching and singing in church. Indeed there was noth- 
ing about the ass that did not seem worthy of royal and papal hon- 
ors. But above all other virtues shone the cross on his back. So 
the ass was chosen king among the animals. 

An outcast orphan, the poor young lion went forth from his 
ancestral realm wretched and sorrowful, until certain faithful and 
devoted old counsellors, who were offended by the affair, took pity 
on him, and agreed that it was an abominable shame to let the 
young king be expelled in such a disgraceful way ; his father had 
deserved better of them. They decided, too, that it must not go in 


the kingdom as the fox and his fellows willed, seeking only their 
own pleasure and not the honor of the kingdom. They encouraged 
one another and called the estates together, saying they had some 
necessary business to propose. Then the eldest, an old dog, a 
faithful counsellor of the old lion, came forward and declared in a 
beautiful speech that the election of the ass had been too sudden 
and hasty, and that a great wrong had been done the lion, adding 
that all is not gold that glitters. 

The dog argued : ''The ass, although he has the cross on his 
back, may be a fraud with nothing behind it, as indeed all the 
world is deceived by glitter and fine appearances. The lion has 
proven his many virtues by deeds, but the ass has never shown any 
deed. Look well to it, therefore, that you do not choose a king 
who is only a graven image, which also can bear a cross. And if a 
war should arise, you do not know what good the mere cross will 
do if there is nothing to back it." 

This serious, brave speech from the dog affected Master Om- 
nes. The fox and the faithless counsellors grew uneasy, and de- 
clared that what was once done in the kingdom should stand ; but 
nevertheless the masses were influenced by the consideration that 
the ass had never shown forth any deed, and that the cross might 
indeed have deceived them, and yet they could not cancel the 

As the dog insisted so strongly on the deed and the fraud of 
the cross, a proposition was agreed to that the ass should fight 
with the lion for the kingdom, the one that conquered to be king; 
there was no other way to manage, since the election had already 
taken place. At this the young lion again took heart, and all his 
devoted subjects were full of hope. But the fox and his fellows 
hung their tails, for they did not expect much knightly combat 
from their new king, unless the contest v/ere in thistle-chewing. 
The day of combat was set, and all the animals came to the place. 
The fox supported the ass ; the dog, the lion. 

The ass let the lion choose the contest. The lion said, "Well, 
let it be : whichever jumps over this brook, without wetting a foot, 
shall be the winner. Now it was a broad brook. The lion took a 
start and sprang over as a bird might fly across. The ass and the 
fox thought : "Well, we were not kings before, daring wins, dar- 
ing loses " ; he had to jump, and jumped with a splash into the 
middle of the brook, as a block would fall in. The lion jumped 
about on the bank and cried out : "I guess his foot is wet." But 
now behold what luck and cunning can do. While under the water 



a little fish had become entangled and caught in the ass's ear ; so 
when the ass crept out of the brook and the animals had had a 
good laugh at his jump, the fox sees the ass shake the fish, out of 
his ear, and begins and speaks : ''Be still and harken : 

" Where now are those who despise the cross, saying that it 
can show no deed ? My lord. King Ass, says he might also have 
undertaken to spring across the brook, but that would have been a 
poor device in his eyes to prove. the virtue of his cross ; but seeing 
on his jump a fish in the brook, he sprang after it, and that the mi- 
raculous power of his cross should be the greater, he undertook to 
catch it with his ear instead of with his mouth or his paw. Let the 
lion do as much, and then he may be king. But I think with his 
mouth and all four claws he could not catch a fish, not even if he 
went after it, to say nothing of catching it on the jump." 

With such babble the fox again created confusion, and the 
cross was on the point of winning. The dog was vexed with his 
ill luck, but still more with the fact that the treacherous fox, with 
his foxy ways, had so befooled the multitude, and he began to bel- 
low that it had come about thus by chance, and was no miracle. 

But lest a riot should ensue from the snarling and snapping of 
the fox and the dog, it was considered well that the lion and the 
ass should go alone to some place and have their contest there. 

They proceeded to a wood within the peace and safe-conduct 
of the kingdom. "The test shall be," said the lion, "which one 
can catch the swiftest animal." And he ran into the wood and 
chased until he caught a hare. The lazy ass, however, thought : 
the kingdom is going to cost me too much pains ; I am to have no 
peace if things go in this fashion. So he lay down in the sun 
where he was, and let his tongue hang out for the great heat. A 
raven comes that way, and, thinking it is a carrion, alights upon 
his lips and is about to eat, whereupon the ass snaps his jaws to 
and catches the raven. Now when the lion comes running joyfully 
with his hare, he finds the raven in the ass's mouth, and is dis- 
mayed. In short, the game was lost, and he himself began to have 
a dread of the ass's cross. 

The lion, however, did not like to give up his kingdom, and 
said : "Dear Ass, one more test for the sake of good fellowship ; 
they say all good things go by threes." Half from fear because he 
was alone with him, the ass accepted the proposal. 

The lion said : "On the other side of this mountain stands a 
mill; whichever gets there first shall be winner; will you go around 
the foot or over the top of the mountain?" The ass said : "You 


go over the mountain." As in his last struggle., the lion ran with 
all his might and main. But the ass stood where he was, and 
thought : if I run I shall only be laughed at, and wear my legs out 
besides; I see the lion is not willing to concede me the honor, and 
I do not care to labor in vain. 

When the lion reached the other side of the mountain he saw 
another ass standing before the mill. "Aha ! " says he, " has the 
devil already gotten you here?" and he shouted : ''Very good; 
back once more to the starting point ! " 

Having crossed the mountain, once more he saw the ass still 
standing there. "A third time, then," he cried, "back to the 
mill ! " There he saw the ass standing a third time, and had to 
confess him victor and admit that there is no jesting with the 

So the ass remained king, and to this day his family reigns 
with a strong hand among the beasts of the world. 




THE QUESTION has often been raised whether or not the 
Church is responsible for the crimes of heresy trials, witch 
prosecutions and the Inquisition, and the answer depends entirely 


The Banner of the Spanish Inquisition. 

The Banner o?- the Inouisition of Goa.1 

upon our definition of the Church. If we understand by Church 
the ideal bond that ties all religious souls together in their common 
aspirations for holiness and righteousness, or the communion of 
saints, we do not hesitate to say that we must distinguish between 

IThe illustrations on pages 226-232 are reproduced from Packard. 


The Chamber of the Inquisition. 

Tl-V ■ 

I ■' ^1 *■ y '^u Tj- 

i;J\f.4.. 1 T77,. ^*~"- - 

\ \1 II 11 s M WNH s nl- ( ROSS I \ \MININ(, 1 Hh DEFENDANTS. 



the ideal and its representatives ; but if we understand by Church 
the organisation as it actually existed at the time, there is no escape 
from holding the Church responsible for everything good and evil 
done by her plenipotentiaries and authorised leaders. Now, it is 
strange that while many Roman Catholics do not hesitate to con- 
cede that many grievous mistakes have been made by the Church, 
and that the Church has considerably changed not only its policy 
but its principles, there are others who would insist on defending 
the most atrocious measures of the Church, be it on the strength of 

A Man and a Woman Convicted of Heresy who have Pleaded Guilty Before Being 
Condemned to Death. 

their belief that the Church is the divmely guided organ of God's 
revelation, or on some other doctrinal ground. 

We will illustrate the contrast of views that obtains at present 
by quoting a few sentences from Roman Catholic authors. The re- 
viewer of Gustav Freytag's Martin Luther, in the Providence Jour- 
nal, after a column's discussion of Luther, of whom he says that 
"even Rome owes a debt to Luther," continues : 

"Freytag's attitude is well expressed in his opening words: 'All Christian 
denominations,' he says, 'have good reason to be grateful to Luther, for to him 
they owe a purified faith which satisfies the heart and soul and enriches their lives. 
The heretic of Wittenberg is a reformer for the Catholic quite as much as for the 
Protestant.' That in the struggle with Luther Catholicism was forced to purify it- 
self, to outgrow mere scholasticism, to make its sacraments true means of grace. 


Heretics Condemned to be Burned. 

Zi>CT V7 -■"Jz 

A Man and a Woman Condemned to be Burned but Pardoned on Account of 
Their Confession. 



may freely be admitted. But Catholics, at least, can hardly be blamed for holding 
also that in some respects the loss outweighed the gain, and that irreparable harm 
was done to Christianity by a movement which, despite its original purity of inten- 
tion, developed rapidly into the sectarianism which Protestants themselves deplore. 
"Where Luther was certainly right, however, was in his first decided protest against 
the sale of indulgences and other abuses, and in his strong upright defiance of 
authority which led him to the Diet at Worms. It is not necessary to agree with 
his later theology in order to see this. Nor can Catholicism set Luther down as a 
mere reckless disturber of the peace in the light of those unimpeachable authentic 
documents which show how thoroughly justified his revolt was. The English mon- 
asteries, for example, were probably no worse — they may have been better — than 


Thk Inquisition in Session on the Market Square at Madrid. 

A. King and Queen. 

B. Grand Inquisitor. 

C. Counsellors. 

D. Nobility. 

E. The defendants and the 

F. Two cages in which the criminals /. The preacher's pulpit. 

were placed when their sentence K. K. Stands for those who read the 
was read. sentences. 

G. Altar for saying mass. L. Effigies of those who died in prison. 
H. H. Escutcheon of the Inquisition. 

those on the Continent. Yet we know what Morton, Cardinal Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, thought it necessary to say about the Abbot of St. Alban's when Pope Inno- 
cent VIII. commissioned him to correct and reform the religious houses. Queen 
Mary's agents endeavored to destroy the records of the visitation under Henry VIII. ; 
but there is evidence enough in the papers in the Cotton Library and in the Rolls 
House, to say nothing of evidence from private persons ; and if we had nothing 
else, the Acts of Parliament would be sufficient. It is idle in the face of all this to 
say that the Reformation was not needed or might have been averted. The men 
really responsible for Luther's revolt were they who refused to heed his complaints. 
One great Churchman, Erasmus, saw this clearly. He urged reform upon deaf 
ears, having himself borne to the imperative demand for it. ' The stupid 

Procession of the Inquisition of Goa. 

A. The Banner. D. Criminals who, having pleaded 

B. Dominican friars. g-uilty, were pardoned. 

C. Criminals Condemned to be burned E. Crucifix turning its back upon those 

alive. that are condemned to be burned. 

F. Criminals condemned to be burned. 

G. Effigies of those who escape the fag- 

ots by having died in prison. 
H. Grand Inquisitor. 

The Last Sermon Preached to the Condemned. 



monks,' he writes, 'say mass as a cobbler makes a shoe; they come to the altar 
reeking from their filthy pleasures. Confession with the monks is a cloak to steal 
the people's money, to rob girls of their virtue, and commit other crimes too hor- 
rible to name.' Nor was he less emphatic in writing to the Pope himself. 'Let 
each man amend first his own wicked life,' he urges. 'When he has done that, and 
will amend his neighbor, let him put on Christian charity, which is severe enough 
when severity is needed. If your Holiness give power to men who neither believe 
in Christ nor care for you, but think only of their own appetites, I fear there will 
be danger. We can trust your Holiness, but there are evil men who will use your 
virtues as a cloak for their own malice.' The weight of the testimony is indisput- 
able. ' ' 

The Heretics' Death on the Fagots. 

Another weighty expression of the enlightened spirit that mani- 
fests itself in certain quarters of the Roman Catholic Church comes 
from the lips of DeConaty, the new rector of the Catholic Univer- 
sity at Washington, who on the occasion of his inauguration incul- 
cated the principles of the religion of science, saying : 

"Let the watchword of the Catholic university be, 'Revelation and science, 
religion and patriotism, God and our country.' . . . 

"Truth is one as God is one, whether it be sought for in the moral or scien- 
tific order. There is no secret in nature which can offer danger to truth. The 
Church has always blessed true science and blesses it every day." 

We could easily increase such quotations as these, which are 
symptoms of a healthy spirit and show that there are men bold 


enough to be impartial, just, and progressive. There is, however, 
a reverse to the medal, for narrowness and bigotry, too, find ex- 

pression and like to parade before the public as the genuine expres- 
sions of the true Church. There are, for instance, many Roman 



Catholic historians who still defend the inquisition and even witch- 
prosecution as justifiable,^ and even here in America a man rises in 
defence of this barbarous and irreligious institution. Mr. James A. 
Conway in the Catholic Mirror (we find it reprinted in the Doininion 
Review) characterises the blessed times of the Spanish inquisition 
in these words : 

' ' The State made enactments and laws for government of its citizens ; the 
Church inspired and seasoned them with justice and wisdom. All the laws, then, 
had a tinge of Catholicity, and they were carried out in a manner savoring of the 
principles of that universal religion. Consequently, it is evident that one who was 
a heretic then, was by that very fact in opposition to the spirit of the laws and cus- 
toms of his country — in other words, a disturber of the public peace, and an under- 
miner of civil society. And so it was that in the year 1184, when Lucius III. sat 
upon the throne of Peter, the Roman Inquisition was formally established to bring 
to trial the Cathari (the Albigenses). And at the same time bishops established spe- 
cial tribunals in different places to examine into the charges against other persons 
who were suspected or known to be heretics. . . . 

' ' There were three classes of heretics, and three were the kinds of punishment 
meted out to them. The first class were the Jews, who were punished very lightly; 
the second class were the ordinary heretics, who were condemned to banishment 
or else imprisoned ; the third class, however, those heretics who were at the same 
time open disturbers of the peace and enemies to society, were punished to the full 
extent of the law. The Church could suffer the pagans to worship, because they 
erred from ignorance ; she could tolerate the Jews, because they were the living 
and most singular witnesses to the truth ; but never could she countenance or en- 
courage a formal heretic, a foe to civilisation, a barrier in the way to salvation, to 
scatter his poisons unmolested. But aside from the question of civil society, was 
the Church justified in punishing heretics for that reason alone? Most assuredly. 
The Church is the divinely appointed guardian of the revelations of Jesus Christ, 
and consequently has the right to rebuke those who, in any way, attack the purity 
of that faith." 

Mr. Conway waxes warm when he considers the blessings of 
the Inquisition. He says: 

"Again, they say that the Inquisition, during the time it existed, hung over 
Spain like a dark, heavy cloud, enslaving the spirit, robbing the poor country of the 
free manifestation of all that is dear to natural life. The truth is that, during the 
flourishing period of the Inquisition and shortly after, in the arts, the sciences, in 
knowledge and grandeur, in empire and dominion, Spain was the envy of the civil- 
ised world. No nation was more enlightened, more powerful, more extensive. In 
those days her sceptre swayed princes and potentates, and the muses seem to have 
deserted the rest of the earth and nestled only on her soil Under their enlightened 
guidance, the illustrious Lope de Vega, the writer, employed his talents to delight 
all Christendom with his beautiful works ; and the renowned Cervantes, the father 
of novel-writers, brought into the world his famous Don Quixote. Up rose the 

1 See Encyclopcrdia Bri'tannua, Vol. XIII., p. 95. "And now again from 1875 to this day a 
crowd of defenders has risen up : Father Wieser and the Innsbruck Jesuits in their journal (1877) 
yearn for its re-establishment, Orbi y Lara in Spain, the Benedictine Gams in Germany, and C. 
Poullett in Belgium take the same tone," etc. 

IS theJchurch responsible for the inquisition? 


great Himinez, the statesman and orator ; and the heroic Columbus braved the un- 
known seas and opened up to the world a new-found continent. In the midst of the 
Inquisition was born the conqueror Cortez and the explorer De Soto. And scarcely 
had it ceased to exist when the church was enriched with Ignatius Loyola, Francis 
Borgia, Francis Xavier, and the great St. Theresa, the greatest warriors for the 
faith which Spain has begotten 




_ > 


ueminr aacot-vfius eft fccittnlamfet 

conttfto:cp quo^ lomrf mnnt:abi)xf 

The First Page of the Dialog^us Miraculorutn by C^sarius Heisterbach, 
which spread the belief in witchcraft and other superstitions. 1 

" O Spain, beautiful, smiling Spain, loaded with calumny, held down beneath 
the scorn of thy sister nations, struggling and struggling, yet in vain, to regain thy 
long-lost grandeur ; fair mother of saints, warriors, heroes, discoverers, explorers, 

iThe original, which is preserved in the Royal Library at Diisseldorf, is artistically colored 
in red. The piety that appears in the initial is genuine and should not be put down as hypocrisy. 
The superstitions of witch prosecution and heresy trials would never have reached their terrible 
dimensions had they not been carried on in a deeply religious, albeit misguided, spirit. 





land of chivalry and conquest ; who could but admire and extol thy greatness and 
fame ? " 

There is no need of refuting the arguments of Mr. Conway, 
but we may state that his opinion will scarcely be endorsed to day 
by the Roman Catholic Church, as such. At any rate, the number 

Agnes Bernauer Drowned as a Witch at the Request of Ernest, Duke of Bavaria. 

{Wood cut by G. Dietrich. Reproduced from B. E. Konig.) 

Shows how the unscrupulous availed themselves of the extraordinary power of witch tribunals 

of those Roman Catholics who would protest against a justification 
of the Inquisition in any form will not be small. The Inquisition 
may be excused through the ignorance of the times, but it can 
never be defended. We can learn to understand how it was possi- 
ble that such outrageous mistakes could be made, but there is no 


''the open court. ' 

point of view from which we can justify its proceedings or suppress 
the condemnation which later ages have pronounced upon it. 

What is, in spite of the famed unity of the Roman Cathohc 
Church, the reason of this contrast of opinions? It is not far to 
seek. The Church is a unity by dint of its hierarchical discipline, 
as an ecclesiastico-political body, not in its spiritual evolution. 
There is, to be sure, a unity of doctrine, but this unity of doctrine 
is more in words than in the meaning of words, and it is ver}' loose 
considering the liberty that is afforded to its members to interpret 

Witches Conjuring a Hail-Storm. 
(After an old German print.) 

The Devil of Conceit Seen by a Clergyman 
ON THE Dress of a Fashionable Lady. 

the dogmas as best they can. The Church as such interferes offi- 
cially with the interpretation of dogmas only when the peace of the 
Church is disturbed and the infallibility of the Pope, which is rela- 
tive and not absolute, serves as a means to prevent a schism. The 
truth is that Roman Catholics, in spite of the unity of their church 
government, are very different all the world over, and the Roman 
Catholics of the United States and of England may be regarded as 
the leaven in the dough which in the long run will make its influ- 
ence felt even in the haunts of the darkest mediaevalism of conti- 
nental Romanism. 




The key to all problems of the authority of churches, of the 
respective merits and demerits of tradition, of crimes committed in 
good faith through the prevalence of errors and superstitions, must 

The Materialistic Soul-Conception Prevalent Among the Uneducated early Christians. 

(From ancient MSS.l; 

be sought in evolution. All organised life, including spiritual and 
religious life, develops in a progressive unfoldment and passes 
through successive phases. Ideas are not solely the thoughts of in- 
dividuals ; they partake of a 
superindividual life migrating 
from individual to individual, 
from generation to generation, 
and waging a struggle v^^ith 
other hostile ideas which is 
finally decided according to the 
law of the survival of the fittest. 
The Christian idea of the im- 
mortality of the soul, contains a 
great truth, but ideas originate 
and pass in their development 
through a state of infancy and 
are subject to measles, chicken- 
pox, and other children's dis- 
eases. The truth that the soul 
is as different from the body 
as thoughts are different from 
the ink with which they are written, led to a dualistic interpre- 
tation of life which represented the soul materialistically as a sep- 

1 See Bastian's Verbhibs-Orte tier Seele, Plate I. Reproduced from Allerlei aus Volks- und 
Menschenkunde, Vol. II., Plate XVII., 5 and 7. 

2 Born 1634 as the son of a clergyman in Western Frisia, became pastor of a Reformed Church 
at Amsterdam. His famous work, The Enchanted World, was the first bold attack on the super- 
tition of magic and witchcraft. He died 1698. 

Halthasar Bekker.2 
A clergyman of the Reformed Church and 
author of De betoverde Weerelde. (Reproduced 
from an old wood cut.) 


arate being consisting of a mystical soul-substance. Dualism leads 
to the belief in magic and witchcraft, implying at the same time 
the ethics of asceticism. Evil is conceived to be a personal being 
who can make contracts with people and assist them with de- 
moniacal power. This notion naturally leads to witchcraft prose- 
cutions which were begun in a spirit of piety, but became quickly 

Friedrich Spee von Langenfeld.1 

The Jesuit author of Catitio Criminalis. Ardent abolitionist of witch prosecution. 

(After an old oil painting.) 

the means of unscrupulous men who used the verdict of witch trib- 
unals as a convenient instrument to satisfy their passions of hatred 
and revenge. It is true that the Roman Catholic Church inaugu- 

1 Born 1591 or 1595, and died 1635 ; he joined the Jesuits 1610 or 1615, was professor of philos- 
ophy and morals at Cologne, and wrote his Cantio Critninalis in Franconia when his pastoral 
duties brought him in frequent contact with wizards and witches whom he had to prepare for 
death. He takes high rank as a poet of Church hymns which appeared under the title Trutz- 



LJu^h t^M^ J 'U'mAAuf. 

Christian Thomasius, (Born 1655, died 1728.) 
Professor of Law at the University of Halle, who succeeded in the abolition of witch prose- 
cution. (After an old oil painting.) 


rated and continued the prosecution of heretics, wizards, and 
witches officially through its popes, but it is also true that the Prot- 
estants did not hesitate to follow their example^ and the arm of the 
worldly powers was ready to serve as an instrument of religious 
fanaticism. Even our own country witnessed scenes which now 
make us blush to think what crimes our ancestors committed in the 
superstitious conviction of increasing the glory of God. Nor must 
we forget that among the abolitionists of heresy trials and witch 
prosecutions there were clergymen like Bekker, a Presbyterian, 
and Spee, a Jesuit, who took a prominent part. 

We become lenient judges if we learn to understand the spirit 
of the past and trace its superstitions to their various causes, as a 
physician would describe the development of the successive phases 
of a disease. But while we thus may recognise the subjective sin- 
cerity of such characters as Torquemada, the old Grand Inquisitor 
of Spain, we must not blind ourselves to the terrible dangers of 
errors if they take hold of the guiding spirit of an age, be they the 
authorities of church and state or the masses of the people in re- 
publican countries. 

Error is the poison of our spiritual life ; and there is no royal 
road to truth. Religious revelation is not given us in an easy way, 
either in the Bible or through the authorities of the Church. In all 
things we have to make efforts ourselves to shun error and find the 
truth. We commit a sorry mistake, nay, more than a mistake, a 
grievous sin, if we accept any belief unthinkingly and blindly on 
authority. One of the highest religious duties consists in the cour- 
ageous search for truth. Says Marcus Aurelius : 

'' doKSi ffOL i'\.aff(30v iffxusif^ to Sietp£vffiJ.evov, 7) to joAzoj' 
rep iHT€pi(^yTi, Kai 6 io5 ro5 XvffffodijKTcp ^ " 

" Dost thou think that to be in error has less power than the bile in the jaun- 
diced or the poison in him who is bitten by a mad dog ? " 

The lesson of this chapter in history is that the confidence in 
science has already become a religious conviction with the leading 
nations of the world, although the fact is not as yet definitel}' and 
openly acknowledged ; and any sectarian faith that endeavors to 
set forth its claim to recognition does it and can do it only on the 
ground that it is one with scientific truth. For there is nothing 
that can be declared to be universally true, nothing that is truly 
catholic, nothing genuinely orthodox, except such truths as are 
demonstrated by science. 

J Be it said to the honor of Luther that he is a noteworthy exception. 




Preparations for starting : One cloth coat for best, two cloth coats for ordinary 
wear, one Marseilles coat, two pairs cloth trousers, two pairs Nankin trousers, six 
linen shirts, four cambric shirts, four linen handkerchiefs, eight cambric handker- 

Aug. 10 to Sept. 22, 1821. 

We left Fort Wayne at one o'clock, with one guide, in company with Captain 
H 's five police-at-arms. Our general course was northwest by west, four miles 
across a high, rich, level country. The timber was oak, beech, sugar-tree, hickory, 
ash, as far as the waters of the Wabash, which was the commencement of the 
prairie or barrens, which continued for four miles to a handsome creek, a branch 
of Eel River. Then came again a gradually rolling and heavily timbered country, 
walnut and poplar appearing in addition to the already mentioned trees which we 
had seen when first starting out 

We encamped at Blue Grass Creek, clearing away the haw, dogwood, and 

From Fort Wayne to Eel River was ten miles and eight additional miles to the 
Blue Grass Creek. The second day we crossed rolling, sandy, and gravelly bar- 
rens which rise abruptly above small lakes (four or five of beautifully clear water) 
more than one mile long and one-fourth of a mile broad. We stopped to rest about 
fourteen miles north of a flat village called Chicago, after various meanderings, 
making in all one hundred and sixty-five miles from Fort Wayne. 

The town consists of about . . . houses and .... inhabitants. It is built round 
a basin, in the rear of which a bluff rises abruptly to the height of . . . feet, on the 
summit or declivity of which has been repaired and is now occupied. Fort Mitchel. 
Machenau (Macenaw), built by the enemy during the late war. From this summit 
we can get a prospect of the whole island. The surface is limestone and gravel, 
with a small proportion of light, rich soil, which is regularly moistened during the 
summer by copious dews, producing the finest of potatoes onions, turnips, pars- 
nips, beets, etc. Corn, wheat, and rye grow, but do not succeed so well. They 
begin to plough and sow seed about the last of May and ist of June, and the crops 
mature in August and are gathered and stored in October. The roots and vegeta- 

1 Taken from the diary of Co'. VVm. H. Trimble, of Hillsboro. Ohio, in possession of Mrs E. 
J. Thompson, his niece, Hillsboro, Ohio. 


bles are kept in houses constructed for the purpose, partly underground and cov- 
ered with sod. Currants and cherries succeed well ; their apples are not good. 

Chicago is nothing but a small Indian village. The whitefish are said first to 
appear in going down the lake. 

Officers of the Government and some of the citizens waited on us. Mr. Robert 
Stuart gave us a horseback ride over the country. 

The Indians assembled in council about one o'clock. Governor Cass told them 
that they had been invited to assemble at this place to receive a message from their 
Great Father, the President of the United States, which message would be deliv- 
ered to them to-morrow ; that Mr. Sibley had been associated with him, and that I 
was a member of their father's council. The next day they assembled and the com- 
missioners delivered their message : that their Great Father desired to purchase 
the St. Joseph country, for which he would give them in goods which would be 
worth more to them than all the lands and game. One of the war chiefs, Mitia, an- 
swered for them that they had sold to their Great Father the greater part of their 
lands and that they had reserved little upon which to lay the bones of their fathers, 
and that it was necessary to support their chiefs, women and children, and that 
they did not expect their Great Father would have asked them to sell. 

After this we took quarters with Mr. Ramsey and A. D. Stuart, Esq., the col- 


During the month of February England honored a man who is one of the 
noblest and most courageous heroes of progress and liberty — George Julian Harney, 
the sole survivor of the delegates of the great Chartist Convention of 1839, who 
during the month of February celebrated the eightieth birthday of his eventful 

Mr. Harney's birthday was not celebrated officially, no degree of any kind, no 
knighthood was conferred upon him, but the people, represented by men of all fac- 
tions, the Tory, the Whig, and the Labor Party, expressed their sympathy with his 
life's endeavor and presented him with a purse that had been collected for the octo- 
genarian among his friends and admirers. It honors the English nation that they 
recognise honesty and love of liberty in a man who fought for the rights of the la- 
borer and suffered in dungeons as a martyr of his conviction. The speeches held 
on this occasion are memorable, for they are concessions on both sides. The repre- 
sentative of Toryism has a wider heart than the labor leader would anticipate, and 
the old labor leader has discovered that the troubles of the poor have many causes, 
some of which must be located in other quarters than he had sought them. We 
want liberty, but we need also the right education to prove ourselves worthy of 
liberty. Progress is slow, and we must be patient, but for that reason we should 
not despair. Mankind is after all advancing, and will further advance if we are 
ensouled with the right aspirations. 

We here reproduce a brief report of the most noteworthy sayings uttered on 
that memorable occasion. 

Mr. Joseph Cowen speaks of the olden times in which Mr. Harney labored and 
suffered for freedom, as follows } 

"When I first met Mr. Harney, he was in the prime of manhood — sanguine, 
intrepid, open-hearted, and confiding. It was a period of intense political ferment, 

1 Quoted from a letter to H. Wonfor, Esq., published in Tke ycrucastle Chronicle, of Feb. 18. 


With patriotic exuberance he was endeavoring to arouse an apathetic people in the 
name of freedom and the rights of man, and his aspirations, energy, and fervor 
were illimitable. 

" Fortune denied Mr. Harney the gifts of ease and opulence. He is self-made 
and self-reliant. He has been the slave of no patron, the drudge of no party, — 
neither a time-server nor a tuft-hunter. He formed his political opinions without 
regard for, and has acted upon them with disregard of, personal emolument and 
social distinction. He writes and speaks with epigrammatic terseness in plain, 
broad, down-right English. 'Age has not withered, nor custom staled,' his force of 
thought or fluent aptness of expression. 

" To-day while we gather round us the memories and warnings of experience 
truth compels me to confess that our anticipations of a better time coming were 
overwrought. Political machinery has been improved, yet man thereby has little 
altered. Mr. Harney has not lost faith in human progress, but his hopes have been 
chastened. The world can never retrogade to the darkness and bondage from which 
it has been freed, but wider knowledge has taught him to expect less and forgive 

Mr. Stroud, an old Tory, who had been chosen to present the birthday present 
of /^20o, collected by Mr. Harney's friends, to the octogenarian said: 

"It is a little odd that it should fall as it has fallen to me — who, during all my 
manhood, have been and am a Tory — to make this presentation to an old Radical 
and Chartist. But in truth a Tory of Disraeli's school cannot choose but be in 
close sympathy with that genuine big Englander, which the old Radical and Char- 
tist nearly always was, and which you, Mr. Harney, were and are in so eminent a 
degree. People often forget or never knew that Chartism, once regarded as a dream 
and sometimes advocated by hare-brained adventurers, has practically been placed 
on the statute book. Property qualification of members was abolished long ago, 
vote by ballot had long been law. Disraeli effected what nearl}' approaches to 
manhood suffrage, and our present close approximation to equal electoral districts 
is due in a very great measure to her Majesty's present Prime Minister. But we 
meet here not as politicians to greet a politician. We meet to do what little in us 
lies to honor an honest man and a consistent worker for Old England." 

Mr. Alderman Lucas of Gateshead said : "We are not here either to criticise 
or defend the principles for which the Chartists contended — of which body you 
were one of the most able and distinguished leaders — it is only common justice to 
you, as the oldest, if not the sole survivor of the leaders of that popular rising, to 
say that another generation has arisen, who can look with more impartiality and 
judge with less prejudice or party bigotry the efforts made and the work accom- 
plished by that league. It cannot but be a great satisfaction to you to know that 
many of the changes you so ardently advocated in your youth are now endorsed by 
the electors of this kingdom and have been enacted by Imperial Parliament. It is 
quite safe to say it would be difficult to find a single member of the House of Com- 
mons who would dare to advocate the abolition of any of the statutes which so 
largely embody the opinions of yourself and others, who so firmly stood in their 
support. It has been most trul}' said that a reformer is never properly or justly 
appreciated in his own generation. Like the sun, he is too often obscured by the 
mists of envy and the fogs of selfishness for his worth to be recognised. You have 
amid much difficulty not only striven but suffered for what you believed to be the 
truth. You lived in days when you were neither understood nor appreciated by 
great numbers, whom you were endeavoring to benefit. Your only wages were 


pains and penalties, and, if you did not flee from jour own countrj- for refuge, you 
were driven from one city to another to seek security and a place to preach your 
political doctrines. You have had, however, during your times of persecution the 
only real and abiding satisfaction an honest public man can possess, the approval 
of your own conscience of the enterprise you were engaged in, the knowledge that 
you had no sordid objects whatever to accomplish, that you had no emoluments or 
office to obtain, but — actuated by a high and noble sense of public duty in times of 
danger to advocates of liberty — you gave your time, j'our body, your brains, your 
all to assist, according to your judgment, your fellow-men to a higher and better 
condition of life. You have not attained to riches or high social standing, but you 
have accomplished something ten thousand times more important. You have, by 
your example, given to the future a magnificent lesson in self-sacrifice, and j-ou 
may rest safe and sure in the belief that your life and work will be a great incentive 
to effort in the cause of humanity in the years to come. In the literary work of 
various kinds, in which you have for so many years been engaged, we cannot but 
recognise all the indications of a mind well versed in all branches of human knowl- 
edge, in addition to great observation and large experience. In your writings you 
have clearh' shown that a public sp)eaker and leader of men, to live in the memory 
of others, must be a scholar if he desires to escape the fate of the demagogue, who 
lives only for the hour and seeks only the applause of the unthinking. You may 
rest assured that yoviT memorj- will linger in many a humble dwelling and many an 
honest heart for generations to come." 

Mr. Harnej's reply is noteworthy in more than one respect. After a humorous 
apology for ha\ang been bom in the dull month of February, Mr. Harnej- expressed 
his thanks for the gift, which was dearer to him because he knew^ that a great part 
of it consisted of small amounts coming from donors to whom 2s. 6d. were a sacri- 
fice. He concluded his remarks as follows ; 

" Now that we have entered 1S97, we are in the year of Queen Victoria's greater 
jubilee. But it is also the greater jubilee of the People's Charter, which was com- 
pleted and promulgated by Lovett in 1S37. We are not likelj- to see any jubilation 
over the Charter, but the chronological fact cannot be obliterated from Englisk 
minds. The men who subscribed that Charter — six members of Parliament and 
six workingmen — are all dead, most of them many years ago. 

■ ' I have noticed some cavilling at the designation applied to me of being ' the 
last of the Chartists. ' Well, I did not claim that designation. The term 'last 
has often been and will again be applied incorrectly. We have heard many times 
about the last of heroes who fought under Nelson at Trafalgar and again under 
Wellington at Waterloo. And we are near the time — if not already in it — when we 
shall hear of the last of the heroes who charged at Balaclava. So when I am dead 
and gone, there will still be some last Chartists named, like ' more last words of 
Mr. Baxter.' But that cannot go on long. In one sense, however, 'the last of 
the Chartists " is applicable to myself, inasmuch as I am the sole survivor of the 
delegates who constituted the first Chartist Convention, which met on the 4th of 
February, 1839, at the British Coffee House, Cockspur Street — now disappeared — 
and subsequently at the Dr. Johnson Tavern, Bolt Court, Fleet Street. 

" Of the members of the Convention I will only recall a few. First in honor 
comes William Lovett, the prime author of the People's Charter, and with him I 
couple Collins, of Birmingham. With these I put Cleave and He ry Hetherington. 
who led in the Warfare of the unstamped for the freedom of the press previous to 
the birth of Chartism. I next name James Watson and Richard Moore, Feargus 


O'Connor, and Bronteric O'Brien, Dr. Taylor and Dr. McDougall, Moir of Glas- 
gow and Marsden of Preston. These were all famous men, all dead long ago. Sub- 
sequently other leaders came to the front — James Leach, of Manchester, and John 
West, of Macclesfield — one embodying the strong common sense of the Saxon race, 
the other representing the wit and the humor of the Irish race. Two greater names 
must also be mentioned — Thomas Cooper and Ernest Jones, who both suffered cru- 
elly for the cause. It seems nowadays almost incredible how these men were 

" I should add yet another name, that of a man who stood rather outside the 
Chartist movement, but aiming at higher things — the principles of Milton combined 
with the aspirations of Mazzini. Of course, I refer to Mr. W. J. Linton, essayist, 
poet, unapproachable wood engraver, and remembered at least by some of us as 
the chivalrous, self-sacrificing propagandist of republican principles. Mr. Linton 
if still living, self-exiled to the States, but, though four years my senior, is strong 
intellectually and physically, and happily is not obliged, as I am, to claim kinship 
with the Queen of Spain. 

" Most of the men I have named suffered in bonds for freedom's sake, thus re- 
alising Byron's sonnet on Chillon, in which he says: 

" ' Eternal spirit of tlie chainless mind. 
Brightest in dungeon's liberty thou art, 
For there thy habitation is the heart, — 
The heart which love of thee alone can bind. 
And when thy sons to fetters are consigned, 
To fetters and the damp vault's dayless gloom. 
Their country conquers with their martyrdom. 
And freedom's fame finds wings on every mind.' " 

"Something was said in Mr Stroud's address and in that of Alderman Lucas 
of what has been accomplished, indirectly and since their time, through the influ- 
ence of the Chartist agitation, I know we are in the way of being congratulated 
on having obtained most of the points of the Charter. Well, we have vote by ballot, 
no property qualification, an approximation to equal electoral districts, and a very 
■wide extension of the suffrage. Whether we have an equally wide extension of in- 
telligence to make a right use of the vote, is a matter I will not now discuss. Whether 
the present Parliament, elected on a democratic basis, is much superior to or even 
compares favorably with. Parliaments elected on a restricted suffrage — Parliaments 
that contained such men as BuUer, Molesworth, Roebuck, Leader, Wakley, Dun- 
combe, Sadler, and Lord Ashley — is doubtful. Indeed, Parliaments seems to me 
to have fallen into discredit. In our case we have a mob of seven hundred gentle- 
men, most of whom are of no earthly use, except to vote as they are directed by 
party leaders. 

"One feature of the people's charter would have been very valuable. The 
country was to be divided into three hundred equal electoral districts, each return- 
ing one member. That would have given us a Parliament of three hundred mem- 
bers, a much more useful body, I think, than seven hundred can possibly be. 
There is a feeling abroad not only in this country but in others — France, Germany, 
Italy, the United States, and our Colonies— that Parliaments are played out, and 
that some better legislative machinery will have to be devised. I shall not live to 
see it, but that question will have to be seriously entertained by political philoso- 
phers and practical politicians. 

" If, then. Parliaments are at a discount, it may be said that the Chartist agi- 
tation — which had for its object the reform of Parliaments — was so much energy 


wasted. I think not. The Chartist influence extended beyond the six points, and 
to it we largely owe the extirpation of innumerable, some of them abominable, 
abuses, and a great widening of the bounds of freedom. We have not now so much 
to seek freedom as to conserve it, to make a good use of it, to guard against faddists, 
who would bring us under new restrictions as bad or perhaps worse than the old. 

" I do not attach supreme importance to any form of Government. All forms 
have had their uses and merits at particular times. But all have failed to bring us 
even near to that perfectibility of man, which was the beautiful dream of so many 
good men and so many eloquent writers a little over a hundred years ago. To con- 
clude, my philosophy of government is to be summed up in two lines of Byron, 
which I trust true friends of genuine liberty will never forget : 

" I wish men to be free. 
As much from mobs as kings, from you as me." 


Few things more valuable or more relevant to the ethical needs of the day have 
appeared anywhere than the articles in The Of en Court on the " Doctrines of Bud- 
dha." There is newness in the wholesome ethics of Karma nobler than the fa- 
miliar Christian teaching, which seems second-hand, egotistical and stale by the 
side of it. The late Lord Derby said : " The greatest British interest is peace." 
Should we not rather say the greatest interest of mankind is morality ? and com- 
mercial morality constitutes a greater part of the life and glory of a nation. 

Some information as to how we in England stand in this respect will be ele- 
vant, and possibly interesting to Open Court readers. 

We have an Ethical Society which gives lectures at Essex Hall, Strand, in the 
city of London. I lately heard one there, lured by the name of Augustine Birrell, 
a member of Parliament, who is always original, with flashes of humor and wit, 
and is wisely entertaining. But I on this occasion found him surprising — in what 
he did not say. Discussion was permitted, but no information was supplied 
whether it was expected or merely tolerated ; whether it was regarded as a right or 
an interruption No information was given to the audience upon the subject, or I 
should have asked the lecturer for the expression of some additional opinion be- 
yond what he vouchsafed. 

The lecturer began by remarks upon the Sermon upon the Mount, which he 
told us contained precepts the common sense of mankind regarded as absurd and 
impracticable. I should like to have asked whether Mr. Birrell did not think it a 
great misfortune that one who was regarded as a divine teacher should have 
brought morality into contempt by putting forth precepts which the world must 
ignore if society is to exist. Bishop Magee had said this in a famous speech, and 
subsequently defended his representation. At the conclusion of his lecture Mr. 
Birrell extolled Christ as the flawless, unsurpassed, transcendant moral teacher of 
mankind ; but as so many other speakers in pulpit and on platform do this, it did 
not strike me as strange, nor yet did I think it ethical. 

My surprise came in later. Mr. Birrell's subject was "City Morality." As I 
had never heard of it, I was very desirous of learning in what it consisted. He said 
that the morality of the city accepted the principle that in commerce it is justifia- 
ble in the seller to withhold any information which the buyer could find out for 
himself. How can the ordinary buyer find out whether food, or drugs, or garments 
are adulterated ; whether there is shoddy in his coat or pasteboard under the soles 



of his boots, or whether coloi's will fade, and a thousand things from which nothing 
but honesty and candor in the seller can save the purchaser. The motto of the city, 
Mr. Birrell said, was. "Let the buyer beware of the seller." This seemed to me to 
be the motto of knaves, and I told the International Co-operative Congress in Paris 
the other day that this motto implied that behind every counter there probably 
stood a knave. The tradesman may be an honest man, and often is, who would not 
cheat by his speech, but he may by his silence. This is competitive morality. Mr. 
Birrell did not seem to be aware that there was a large commercial house in the 
city, a branch of the Co-operative Wholesale Society, whose business transactions 
amount now to nearly a million a month, whose principle it is to make known to the 
purchaser anything known to the \'endor which the purchaser ought to know. This 
rule is in the laws of all British co-operative stores. Why should the morality of 
city gentlemen be lower than that of workingmen co-operators ? 

Afterwards I took an opportunity of asking Mr. Birrell whether I rightly un- 
derstood him as saying "that the morality of the city accepted the principle that in 
commerce it is justifiable to withhold any information which the customer or buyer 
could find out for himself." Though Quain professor of law in the London Univer- 
sity, with parliamentary and other duties, he courteously made time or found time 
to tell me that : 

" The rule cctTcat cmptoi-, when it is applicable, covers silence. A vendor, if 
he opens his mouth, must not lie (as distinguished from mere puffing), but he may 
hold his peace unless indeed the defect is a concealed one. The rule also applies in 
favor of the buyer. Suppose an estate is put up for sale with a valuable mine un- 
derneath it, of the existence of which the purchaser is, and the vendor is not, cog- 
nisant ; a contract for the sale and purchase of the estate would be binding. Mr. 
Justice Story states the law thus : ' The general rule, both of law and equity, in re- 
respect to concealment, is that mere silence with regard to a material fact which 
there is not legal obligation to divulge, will not avoid a contract though it operate 
as an injury to the party from whom it is concealed.' 

"In a well known case the late Mr. Justice Blackburn says : 'A mere absti- 
nence from disabuse to the purchaser of an inaccurate impression is not fraud or 
deceit, for whatever may be the case in a court of morals, there is no legal obligation 
in the vendor to inform the purchaser that he is under a mistake not induced by 
the act of the Tender.' 

" In certain cases there is an obligation to disclose : (i) Where a fiduciary re- 
lationship exists (a^e)it znA principcxl, solicitor and client, trustee and beneficiary) 

" (2) Certain contracts are from their character considered as Marine Insur- 
ance Partnerships. In these cases full disclosure must be made of all material 
facts. In other words, in these cases the law adopts the ynoral view up to the hilt ; 
but in the other cases it takes the view that people must look out for themselves 
and that though it is illegal to cheat people, there is no harm in allowing people to 
cheat themselves." 

These were the legal grounds which Mr. Birrell explained to his audience as 
the law of city morality by which we were all instructed. But my surprise was that 
he uttered no word against the commercial morality of fraud by silence. Is it not 
the very business of an ethical lecture, given in the name of an ethical society, to 
show us not only what is but what oiif^ht to be ? If an ethical lecturer does not do 
this, who is likely to do it, and to whom are we to look for the lessons which shall 
impart honesty to commerce and raise it above the level of war or fraud ? 



ratzel's history of mankind. 

The interest in the study of mankind is constantly increasing, and in response 
to the extraordinary demand for reliable information, Macmillan & Co. are now 
making accessible to the English reading public a standard work on anthropol- 
ogy, the Viilkerkunde of Prof. Friedrich Ratzel. However excellent the works of 
Profs. Waitz and Tylor are, they are far surpassed by Ratzel's Viilkerkunde in the 
point of numerous and carefully selected illustrations, which, after all, in this sci- 
ence, are quite indispensable. Considering the cost of both the colored and uncol- 
ored illustrations, which are executed in a highly artistic style, the price of the Eng- 
lish translation (which is $4.00 for the first volume) is remarkably cheap, and will 
no doubt contribute much to make the book popular. We must also mention that 
the English edition promises to be an improvement on the German edition. A com- 
parison of the first volume, which is now before us, with the original German edi- 
tion, proves that the condensations have been made with great care and without 
omitting anything that even a specialist would miss. 

Anthropological exhibitions have done much to popularise the youngest sister 
of the sciences. The Paris exhibition of iS8g set the first example of this kind by 
exhibiting villages of various French dependencies, of Algiers as well as of other 
countries, and presented in a series of buildings a systematic history of human 
dwellings ; the Chicago World's Fair surpassed the French anthropological exhib- 
its and established regular scientific departments under the supervision of special- 
ists, even holding an anthropological congress, the proceedings of which were edited 
by Mr. C. Staniland Wake. The examples set by Paris and Chicago were imitated 
in Europe, where Bremen distinguished itself by a most valuable anthropological 
exhibition, which proved of such an extraordinary interest that the city decided to 
provide the necessary funds for establishing a permanent museum. 

While the facts of anthropology come more and more within the reach of the 
people, there naturally rises the demand for a better comprehension of their signifi- 
cance, and this has been nowhere better met than in Ratzel's Volkerkiinde. The 
average philistine meandering through an anthropological museum is apt to smile 
at the half-naked savages and their crude instruments, but when he learns more 
of their condition and considers what he himself would be without the advantages 
of modern civilisation he will begin to cherish a high opinion of the courage and 
skill of the South Sea Islander, who in his boat boldly v^entures on voyages of hun- 
dreds of miles and more without a compass, steering through seas where the small- 
ness of the islands makes it possible for even a European vessel, if missing her 
goal by only a few miles, to easily pass it by. Ratzel says : 

"The taking of proper bearings is of double importance in this ocean, in 
which the individual islands are often so far apart and so low-lying that one is as- 
tonished that they were ever found. Many islands in the Pacific were discovered 
for the first time in the present century. The islanders are keen observers of the 
stars, and have names for a good list of them. They distinguish eight quarters of 
the heavens and winds to match. In their conception of the world the ocean is 
imagined as being everywhere full of islands, which helps to explain their daring 
voyages. They even inscribe their geographical knowledge upon maps, but while on 
these the bearings are to some extent correct, the distances are given very inaccu- 
rately. In the Ralick group the preparation of maps from small straight and bent 
sticks, representing routes, currents, and islands, is a secret art among the chiefs. 
The Marshall Islanders also possess a map of their own, made up of little sticks 



and stones, showing the whole group. On their greater enterprises they go to sea 
in a thoroughly systematic way ; the longer voyages of from 500 to 1,000 nautical 
miles are undertaken only in squadrons comprising at least fifteen canoes, com- 
manded by a chief who has one or more pilots to advise him. Without compass, 
chart, or lead, and with but limited knowledge of the stars, these men contrive to 
make their distant point. On their voyages they steadily observe the angle made 
by the canoe with the run of the sea caused by the trade wind, which, north of the 
equator, blows steadily from the northeast. The use of this run, which remains 
constant even with shifting winds, has been brought by the native pilots to great 
refinement. The ocean currents are also no less well known to them by experience, 
so that they are able to take this also into consideration in laying their course. As 
a general rule, in order to get the largest possible field of view, the squadron pro- 
ceeds in line in which the individual canoes are so widely separated that they can 
only communicate by signal. By this progress on a wide front they avoid the dan- 
ger of sailing past the island they are looking for. During the night the squadron 
closes in. This whole style of navigation contradicts the supposition that before the 
invention of the compass only coasting voyages were undertaken." 

We have spoken of the South Sea Islanders' skill in seafaring as a striking in- 
stance of the ingenuity of our brethren on a lower stage of civilisation, upon whom 
we look down as savages; we ought to know, however, that we shall discover inter- 
esting symptoms of genius also in other occupations and among other nations. We 
must not forget that our civilisation is but the perfection of the aspirations of our 
savage ancestors. Their inventions of the wheel, the needle, the boat, are the in- 
dispensable basis upon which our modern Edisons and Teslas take their stand. 
Their thoughts and happy guesses are still living in the brains of the generation of 
to-day, and will remain immortal presences as long as mankind is destined to exist. 

Religion is perhaps the most important chapter of anthropology, and Professor 
Ratzel has not neglected it. We would, nevertheless, have preferred a more elab- 
orate and systematic treatment of this subject by classifying myths and rendering 
their comparison easy. There are two chapters devoted to religion (pp. 38-65 and 
300-330). Ratzel recognises that religion is everywhere connected with man's 
craving for causality and is ever on the lookout for the cause or the causes of every- 
thing that comes to pass. No race is devoid of religion, and even those of whom 
missionaries have reported that their minds are a tabula rasa in religious matters are 
found to be in possession of appellations for God, the Devil, spirits, and souls. 
There are no people on earth, be they ever so savage, who have not crude ideas of 
a spiritual world. The savage's ideas of the origin of the world, of a deluge, of 
stealing the fire against the will of the God, of a fall from a prior state of undis- 
turbed happiness and immortality, hero-worship, etc., reappear in forms that show 
striking resemblances among nations of distant continents, and we cannot help 
thinking that most of these legends originated independently. 

While among the lowest savages the gods are little better, both in power and 
in morality, than they themselves, the idea of one God and Creator unfailingly 
looms up in the minds of more advanced people. We are sometimes struck by an 
unexpected profundity of thought. But, says Professor Ratzel : 

"The profundity of the thought must not be measured by the imperfection 
of the expression. In considering a mythology like the Polynesian, it must not 
be overlooked that this multiform weft of legend is often less like clear speech 
than like the prattle of a child, and that one has more often to attend to the 
What ? than to the How ? Often a similarity of sound, an echo, suffices the sport- 


ive fancy of these people as an attachment for far-reaching threads. The same as- 
pect of a supra-sensual relation looks far more impressive on the parchment of some 
manuscript of a Greek poet than in the oral tradition of a Polynesian or African 
priest or sorcerer. But if we try to extract the more intelligible sentences in the 
prattle of the savage we get a picture which is in its essence not far inferior to the 
more adorned poetical expression. Let us compare a Hawaiian legend of the un- 
der-world with its parallels in Greek mythology. A certain chief, inconsolable for 
the loss of his wife, obtained from his priest, in answer to his prayers, the company 
of the chieftain's god as his guide into the kingdom of Milu. They journeyed to 
the end of the world, where they found a tree which was split ; on this they slid 
down to the lower regions. The god hid himself behind a rock, and after smearing 
the chief with an ill-smelling oil, sent him forward by himself. On reaching Milu's 
palace he found the court filled with a crowd of spirits [Akitn), who were so en- 
grossed in their game that he was able to join them unobserved. When they did 
notice him they took him for a newly-arrived soul, and jeered at him for a stink- 
ing ghost who had stayed too long by his putrefying body. After all kinds of games 
had been played, they had to think of another, and the chief suggested that they 
should all pluck out their eyes and throw them together in a heap. No sooner said 
than done; but the chief took care to observe which way Milu's eyes went. He 
caught them in the air and hid them in his coco-nut cup. As they were now all 
blind, he succeeded in escaping to the kingdom of Wakea, where Milu's hosts 
might not set foot. After long negotiations with the chief, now under the protec- 
tion of Wakea, Milu got his eyes back, on condition of releasing the soul of the 
chief's wife. It returned to earth and was reunited to its body." 

Among the Gods of the South Sea Islanders there is one who is closely con- 
nected with cosmogony ; " this is Tangaroa, who is revered even in remoter islands 
as Taaroa and Kanaloa. A Raiatean legend gives a grand picture of his all-per- 
vading power ; how at first, concealed in an egg-shaped shell, he hovered around in 
the dark space of air, until weary of the monotonous movement, he stretched forth 
his hands and rose upright, and all became light around him. He looked down to 
the sand on the seashore and said : ' Come up hither.' The sand replied : ' I can- 
not fly to thee in the sky.' Then he said to the rocks ; 'Come up hither to me.' 
They answered : 'We are rooted in the ground, and cannot leap on high to thee.' 
So the god came down to them, flung off his shell, and added it to the mass of the 
earth, which became greater thereby. From the sherds of the shell were made the 
islands. Then he formed men out of his back, and turned himself into a boat. As 
he rowed in the storm, space was filled with his blood, which gave its color to the 
sea, and, spreading from the sea to the air, made the morning and evening glows. 
At last his skeleton, as it lay on the ground with the backbone uppermost, became 
an abode for all gods, and at the same time the model for the temple ; and Tan- 
garoa became the sky." 

Tangaroa (or Taaroa) is worshipped under different forms among the various 
islands ; sometimes his main character seems to be that of a Sea God and then 
again as the Sun God ; but everywhere he is regarded with special reverence (even 
where he changes into an evil deity, as in Hawaii), and called the Uncreated and 
the Survivor of the age of night. A hymn praising Taaroa's omnipresence is one 
of those flashes of profundity that are apt to astonish the ihinker of a more ad- 
vanced civilisation. It reads as follows : 

" Taaroa like the seed ground, 
Taaroa, rock--' foundation, 

254 "^'^^ OPEN COURT. 

Taaroa, like the sea-sand, 
Taaroa, widest spreading, 
Taaroa, light forth-breaking, 
Taaroa rules within us, 
Taaroa all around us, 
Taaroa down beneath us, 
Taaroa, lord of wisdom." 


The Law of Civilisation and Decay. An Essay on History. By Brooks Adams, 
New York : The Macmillan Co. i8g6. Price, $2.00. 

In this attractive essay Mr. Adams has attempted to give a running sketch of 
the causes which have concurred in the building up of the chief ancient and modern 
civilisations, and assisted in their eventual decay. He makes the rather broad 
claim that the theories of his book are the effect and not the cause of the way in 
which the facts have unfolded themselves. He has been the mere rational mirror, 
so to speak, in which the facts have been gathered to a logical focus. Opponents 
of the conclusion which he has reached will possibly be of the opposite opinion. 

It cannot be gainsaid but his book is a very interesting one, nor disputed that 
he has clearly traced the red thread of development which it has been his desire to 
emphasise. The politics, commerce, religion, and partly also the literature of the 
various ages of the world are made to pass before our minds in succinct, rapid suc- 
cession with their chief characteristics distinctly marked, and all these features are 
skilfully made to illuminate the central theme which the author seeks to establish. 
He upholds such themes as that commerce is antagonistic to the imagination, as 
witnessed by the universal decay of architecture in Europe after the great commer- 
cial expansion of the thirteenth century ; that the centralisation of power gen- 
erally, expressing itself in accumulated wealth, and the subsequent contraction of 
money, is conducive to moral and political decline, and that it is pre-eminently the 
growth of the money lender and his type which has brought on the ruin of all the 
civilised nations. There is a law, the author claims, governing history, comparable 
to the physical law of energy. Concentration follows e.xf)ansion ; economic compe- 
tition dissipates the energy amassed by war ; and decline, with a possible renova- 
tion by new races, follows. 

The conclusions to which the book points smack distinctly of the free-silver 
movement (although apparently this is a side issue), and economic agitators of the 
latter type will find much plausible material here in support of their tenets. Upon 
the whole the book has marks of scholarship, and its subject is facilely presented. //. 

Die Lebensanschauungen der grossen Denker. Eine Entwickelungsgeschichte 
des Lebensproblems der Menschheit von Plato bis zur Gegenwart. Von 
Rudolf Euckcn. Zweite, umgearbeitete Auflage. Leipzig: Veit & Co. 1897. 
Pages, 492. Price, 10 M. 
Professor Eucken's works are throughout characterised by profound historical 
scholarship and by a distinct sense for the practical problems of philosophy. His 
writings upon terminology and upon the ideas that dominate modern thought, — his 
book (recently reviewed in Tlic Moiii'st) upon the modern struggle for a fitting spirit- 
ual groundwork of existence, are not alone mere hives of erudition but give evidence 
of a signal individual bent for applying the results of research to the needs of prac- 
tical intellectual life, quite refreshing in an age where the shibboleth of research 


for the sake of research has still so many upholders. Hand in hand with this runs 
an unfailing insistence upon the religious and ideal bearing of philosophy, to which 
Professor Eucken has borne fresh and splendid witness in the present volume. 

The second edition of the Leboisanschauioig-oi der grossen Denker is prac- 
tically a new work. Thoroughly revised and remodelled, it is at once an introduc- 
tion and a supplement to existing methodical histories of philosophy, without mak- 
ing any pretense of supplanting them. It appeals to all cultured readers, welding 
the world with which they are familiar with the thought by which the great masters 
have sought to compass it. A specimen of the manner in which Professor Eucken 
has treated his materials may be approximately gained, barring the force and nat- 
turalness of his original style, from his appreciation of Hegel in the latest number of 
The jMonist. So, and at times more richly, more feelingly, and more fully, he runs 
the gamut of the great thinkers from Plato to the moderns, not omitting the reli- 
gious teachers, Jesus, Luther, and the rest, and even going beyond his path to con- 
sider the influence of a few eminent scientists. If every man who has the destiny 
of a nation, a city, or a home to shape, could bear some such record as this in his 
breast, how much more easily the problems of the world and life would lend them- 
selves to solution ! ^ iiKpK. 

There are a number of new labor papers in the field, advocating various social 
theories for the purpose of curing all the evils that ail us. nAn English monthly. 
The Social Democrat, advocates socialism as expounded by Marx, Engels, and Hynd- 
man, but is not free from the slang of demagogism. A new German anarchist pa- 
per, Ohne Staat, is published in Budapest. Another paper, The Labor Exchange, 
edited by DeBernardi, propounds a new monetary system called "labor exchange," 
which, if adopted, will speedily right the wrongs which exist in society, for money 
is said to be the root of all evil. 

In consideration of the great importance of the problem of money, would it not 
be advisable to spread even in schools a sound knowledge of the elementary laws 
that underlie the use of money; and this must be done in times of a relative political 
rest. Should there be another campaign which would divide our parties on the 
test question of the monetary problem, it might be too late to infuse the necessary 
knowledge into the masses of the people. We cannot afford to neglect the crank 
notions which grow up in the minds of the people. We cannot silence them and 
ought not to treat them with contempt. We have to educate the people and furnish 
them the knowledge of financial laws in an accurate but popular and simple form. 
Trie worst about it is that wrong ideas concerning the nature of money are spread 
among the most influential political and even financial leaders, and the crisis which 
has come upon us in the last campaign is mostly due to the mistakes of previous 
legislation. Nor can it be said that the errors are no longer continued. The dis- 
crimination which has again been made of late between two kinds of promises to 
pay — the promise to pay in gold and the promise to pay in legal tender — is one of 
the evidences that our financial system is not as yet based upon the right principle. 
It is a very expensive system and would have made many another country bank- 
rupt. The appointment of Mr. Lyman J. Gage, President of the First National 
Bank of Chicago, however, is a very promising symptom that we shall see better 
days, and that the government of the United States will endeavor to rid the nation 
of the ambiguity that is attached to its currency. But the educational methods 

ISee the Preface to one of the voluinns of Professor Jodl's Geschichte der Ethik, as to the 
latent unused power which the literature of every nation contains for its salvation. 


should not be neglected ; and it might be advisable to offer a prize for the soundest 
treatise on money written in the simplest language. We must always bear in mind 
that a popular government can only be maintained on the supposition that the 
masses of the people are sufficiently intelligent to understand the main principles 
of political economy, and one of the most important questions has always been and 
always will remain, the question of money. 

The Swami Vivekananda has recently published a book on the Vog/i Philosophy 
(Lectures delivered in New York, Longmans) which will be warmly greeted by delv- 
ers in Indian lore as well as by Christian scientists generally. It is devoted to the 
exposition of the Raja Yoga or royal Yoga, which signifies the royal method of con- 
quering our internal nature and so of liberating the soul through perfection, and is 
based on the Sankhya philosophy, the chief expression of which are the Sutras 
(aphorisms) of Patanjali, published as an appendix to this same work. Mingled 
with many acute, thoughtful, and noble maxims for the attainment of spiritual and 
hygienic discipline, there is much in the Yoga practise and theory which appears to 
us Western people naive nonsense. We can understand the effect which correct 
breathing and posture have upon the mind, can even stomach, allegorically speak- 
ing, the " coiled-up energy" of the triangular lotus Kundalini, which lies at the 
base of Susumna, the hollow canal in the spinal cord ; but the pithecanthropic 
mummery, colloquially called monkey-business, connected with closing one nostril 
and breathing through the other and then of closing both till the compressed colum- 
nar air-current is imagined to bump against the triangular fundament of Kundalini, 
thus ultimately arousing the latter gentleman and freeing the canal Susumna, 
whence issueth serenity and wisdom — all this we say is quite beyond the Western 
reach. Not having practised these exercises, we are of course subject to error in 
our judgment upon them. But even granting they reach their desired end, we 
think their efficacy is covered by the simple truth that all discipline and self-control 
lead to enlightenment. Personally we prefer to turn to the beautiful sentiments 
on religion and on life, with which the Raja Yoga is full, and to which Mr. Vive- 
kananda seems to have imparted new lustre and profundity. On this score we can 
cordially commend the book. ,m. 

The Hansel h'lcal is a Japanese Buddhist society devoted to the promotion of 
morality, charity, reform, upon::the basis of scientific investigation and mission 
work. They have their headquarters in Kyoto, with six branch societies, and claim 
21,000 members. Their official organ, the I/atisei Zasshi is now in its twelfth 
volume, and will, for the sake of reaching the Western wor'd, be published forth- 
with in English and Russian. The first number of the twelfth volume opens with 
an editorial setting forth the programme of the Hansel Kzcel, a brief statistical ar- 
ticle on the Buddhist sects of Japan and an article on the source of Japanese art. 
The frontispiece, representing cranes in the forest, is a photogravure of a dainty 
Japanese painting. Terms of subscription, 3 yens"(about $i.5o)' Address H. Hara, 
10 Nishikata-Machi, Tokyo, Japan. 

The article " Chicago and Its Administration " in this number is to be read at 
the Woman's South Side Study Club of Chicago, whose president is Mrs. Edward 
Roby. Its distinguished author would have read it personally had he not been 
called to Washington to serve as Secretary of the Treasury. 




Devoted to the Philosophy of Science. 

Editor: Dr. Paul Carus Associates \ Edward C. Hegeler 

Assistant Editor: T. J. McCormack \ Mary Carus 


On the Principle of the Conservation of Energy. By Prof. Ernst Mach. 

The Present State of Mathematics. By Prof. Felix Klein. 

Pathological Pleasures and Pains By Prof. Th. Ribot. 

Germinal Selection. By Prof. August Weismann. 

Are the Dimensions of the Physical World Absolute ? By the late Prof. J. Delboeuf. 

The Unseen Universe. By Sir Robert Stawell Ball. 

On the Part Played by Accident in Invention and Discovery. By Prof. Ernst Mach. 

The Logic of Relatives. By Charles S. Peirce. 

Notion and Definition of Number. By Prof. Hermann Schubert. 

Nature and the Individual Mind. By Prof. Kurd Lasswitz. 

Philosophical Terminology and Its History. By Prof. Rudolph Eucken. 

On the Origin and Import of the Idea of Causality. By Prof. F. Jodl. 

The Darwinism of Darwin, and of the Post-Darwinian Schools. By the late G. J. Romanes, 

F. R. S. 
Science and Faith. By Dr. Paul Topinard. 

Criminal Anthropology Applied to Pedagogy. By Prof. Cesare Lombroso. 
Naturalism. By Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan. 
Bonnet's Theory of Evolution. By Prof. C. O. Whitman. 
Outlines of a History of Indian Philosophy. By Prof. Richard Garbe. 
Modern Physiology. By Prof. Max Verworn. 
Our Monism. By Prof. Ernst Haeckel. 
Psychology of Conception. By James Sully. 
The Principles of Welfare. By Prof. Harald Hoeffding. 
On Thought and Language. By Prof. Max Mueller. 
Chinese Philosophy. By Dr. Paul Carus. 
From Animal to Man. By Prof. Joseph Le Conte. 
Arrested Mentation. By G. Ferrero. 

Correlation of Mental and Physical Powers. By J. Venn. 
The Nervous Centre of Flight in Coleoptera. By Dr. Alfred Binet. 

April Number Just Out. 

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The Open Court 


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VOL. XI. (no. 5.) MAY, 1897. NO. 492 



ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER was born at Dantzig, Feb. 22, 
1788, the son of a well-to-do merchant. His father had des- 
tined him for a business career, and placed him in the office of 
a Dantzig broker. The youth, however, had higher ambitions. 
After his father's death he began the serious study of philosophy, 
which he pursued at the universities of Gottingen, Jena, and Berlin. 
He took his degree, in 1813, with a dissertation on causality in 
which he distinguished four kinds of causes, which he called p7-in- 
cipium rationis sufficieniis, (^\) fiendi, (2) cognoscendi, (3) essendi, and 
(4) agendi; i. e., the principle of a sufficient reason for (i) becom- 
ing, (2) for comprehending, (3) for being, and (4) for acting. His 
main work The World as Will and Representation was completed in 
1818, in the same year the fundamental work of his great rival 
Hegel was given to the public. Schopenhauer settled in Berlin as 
a Privatdocent of the university, but failing both in attracting dis- 
ciples and in obtaining a professorship, he withdrew from univer- 
sity circles and led from 1831 on, a retired life in Frankfort on the 
Main, where he wrote his second volume of The World as Wih 
and Representation, in the form of additions to the various chapters 
of the first volume, and several other books among which the best 
known are On the Will in Nature (1836), The Two Fundainentai. 
Proble7ns of Ethics (1841), and Parerga and Paralipomena, a col- 
lection of popular articles on realism and idealism, religion, uni- 
versity philosophers, the vanity of existence, the indestructibility 
of our being, women, worldly wisdom, etc., etc., all of them full of 
bitterness and disdain of the world and everything in general, es- 
pecially the philosophy professors of the German universities, He- 
gel at their head, in particular. 

Hegel was the man of the day during Schopenhauer's life-time, 


and when Hegel's fame began to wane Schopenhauer's came to 
the front. His influence increased until he became the most pop- 
ular philosopher in Germany, and it is only of late that his philos- 
ophy begins to lose its hold on the people in the Fatherland. But 
his star is now rising among the English speaking races, and his 
works are being made accessible to the public in good translations. 

Schopenhauer's merit consists in having called attention to the 
main problem of philosophy, "Is life worth living?" And he will 
perhaps for all time to come remain the classical representative of 
that philosophy which answers this question in the negative. There 
can be no doubt about it that Schopenhauer exercises upon imma- 
ture minds a baneful influence, but we must at the same time rec- 
ognise that he raised a problem which demands a solution, it is 
the great religious problem, it is the Qidipus question as to the 
purpose of man's life. 

* * 

Schopenhauer's philosophy is characterised by two words. 
Idealism and Pessimism. The objective reality of the world is 
will, which appears in the stone as gravity, in the chemical ele- 
ments as affinity, in man as a desire to be, manifesting itself in his 
various intentions and actions. The reverse of the medal is the 
realm of subjective existence, which is the world as we intuit it, 
as we picture it in representations or ideas. It is, in appearance, 
extending outside of us in space ; this world, such as it lives in our 
conception, Schopenhauer calls the world as it is represented, die 
Welt als Vorstellung, and it is mere representation, not reality. 
Space is a function of the conceiving mind, and with it the whole 
material universe is nothing but thought, idea, imagination, a 
heavy dream. The sole difference between objective existence and 
dreams consists, according to Schopenhauer, in the continuity of 
the former and the discontinuity of the latter. 

We do not intend here to criticise the weak points in Schopen- 
hauer's system ; they become more apparent to those who are not 
personally interested in his peculiar dislikes and can therefore 
judge his denunciations with impartiality. The notion that causa- 
tion has a fourfold root is on the very face erroneous, for there is 
only one kind of causation, which is the law of change, and every 
change is a transformation that produces a new arrangement, leav- 
ing in the whole system the same amount of matter and energy as 
before. While there are not several causes, there is a difference 
between the cause which is the primuiti niovens in a process of trans- 
formation, and the reason why this cause takes effect. The cause 



is one definite fact, an event, an act that happens; the reason why 
it happens is a natural law, a description and explanation concern- 
ing the interconnexion of things. The reason why, is not a single 
fact but a universal truth. Further, while there are not several 
roots of causation, there are several kinds or species, according to 
the various reasons that condition the effectiveness of the cause. 
In mechanics the cause takes effect according to mechanical laws, 
in chemistry according to the affinity of the elements, in the lower 
domain of physiology, in plants, and in unconscious animal move- 
ments according to the nature of a physiological irritation, and in 
psychology according to the significance of representative signs, 
according to ideas and the meaning that ensouls words. These 
kinds of causation, however, are not comparable to so many roots 
but to branches. 

The popularity of Schopenhauer is certainly not due to his 
idealism which is quite unintelligible to average readers, who con- 
stitute his most zealous disciples. It is based upon unproved 
declamations as to the non-existence of space and time and of 
the whole material universe in their objective reality, which are 
declared to be mere representations. This proposition is mixed 
with a belief in the genuineness of various phenomena of mysti- 
cism, such as telepathy, second sight, magic, etc.; for Schopen- 
hauer's Will is, like the Creator, omnipotent and omnipresent; the 
Will can at pleasure produce worlds out of nothing; it can produce 
effects at the most distant places, and its vision is not veiled by 
the illusion of time. In spite of the spiritualistic tendencies of this 
view, Schopenhauer advocates an almost crude materialism which 
regards matter as the thing-in-itself, the bearer of the metaphysical 
will, and the source of all life. It is quite natural that a philoso- 
pher who himself lacks all system and consistency should exhibit a 
sovereign contempt for everybody who tries to treat philosophical 
problems in a methodical way. Yet, with all his faults, Schopen- 
hauer is great in his incidental remarks, and even in his worst and 
most undignified aberrations when he rails like an old scold at the 
school-philosophers, impugning their honesty, he remains fascinat- 
ing and becomes sometimes even refreshing. 

By far of greater importance than his theoretical philosophy is 
Schopenhauer's pessimism which draws its power from the misery 
of life, such as it actually exists, pointing out that its presence is 
an intrinsic and unavoidable feature of existence. What a fund 
of truth, one-sided though it may be, lies in the following descrip- 
tion of human fate (Z>/> W. a. W. u. V., Vol. II., Chap. 46): 


"Having awakened to life from the night of unconsciousness, the will finds it- 
self as an individual in an endless and boundless world among innumerable indi- 
viduals, all striving, suffering, erring ; and as though passing through an ominous, 
uneasy dream, it hurries back to the old unconsciousness. Until then, however, 
its desires are boundless, its claims inexhaustible, and every satisfied wish begets a 
new one. No satisfaction possible in the world could suffice to still its longings, 
put a final end to its cravings, and fill the bottomless abyss of its heart. Consider, 
too, what gratifications of every kind man generally receives : they are usually 
nothing more than the meagre preservation of this existence itself, daily gained by 
incessant toil and constant care, in battle against want, with death forever in the 
van. Everything in life indicates that earthly happiness is destined to be frus- 
trated or to be recognised as an illusion. The conditions of this lie deep in the na- 
ture of things. Accordingly, the life of most of us proves sad and short. The 
comparatively happy are usually only apparently so, or are, like long-lived persons 
rare exceptions — left as a bait for the rest. 

" Life proves a continued deception, in great as well as in small matters. If it 
makes a promise, it does not keep it, unless to show that the coveted object was 
little desirable. Thus sometimes hope, sometimes the fulfilment of hope, deludes 
us. Whenever it gives, it is but to take away. The fascination of distance presents a 
paradise, vanishing like an optic illusion when we have allowed ourselves to be 
enticed thither. Happiness accordingly lies always in the future or in the past ; 
and the present is to be compared to a small dark cloud which the wind drives over 
a sunny plain. Before it and behind it all is bright, it alone casts a shadow. The 
present therefore is forever unsatisfactory ; the future uncertain ; the past irrecov- 
erable. Life with its hourly, daily weekly, and yearly small, greater, and great 
adversities, with its disappoinfed hopes and mishaps foiling all calculation, bears 
so plainly the character of something we should become disgusted with, that it is 
difficult to comprehend how any one could have mistaken this and been persuaded 
that life was to be thankfully enjoyed, and man was destined to be happy On the 
contrary the everlasting delusion and disappointment as well as the constitution of 
life throughout, appear as though they were intended and calculated to awaken the 
conviction that nothing whatever is worthy of our striving, driving, and wrestling, 
that all goods are naught, the world bankrupt at all ends, and life a business that 
does not pay expenses, — so that our will may turn away from it. 

"The manner in which this vanity of all the aims and objects of the will re- 
veals itself, is, in the first place, time. Time is the form by means of which the van- 
ity of things appears as transitoriness ; since through time all our enjoyments and 
pleasures come to naught ; and we afterward ask in astonishment what has become 
of them. Accordingly our life resembles a payment which we receive in copper 
pence, and which at last we must receipt. The pence are the days, death the re- 
ceipt. For at last, time proclaims the sentence of nature's judgment upon the 
worth of all beings by destroying them. 

' And justly so ; for all things from the void 
Called forth, deserve to be destroj'ed. 
T'were better, then, were naught created.' — Goethe. 

"Age and death, to which every life necessarily hurries, are the sentence of 
condemnation upon the will to live, passed by nature herself, which declares that 
this will is a striving that must frustrate itself. 'What thou hast willed,' it says, 
'ends thus ; will something better ! ' 

"The lessons which each one learns from life consist, on the whole, in this, 
that the objects of his wishes constantly delude, shake, and fall ; consequently 

Schopenhauer in 1852. 
From two daguerreotypes, highly prized by Schopenhauer, now in the possession of Elisabet Ney. They 
represent the sitting when Schopenhauer drank the historical bottle of wine to remove his wonted lugubrious 
and pessimistic cast of countenance. 

From two photographs in the possession of Dr. Lindorme, of Chicago. Date unknown. 


they bring more torment than pleasure, until at length even the whole ground upon 

which they all stand gives way, inasmuch as life itself is annihilated. Thus he 

receives the last confirmation that all his striving and willing were a blunder and 

an error. 

' Then old age and experience, hand in hand. 
Lead him to death, and make him understand. 
After a search so painful and so long 
That all his life lie has been in the wrong.' 

" Whatever may be said to the contrary, the happiest moment of the happiest 
mortal is still the moment he falls asleep, as the unhappiest moment of the unhap- 
piest mortal the moment he awakens. Lord Byron says : 

'Count o'er the joys thine hours have seen. 
Count o'er thy days from anguish free. 
And know, wfiatever thou hast been, 
'Tis something better not to be.' " 

"It is indeed incredible how stale and empty are the fates of most people, how 
dull and heedless are all their feelings and thoughts. Their lives consist of flabby 
longing, and pining, of dreamy reeling through the seven ages to death, and this is 
accompanied with a number of trivial thoughts. They are like clocks wound up to 
go and do not know why. Each time when a man is born the clock is wound up 
again to play off the same hackneyed tune, bar for bar, measure for measure, with 
unimportant variations." {Ibid., IVelt a/s U'l'llc uud I'orsteUung, Vol. I., p. 579.) 

Or, take the following on the misery of life : 

" Nobody is exactly to be envied, but those who are to be pitied are innumer- 
able. . . . Animals are more satisfied in their mere existence than we ; the plant is 
quite satisfied ; but man only in the degree of his obtuseness. ... A happy life is 
impossible ; the highest that a man can attain to is the fate of a hero." 

Schopenhauer the idealist will be forgotten, but Schopenhauer 
the pessimist will survive for all time to come. The misery of 
life has never before found a more eloquent prophet, and here he 
finds himself in touch with the two great religions of the world. 
Buddhism and Christianity. Schopenhauer is an enemy of religion. 
His article on religion is perhaps the severest and keenest criti- 
cism that has ever been made. He hates priests and hierarchical 
institutions as much as, if not more than, womankind. And yet 
when he comes to speak of Buddhism and Christianity he does not 
conceal his profound admiration for the spirit that pervades these 
two creeds. He regards Buddhism as the purer faith of the two, 
but Christianity, too, ranges according to his philosophy high 
above the noblest humanity of the Greek civilisation. The Greeks, 
he says, were mere children when compared to the age that re- 
vealed the truths of Christianity whose symbol is the cross, an in- 
strument of torture and ignominy, employed by the ancients only 
for putting to death the most contemptible criminals and slaves. 
Schopenhauer says of Christianity : 

" The centre and core of Christianity is the doctrine of the fall of man, of orig- 
inal sin, of the perdition of our natural state, and the corruption of the natural 


man, which is connected with the vicarious atonement through the Saviour which 
is gained by faith. But this characterises Christianity as pessimism. It is there- 
fore opposed to the optimism of the Jewish religion and to Islam, the oldest child 
of Judaism ; but kin to Brahmanism and Buddhism. 

"That all have sinned and are condemned in Adam, and that all have been 
saved in the Saviour, expresses the truth that the real being of man and the root 
of his existence does not lie in the individual but in the species which as the Pla- 
tonic idea of man is laid out in its temporal appearance in individuals." — Parerga 
and Paralipomena, Vol. II , § 181. 

" Human existence, far from being a boon, is like a debt which we have con- 
tracted . . . our life is the payment of the interest of this debt, the payment of the 
sum itself is made in death. . . . That Christianity regards life in the same light 
appears from a passage of Luther's comments on the Epistle to the Galatians. 
'We all are however in our bodies and possessions subject to the Devil, and are 
guests only in the world whose lord and god he is. Thus the bread which we eat, 
the drink which we drink, the garments which we wear, even the air and every- 
thing on which we live in the flesh, is under his government.' So far Luther. 
People complain about the dreariness of my philosophy. The reason is this : in- 
stead of proclaiming a future hell as the result of sin, I claim that in this world 
here, wherever there is guilt, there must be something like hell." — Welt als IVille 
unci Vorstellmig, Vol. II., pp. 665-666. 

Schopenhauer is one of the most notable characters among the 
philosophers of the world. His faults are gross and obvious; his 
vanity (it is most obtrusively displayed in his letters) is ridiculous; 
his practical hedonism forms a strong contrast to his theoretical 
contempt of pleasure. Nonetheless, he is great and deserves fully 
the attention which he receives. His sentiments are deep, and he 
has experienced in his own bosom the shallowness of joy in every 
form. Read Schopenhauer, and you will no longer be able to ad- 
here to the traditional optimism which found its best representa- 
tive in no less a man than Leibnitz. If pleasure is the purpose of 
life, the goal that must be striven for, then indeed the world is a 
failure, and life is not worth living. 

Schopenhauer appreciates Buddhism and Christianity, because 
these religions recognise the existence of misery and the need of 
salvation ; but Schopenhauer, the pessimist, has opened his eyes 
to the first part of the truth only proclaimed by the Buddha and 
the Christ ; he overlooks the other and more important part. 
Schopenhauer agrees with Buddha that there is misery in the 
world, and that there is a cause for misery, which is our thirst for 
individualisation, our desire, our lust. These are the first and sec- 
ond of the four noble truths. But he blinds himself to the third 
and the fourth, which proclaims there is salvation from misery and 
that the eightfold noble path of righteousness unfailingly leads to 
the attainment of salvation. Schopenhauer believes in the cross 


only as a symbol of martyrdom, not as the token in which sin is 
conquered and death trodden under foot; he knows nothing of the 
higher life that is gained by him who surrenders the vanity fair of 
the world and all selfishness, for the sake of laying up spiritual 
treasures that are incorruptible and not subject to decay. There 
is a glimpse of this realm of the higher life in his discussion of art 
and Platonic ideas, but he fails to recognise in it the consummation 
of life and the aim of evolution. There is no evolution, according 
to Schopenhauer; Lamarck and Darwin are in his opinion two 
queer ignoramuses, and everything that is great or noble is, if 
we abide by Schopenhauer's verdict, abnormal and out of place. 
Genius and virtue are not qualities that adorn man with some spe- 
cial and rare perfections, but render him unfit for life and change 
him into a lunatic who deserves both admiration and pity. The 
world, according to Schopenhauer, is a place for brutal people^ 
for fools, and knaves; it leaves no room for beauty, wisdom, and 

* * 

In fine : we do not agree with Schopenhauer, but we appreci- 
ate the importance of his philosophy. A study of his works is the 
best cure for the old optimism so common among large masses of 
the unthinking who go through life without ever reflecting upon 
the significance of the duties that it imposes, believing that pleas- 
ure is the highest good, and that ethics is nothing but a calcula- 
tion of how to secure for the greatest number the maximum amount 
of happiness. We reject optimism, but for that reason we do not 
accept pessimism. Pessimism is right only in the face of optimism. 
If life's purpose be the realisation of pleasure, then life is a fail- 
ure. But for that reason, it is still wrong to proclaim that life is 
not worth living. Meliorism denies the premise of both optimism 
and pessimism, that the purpose of life is pleasure. Meliorism 
looks upon life as an opportunity for realising the higher spiritual 
life of moral ideals, of scientific aspirations, of the attainment of 
art. What is all the misery of life in comparison to that bliss which 
is perceived by those who are instruments in the actualisation of 
the good, the true, the beautiful, a bliss unattainable to those who 
brutelike cling to their particular egoity, and become at last the 
spoil of death. 

Pessimism is deeper than optimism, it is a higher and more 
advanced stage in the recognition of truth. But Pessimism is only 
a state of transition which opens our eyes to a better, a truer, and 
nobler conception of life : it leads to meliorism. 



TT nXH THE RETURN from Babylon, the history of Israel be- 
VV comes the history of the Jews. '' The name Jew," as Jose- 
phus observes, "was born on the day when they came out from 
Babylon," and their history thenceforth is the history not of Israel 
but of Judaism. 

After the overthrow of the Babylonian Empire by the Persians, 
Cyrus permitted the Jews (536 B. C.) to return to their own land 
and to rebuild Jerusalem and the temple. About 42,000 exiles re- 
turned under the guidance of Zerubbabel and Joshua the high 
priest. A second colony followed under Ezra (458 B. C), who with 
Nehemiah restored the law and transformed the theocracy into a 
nomocracy, which finally degenerated into that scribism which 
reached its climax in the Talmud and similar works. In the twelfth 
year of his administration, Nehemiah returned to the Persian court 
(433 B. C). During his absence of many years affairs fell into dis- 
order ; but on his return, after a long residence in Persia, Nehe- 
miah reformed all these disorders and even expelled a grandson of 
the high priest Eliashib on account of his unlawful marriage with 
the daughter of Sanballat (Neh. xiii, 28). This expelled priest, un- 
doubtedly one and the same person with Manasseh, withdrew to 
Samaria and built a rival temple on the mountain of Gerizim. 

Palestine was ruled as Syrian satrapy by the then high priest, 
but afterwards became subject to the Macedonian rule. On the 
death of Alexander, Judea came into the possession of Laomedon. 
After the defeat of Laomedon (B. C. 320) Ptolemy, king of Egypt, 
attempted to seize the whole of Syria. He advanced against Jeru- 
salem on the Sabbath, and carried a great many Jews away as cap- 
tives, whom he settled in Egypt, Cyrene, and Libya. Under the 



Ptolemies the Jews enjoyed great liberties and prosperity. In the 
time of Antioch the Great (223-187) Palestine was again the seat 
of war between Syria and Egypt, till at last, under Seleucus IV. 
(187-175), it came under Syrian sway. 

The plan of Alexander to imbue the nations of the East with 
Greek culture was continued under his successors, and by degrees 
Grecian influence was felt in Palestine. Thus Antigonus of Socho, 
one of the earlier scribes, the first who has a Grecian name, is said 
to have been a student of Greek literature. In opposition to these 
Hellenists, whose Judaism was of a very lax nature, there devel- 



The Great Talith. 
The mantle worn by Jews at prayer. 

oped in a quiet manner, the party of the pious or Hasidim, which 
rigidly adhered to the laws of the fathers and afterwards openly 
declared itself in the struggle of the Maccabees. Under Seleucus, 
IV., as has been said, the Jews had come under the Syrian sway. 
The people were governed by the high priest, and thus their con- 
dition was tolerable. When, however, the effort was made to has- 
ten the process of Hellenising the people and destroy altogether 
the Jewish nationality, new troubles began, which resulted in the 
rise of the Maccabees. Seleucus was succeeded by Antiochus IV. 
Epiphanes (175-164 B. C). When he ascended the throne there 



were at Jerusalem two parties, — a national one, adhering to the 
laws of the fathers, and the Greek, which endeavored to introduce 
Greek manners, vices, and idolatry. At the head of the national 
party stood the high priest Onias III., afterwards supplanted by his 
brother Jason, who offered four hundred and forty talents (or about 
five hundred and thirteen thousand four hundred and eighty dol- 
lars) annually as tribute to Antiochus, besides a hundred and fifty 
more for permission to build a gymnasium. Jason was dislodged 
by Menelaus, who offered a higher tribute to Antiochus (172 B. C). 
While the latter was absent on his second expedition against Egypt 
(170 B. C.) Jason took possession of Jerusalem for a time. Anti- 
ochus, who looked upon this act as rebellion, after his return from 
Egypt took fearful vengeance on the Jews and the temple (i Mace. 

The Small Talith. 
Worn continually by the orthodox Jew. 

I, 16-28; 2 Mace. 15, 11-23; comp. Dan. 11, 28). In the year 
168 a royal edict was issued, according to which the exercise of the 
Jewish religion and circumcision was interdicted, and a statue of 
Jupiter Olympus was erected in the temple (i Mace, i, 43 et seq. ; 
2 Mace. 6, I et seq. ; Dan. 11, 30). At last the patience of the peo- 
ple was exhausted, and the Maccabean struggle arose, which ended 
in the independence of Judea. The Maccabean successors of 
Judas, the son of Mattathias, united in their own persons the offices 
of king and high priest (i Mace. 14, 28 et seq.); but though they 
proved valiant defenders of the country against foreign enemies, 
they could not prevent Palestine from being torn by internal fac- 
tions. At that time the two religious factions known as Pharisees 
and Sadducees opposed each other. Hitherto the Maccabees had 



sided with the Pharisees, the successors of the Hasidim. But the 
third successor of Judas Maccabaeus, named John Hyrcanus (135- 
106), being offended by the Pharisees, went over to the Sadducees, 
thus making the Pharisees his opponents. His eldest son's reign 
(Aristobulus) was short; but when his second son (Alexander Jan- 
naeus) ascended the throne, in 104 B. C, he was so annoyed by 
the popular party of the Pharisees that, before his death, he felt 
obliged to advise his wife, Alexandra, to join the Pharisees and 
abandon the Sadducees entirely. Through this policy peace was 
restored, and Hyrcanus H. was made high priest while Alexandra 
occupied the throne. After the latter's death (70 B. C.) a deadly 
strife began between the two sons, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, for 
the sovereignty. In the course of this struggle both parties ap- 

Small Phylactery for the Head. Large Phylactery for the Head. 

Used by ordinary Jews. Used by the Pharisaic Jews. 

The phylactery was a memorial amulet consisting of a strip or strips of parchment inscribed 
with certain texts from the Old Testament and enclosed within a small leather case, which was 
either fastened on the forehead or on the left arm (see the upper part of the cut which follows)" 

pealed to Pompey, who at once invaded Palestine, and after hav- 
ing taken Jerusalem and its temple, appointed Hyrcanus high 
priest, limiting his dominion, however, to Judea alone, and taking 
his brother, Aristobulus, with his two sons, as captives to Rome. 
Alexander, one of the sons of Aristobulus, managed to escape (57 
B. C.) and tried to raise the standard of revolt against Hyrcanus, 
but with no success. He was put down by Gabinius, the Roman 
proconsul, who divided Judea into five districts. Hyrcanus was 
recognised as high priest by Caesar, who also permitted the rebuild- 
ing of the walls of Jerusalem ; and Antipater, for services rendered 
to Caesar, was appointed procurator over Judea (47 B. C), who 
again made his son, Phasael, governor of Jerusalem, while he 
placed his son Herod over Galilee. The latter soon succeeded, by 



the help of the Romans, in becoming king of the Jews (39 B. C). 
Under him Aristobulus, the last of the Maccabeans, acted as high 
priest, but he was put to death (35 B. C). 

Herod was followed by his son, Archelaus, who, after a few 
years' reign, was deposed by the Emperor Augustus (A. D. 6), and 
Judea became part of a Roman province with Syria, but with its 
own procurator residing at Caesarea. When Quirinius took the cen- 
sus he succeeded in quelling a general revolt ; but the fiercer spir- 
its found a leader in Judas, the Galilean, who, fighting for the the- 
ocratic principle (according to the notions of the Pharisees) against 
the Roman yoke, kindled a fire in the people which, though often 
quenched, was not extinguished. 

,_, 1 • 1 • r 11 1 • Phylacteries. 

The high priests followed in 
quick succession with the excep- 
tion of Caiaphas, who retained 
his office during the long reign 
of Pontius Pilate (28-36). The 
principle of interfering as little 
as possible with the religious lib- 
erty of the Jews was rudely as- 
sailed by the Emperor Caligula, 
who gave orders to have his im- 
age set up in the temple of Jeru- 
salem. It was entirely through 
the courage and tact of the Syr- 
ian governor, Petronius, that the 
execution of these orders was 
temporarily postponed until the 
emperor was induced by Herod 

Agrippa I. to withdraw them. Caligula soon afterwards died, and 
under the rule of Agrippa (41-44), to whom the government of the 
entire kingdom of his grandfather, Herod, was committed by Clau- 
dius, the Jews enjoyed much prosperity. In every respect the king 
was all they could wish. At the time of his death his son, Agrippa, 
being too young, Judea was again ruled by Roman governors, viz., 
Cuspius Fadus (44-46, under whom Theudas [Acts 5, 36] played his 
part); Tiberius Alexander (46-48, nephew of Philo of Alexandria) ; 
Ventidius Cumanus (48-52), and Felix (52-60), magnificent in his 
profligacy and despotic as a ruler (Acts, xxiii, 24). He was followed 
by Porcius Festus (60-62), a well-meaning man. With his succes- 
sor, Albinus (62-64), everything became venal ; and, bad as his gov- 
ernment was, yet it was by far preferred to that of Gessius Florus 

For the arm. For the head. 

Showing straps with which they are fastened. 



(64-66), the last but also worst procurator, who made an ostenta- 
tious display of his oppressions. Disturbances in the streets of 
Jerusalem and Cajsarea were now of frequent occurrence, and mas- 
sacre followed upon massacre. All attempts at peace-making on 
the part of Agrippa I. and of the peace party were in vain. The 
patience of the people had been taxed too much, and Judea was at 
open war with the Emperor Nero, who sent his first general of the 

empire, Vespasian, to subjugate 
Palestine. Under Titus, Vepa- 
sian's general, fortress after for- 
tress surrendered until at last 
Jerusalem was taken and the 
temple burned to the ground, 
August 10, 70 A. D. 

Judea was now a waste, Je- 
rusalem a heap of ruins, and 
there was no Jeremiah to sing 
the funeral dirge of the city of 
David and Solomon. Directly 
after the triumph of Titus the 
Sanhedrin met at Jamnia or 
Jabneh, and in the hands of 
this council the work of trans- 
forming and adapting Judaism 
to the altered political circum- 
stances, proved a task of little 
difficulty. Jamnia had only to 
be substituted for Jerusalem, 
a few ordinances to be discon- 
tinued or slightly altered, and 
certain prayers or good works 
to be substituted for the sacri- 
fices, and the change was ef- 
fected without leaving any trace 
of violent revolution. The spiritual head of the Jamnian com- 
monwealth was Gamaliel 11.^ National fanaticism, indeed, was 
not yet extinguished ; but it burnt itself completely out in the 
vigorous insurrection led by Bar-Cocheba, the pseudo-messiah, 
in which nearly six million Jews lost their lives, together with the 

ISee McClintock and Strong's Cyclopcedia. We are largely indebted to this work for the 
details of the present article. All readers desirous of pursuing the subject further should use it 
for constant reference. 

Polish Jew at Prayer in the 
Showin}^ the manner in which the 
talith and the phylacteries for head 
and arm are worn. 



famous Rabbi Akiba, one of the pseudo messiah's most ardent ad- 
herents (135 A. D.). Titus, to annihilate forever all hopes of the 
restoration of the Jewish kingdom, accomplished his plan by estab- 
lishing a new city on the site of Jerusalem, which he called yElia 
Capitolina. An edict prohibited any Jew from entering the new 
city on pain of death. More effectually to keep them away, the im- 
age of a swine was placed over the gate leading to Bethlehem. The 
seat of the spiritual head, or patriarch, also called nasi, was now 
transferred from Jamnia to Tiberias, where Judah the Holy com- 
pleted in A. D. 190 the collection of all the oral or traditional laws, 
called the Mishna. When in the fifth century (429) Palestine 
ceased to be the centre of Judaism, Babylonia took her place. 
From the period of the exile a numerous and coherent body of 
Jews had continued to subsist there. The Parthians and Sassan- 
ides granted them self-government. At their head was a native 

Mezuza, or Sign Upon the Door-Post. 
A cylinder containing a piece of parchment inscribed on one side with certain words from 
Deuteronomy, and on the other with the name of tlie "Almighty " so placed as to be visible 
through an opening covered by glass. The cylinder is affixed to the door-post in 
Jewish houses; the mezuza is believed to have the virtue of an amulet and is saluted by pious 
Jews both on entering and leaving the house. 

prince, the Resh Galuiha, i. e., prince of the captivity, who, when 
the Palestinian patriarchate came to an end, was left without a 
rival. The schools there at Pumbaditha, Sera, and Nahardea 
prospered greatly, developed rabbinism, vied with those of Pales- 
tine, and continued to exist after the cessation of the latter, when 
the patriarchate became extinct ; thus they had the last word in 
the settlement of doctrine, which was embodied in the celebrated 
Babylonian Talmud, compiled about the year 500. When the 
schools at Pumbaditha and Sora were closed Jewish learning was 
transferred to Spain. 

Returning to the Jews in the Roman Empire, we find that 
after the reign of Vespasian and Hadrian the condition of the Jews 
was not only tolerable, but in many respects prosperous. But the 
complete reverse took place after the conversion of Constantine. 
The Jews, who formerly had taken a great share in the persecution 
of the Christians by pagan Rome, now became a condemned and 



persecuted sect. With the triumph of Christianity over paganism 
began the period of cruel oppression of the Jews in the Roman 
Empire. A gleam of hope shone upon them in the days of Julian 
the Apostate, but they were more illy-treated under his Christian 
successors. Till the reign of Theodosius, in the fourth century, 
however, their position in the empire was tolerable. Different, 
however, it was in the fifth century. The Roman Empire had, 
from the year 395, been divided into the Eastern or Greek Empire, 
of which Constantinople was the capital, and the Western Em- 
pire, of which Rome and Italy still formed the centre. In both 
these divisions the position and treatment of the Jews became 

worse and worse. In the west, 
even under Honorius, its first 
emperor, oppressive laws began 
to be enacted against the Jews. 
In the east, i. e., in the east- 
ern part of the Roman Empire, 
soon after called the Empire of 
Greece, or Byzantium, the po- 
sition of the Jews became par- 
ticularly unfavorable. The gov- 
ernment of the Emperor Jus- 
tin, and the code of Justinian, 
soon permanently fixed the so- 
cial relations of the Jews in the 
Byzantine Empire. Justin (A. 
D. 523) excluded all non- Chris- 
tians from holding any office 
or dignity in the state. In the 

MoDhi;:. h VM^ii S\ NAi.OGOE. 

reign of Justinian the enactments 
against the Jews were made more onerous. No wonder that dur- 
ing his reign many rebellions broke out among the Jews. From 
the reign of Justinian the position of the Jews in the Greek Empire 
became such as to prevent their possessing any vestige of political 
importance. True, they carried on theological studies in the coun- 
try of their fathers, especially at Tiberias. But even here the last 
surviving gleam of their ancient glory was soon extinguished. The 
dignity of the patriarch had ceased to exist with the year 429, and 
the link connecting the different synagogues of the Eastern Empire 
was broken. Many Jews quitted Palestine and the Byzantine Em- 
pire to seek refuge in Persia and Babylonia, where they were more 
favored. When, in 1455, Constantinople was taken by the Turks, 



some of the Jewish exiles from Spain and Portugal took refuge in 
the ancient capital of the Eastern Empire, where the number of 
their descendants is now considerable. 

In the peninsula of Arabia the Jews had dwelt from time im- 
memorial. Before the time of Mohammed the Jews were very pros- 
perous there, and even a Jewish kingdom under Jewish kings is 
said to have existed there. When the prophet of Mecca made his 
appearance he found the Jews in general favorably disposed toward 
him. Several of the Jewish tribes became even his open parti- 

The Feast of Dedication as Celebrated in an English Synagogue. 

sans. But when his principles and plans became more thoroughly 
known and the Jews rejected him, Mohammed at once commenced 
a war of extermination against them. His first attack was against 
the clan of the Beni-Kinouka, who dwelt in Media, and was over- 
come by the warrior-prophet. The same fate awaited the other 
tribes, one after the other. From the moment that the Jews de- 
clared themselves against Mohammed they became the special ob- 
ject of his hatred, and since that time a feeling of enmity has ever 
existed between the Musselman and the Jew. Crescent and cross 
shared equally in their contempt and hatred of the Jews, and, as 



in Christian Europe, so in Mohammedan Asia and Africa the Jew 
was compelled to bear a distinctive mark in his garments — hei-e the 
yellow hat, there the black turban. 

Beyond the boundaries of either the old Roman or the Byzan- 
tine Empire Jews have, in early times, been met with, both in the 
most remote parts of the interior of Asia and upon the coast of 
Malabar. In the latter place they probably arrived in the fifth cen- 
tury in consequence of a persecution raised in Persia. In the sev- 
enth century a Jewish colony 
was met with in China. When 
the Jews emigrated there is diffi- 
cult to ascertain. 

But to return to the West. 
It has already been stated that 
with the conversion of the Ro- 
man Empire to Christianity evil 
days came upon the Jews. In the 
Western Empire this unfavor- 
able change commenced in the 
days of Honorius, and would 
have continued so; but the storm 
that burst over Rome toward the 
end of the fifth century changed 
in a degree the condition of the 
Jews. The northern nations, as 
long as they professed Arianism 
in preference to the Catholic 
faith, showed themselves mer- 
ciful to their Jewish subjects. 
This was especially the case with 
the Goths. When the dominion of the Ostrogoths, under their king 
Theodoric, succeeded that of Odoacer and the Heruli in Italy and 
the west, the Jews had every reason to be satisfied with their new 
sovereign. The consequence was that the Goths in the west, like 
the Persians in the east, found faithful allies in the Jews of that 
period. When Justinian, by his general, Narses, conquered Italy 
from the Ostrogoths (A. D. 555), the Jews, especially those at 
Naples, assisted him, only to be heavily punished afterwards. 

The Visigoths also, in their defence of Aries, in Provence, 
against the Franks, under Clovis, were assisted by the Jews. In 
Spain the kings of the Visigoths treated them with favor till about 
the year 600, their king, Reccared, having embraced the Catholic 

The High Priest, in Linen Vestments. 
Sprinkling the blood in the holy of holies. 



faith, inaugurated that peculiar system of conduct toward the Jews 
which finally resulted in their total expulsion from the peninsula. 

The Franks were at first less merciful to the Jews than the 
Goths. The Merovingian line treated them with peculiar rigor. 
Thus in 540 King Childebert forbade the Jews to appear in the 
streets of Paris during the Easter week. Clotaire I. deprived them 
of the power of holding office. King Dagobert (629) compelled 
them either to receive baptism or to leave the country. 

Under the Carlovingians in France the Jews of the eighth and 
ninth centuries enjoyed so great a degree of prosperity, that the 

The Fast of Jerusalem in Jerusalem. 

Romish bishops took alarm. Under Pepin le Bref, son of Charles 
Martel, they enjoyed many privileges, and so likewise under his son 
Charlemagne and under his successor and son, Louis le Debon- 
naire. The latter even freed them from the grinding taxes im- 
posed upon them, and confirmed them in their immunities in 830. 
And all exertions of the priesthood, especially of Ogobard, bishop 
of Lyons, to injure the Jews, were futile. 

The position of the Jews underwent an entire change at the 
downfall of the Carlovingian dynasty, which began to decay after 
the death of Louis le Debonnaire. The invasion of the Normans 



was partly the cause and partly the signal for a complete change of 
kings in Europe. An age of barbarism spread over the whole face 
of Christianity, the feudal system developed itself in every way in- 
jurious to the Jews. But one of the greatest evils which they were 
compelled to endure was the prevalence of the crusading spirit. 
During the first crusade (1096-1099) Treves, Speyer, Worms, May- 
ence, Cologne, and Ratisbon were the seat of oppression, mur- 
ders, and bodily tortures, inflicted upon the Jews. During the sec- 
ond crusade (1147-1149), Ru- 
dolph, a fanatical monk, trav- 
elling through central Europe, 
stirred up the populace to take 
vengeance on all unbelievers. 
The cry, ''Hep! Hep!" was 
sufficient to bring terror to the 
heart of every Jew. But King 
Conrad HI. and such men as 
Bernard of Clairvaux protected 
them, and thus the sufferings 
of the Jews were less, compared 
with the intemperate zeal of 
Rudolph. During the Middle 
Ages the Jews were not only 
persecuted, but, where they 
were tolerated, they became 
also the Pariahs of the west. 
But to resume the thread of 

In France, formerly so sig- 
nally patronised by the Carlo- 
vingians, the Jews experienced a 
different treatment after the ex- 
tinction of that dynasty. Toward 
the end of the eleventh century 
they were banished and afterward recalled by Philip I. In 1 182 they 
were at first banished by Philip Augustus, but readmitted upon 
certain conditions, one of which was the obligation to wear a little 
wheel upon their dress as a mark. Louis VII. (A. D. 1223) treated 
them as his serfs, and with one stroke of his pen remitted to 
his Christian subjects all their debts to Jews. Louis IX. (St. 
Louis), being anxious to convert them, commanded that the Tal- 
mud be destroyed by fire, and twenty-four cartfuls of the Talmud 

Jew of Bagdad. 



were publicly burned in Paris (1244). Philip the Fair, after rob- 
bing them repeatedly, expelled the Jews from France in 1306. 
Under Louis X. they were treated unfavorably, while Philip V., 
the Long, favored and protected them. In 1341 the usual accusa- 
tions of treason, poisoning of the wells, etc., were brought against 
them, and many were burned, massacred, banished, or condemned 
to heavy fines. Under John 1. they enjoyed a little rest, and so 
also under Charles V. But in 1370 they were again banished, but 
soon recalled under Charles VL In spite of the many vicissitudes, 
Jewish learning flourished in 
France, especially in the south. 
Men like David Kimchi and 
Rashi have become household 
names in Jewish as well as in 
Christian theology. 

In England the Jews date 
their first residence from the 
time of the Heptarchy. In the 
twelfth century, under Henry II. 
and his son, the cruel treatment 
and plundering of the Jews 
reached its height. On the coro- 
nation day of King Richard I. 
(1189), when they came to pay 
their homage, the population 
plundered and murdered them a 
whole day and night in London. 
This bad example of London 
was followed at Stamford, Nor- 
wich, and more especially at 
York. Under King John (1199) 
all kinds of liberties and priv- 
ileges were granted to the Jews, but he soon showed he cared 
more for their money than for their persons. Henry III. (i 217- 
1272) followed the same policy, and when the Jews petitioned the 
king to allow them to leave the country their request was not 
granted. Under Edward I. they were banished in 1290, and only 
in 1635 Cromwell permitted them again to settle in England. 

In Germany, Jews were found as early as the fourth cen tury, 
especially at Cologne, where they soon became numerous and p ros- 
perous. But the commencement of the Middle Ages in Germ any, 
a s elsewhere, put an end to their favorable position. It is true that 

Jerusalem Jews. 



the Emperor of Germany regarded the Jews as his Kammerknechte, 
or "servants of the imperial chamber," and as such they enjoyed 
the emperor's protection, but the scores of violent deeds, which 
are recorded, show that even the protection of the emperor could 
not prevent the popular rage from breaking out and marking its 
course by bloodshed and desolation. The least cause was suffi- 
cient to massacre the Jews. When in 1348 an epidemic malady, 
known as the black death, visited half of Europe, the Jews were 
blamed for it because they were said to have poisoned the wells 
and rivers. A general massacre took place, in spite of the remon- 

New Year's Day in Tiberias and Safet.. 

strances of princes, magistrates, bishops, and the Pope himself. 
In the south of Germany and in Switzerland the persecution raged 
with most violence. From Switzerland to Silesia the land was 
drenched with innocent blood, and in some places their residence 
was forbidden. 

In the Netherlands the history of the Jews during the Middle 
Ages was much like that of Germany and the north of France. In 
Flanders they were already living at the time of the Crusaders. In 
the twelfth century they were driven out, but were found there 
again in the fourteenth. In 1370 they were accused of having 



pierced the holy wafer, an accusation which brought many to the 
stake. In Utrecht the Jews resided till the year 1444. In Holland, 
Zealand, and Friesland many Jews had sought refuge after their 
banishment from France by Philip the Fair. 

Before the end of the tenth century Jews were already found 
at Prague. Boleslaus I. favored them and permitted them to build 
a synagogue. In Poland they existed very early. Under Boleslaus 
v., Duke of Poland (1264), they enjoyed many privileges. His 
great-grandson, King Casimir, showed them still greater favor, out 

The Blowing of the Trumpet on New Year's Day. 

of love, it is said, for Esther, a beautiful Jewess. Synagogues, 
academies, and rabbinal schools have always abounded in Poland. 
In Italy, where Jews have resided from early times in their 
ghettos, the popes generally appeared kindly toward them. Greg- 
ory I., the Great, in the seventh century, proved himself the friend 
of the Jews, but Gregory VII., in the tenth century, was their 
enemy. In other great towns in Italy the position of the Jews va- 
ried. At Leghorn and Venice they met with favor, and so also 
in a less degree at Florence, but in Genoa they were looked upon 
with enmity. In the Kingdom of Naples, where they settled about 
the year 1200, persecutions took place from time to time. 

[to be continued.] 




IF, passing from the general principles of the doctrine to its prac- 
tical applications, we endeavor to harmonise our ordinary moral 
judgments (whose validity is accepted by Dr. Carus, as by every 
one else) with that law of evolution (whether of "soul" or other) 
from which alone all ethical conceptions can derive their authority 
and legitimacy, we again find ourselves in a labyrinth of perplex- 
ities, escape from which can only be secured by surrendering all 
morality. The evolution of man is not a simple process, a simple 
motion governed by one single force : it is a very complex process, 
a motion whose propelling force is the resultant of many different, 
although concurrent, forces, some acting in one direction, some in 
another, and many of them opposed to one another. From such 
combination human development in general, and "soul develop- 
ment" in particular, arise; nor could mankind move as it does if 
the combination were not what it is, or if any of the constituent 
components of the resultant force were lacking. Of these compo- 
nents some present themselves in the form of human actions ac- 
companied by consciousness ; and, since they all have their share 
in the general movement, they must all be regarded as necessary 
factors of development; i. e., all human actions must, whatever 
their nature, be considered, according to the developmental stand- 
ard of goodness, morally good. And to this it will be no scientific 
or logical answer to say, that development would take place faster 
and follow a better path (whatever may be meant by "better"), if 
some modes of conduct were omitted, and replaced by opposite 
modes of conduct ; for this is to abandon the position that evolu- 

IFor the first part of Mr. Llano's article see The Open Court for March 1897. 


tion, at every moment, can take place only in one direction and at 
one rate of speed, and that it must so take place ; and to frame an 
imaginary, subjective standard of what ought to be, instead of pre- 
serving the scientific and objective standard of what is and must 
be. We cannot escape from the logical consequences of universal 
determinism : in whatever direction we turn, the austere and im- 
placable monster of Necessity rises before us, proclaiming, with 
his very silence, that he is the eternal and, therefore, the irrevoc- 
able. He cannot be moved, for he has no heart ; nor convinced, 
for he has no brain; he is an automaton made of inflexible material ; 
and if we recognise him as our master, we must be satisfied to watch 
in submissive resignation the everlasting motions of the wonderful 
and awful mechanism. 

The process of evolution itself presupposes the conflict be- 
tween antagonistic forces and tendencies. In the moral world, as 
in the physical world, there is a struggle for existence, if not among 
individuals, at least among what have been termed moral ideals. 
The higher ideals have not been realised except through, and by 
the agency of, the lower ideals ; the lower ideals are, therefore, in- 
dispensable, if there is to be any development at all. But by this 
I do not mean to repeat the truism that what was morally good 
yesterday is to-day morally bad : the idea I intend to convey is, 
that, at any given period, the morally good (I now use the word in 
its ordinary sense) cannot usually become better, that is, progress 
(either by gaining in intensity, or by being propagated), unless 
helped in its course by the morally bad ; the consequence being 
that the morally bad, viewed now as a necessary factor of the mor- 
ally good, ceases to be really bad : our judgment must be reversed, 
and we must say that in such cases every action is morally good. 
An illustration will, I hope, make my position perfectly clear. 

The teachings of Jesus of Nazareth are by many, Dr. Carus 
among them, considered as the starting point and the root of all 
modern morality. After the legendary element has been strained 
in the capacious filter of "Christian scholarship," and the moral 
residue treated with the powerful chemicals of "interpretation," 
the New Testament is found to contain the highest truths and prin- 
ciples of ethics ; and thus the revolution worked by Jesus in the 
whole life of mankind is likened, both for its legitimacy and its im- 
portance, to the astronomical revolution of Copernicus. But it is,. 
I believe, allowed by all students of Christian morals that the bare 
precepts of Jesus would have made little impression upon the old 
Romans and their barbarian conquerors, had they not been accom- 


panied by those narratives appealing to the imaginational and emo- 
tional parts of our nature, — the stories of his struggling life and his 
patiently borne passion, crowned by his awful death. The best cre- 
dential of his moral code was the seal of martyrdom stamped upon 
it by the heroic sacrifice of Calvary; and had this tragedy never 
been related to the Western World, the precepts of Jesus might 
to-day be slumbering among the utopic vagaries of what the great- 
est of Roman historians described as a superstitious people, who 
distinguished themselves by the odious characteristic of being the 
enemies of human kind. 

What judgment, then, are we to pass upon the persecutors, the 
betrayers, and the executioners of Jesus? He was not an independ- 
ent, self-existing, extra-cosmical personality: but for his surround- 
ings and the state of the world at the time of his advent, his work 
would have been impossible. His work was not a simple nor an iso- 
lated event : it was, scientifically considered, a complex phenome- 
non, of which his moral teachings were only a factor, some of the 
olher factors being the actions of his enemies, his denunciators, and 
his crucifiers. From a naturalistic point of view, Pontius Pilate, 
and Judas Iscariot himself, were component elements of the great 
compound whole, which, operating upon the minds of men, was to 
revolutionise the moral world ; their actions were really not theirs: 
they were, so to speak, the instruments of nature, even as Jesus 
himself was the instrument of nature ; and in those actions we must 
see, not the acts of free and independent wills, but the necessary 
operations of the eternal laws of the cosmos, which, for the carry- 
ing on of the evolutionary process, must make use of the martyr 
and the assassin alike, each being as indispensable as the other; 
they both conform to the laws of the cosmos, — they are the laws of 
the cosmos themselves ; they both further the evolution of the race, 
— they are but terms of the sum total of progress; given the actual 
constitution of the universe, progress would be as impossible with- 
out the one or the other, as the existence of a whole without its 
parts. Judged, then, by the standard of development, are they not 
both equally moral, both equally good? It will, perhaps, be argued 
that Jesus himself had reached a higher stage of development, 
while his enemies were yet in a state of relative undevelopment. 
But in this case the question is only one of degree; Jesus, we may 
grant, was better, but they also were good. By what criterion can 
we trace the line of demarcation between the good and the bad? 
Nor can the question be evaded by taking into consideration the 
feelings, the inte?itions of the actors that took part in the momentous 


tragedy ; for, apart from the fact that the persecutors of Jesus were 
probably acting in good faith and in obedience to the dictates of 
their "categoric imperative," it must be remembered that our crite- 
rion is entirely objective; or, if we take account of the subjective 
element, it must be from an objective point of view; from the point 
of view, namely, of what the consequences of that subjective ele- 
ment must be upon the development of the race. Nor, again, can 
it be said that the objectiveness of our criterion consists, not in 
judging actions by their consequences, but in taking in the objec- 
tive world the necessary data for the direction of otir conduct ; for 
this would be an ethics of egoism, not of development : the ethics 
of development is an "ethics of eternity," embracing the past, the 
present, and the future of the race.^ The immediate causes of vol- 
untary human actions are human feelings; and feelings from which 
the evolution of the race results cannot, according to the "ethics 
of eternity," be declared bad or immoral. The feelings of Judas 
Iscariot, from which resulted the sacrifice of Calvary, from which 
resulted the adoption of Christianity, from which resulted the ele- 
vation of mankind, have to be accepted as necessary antecedents 
of the alleged redemption, i. e., as necessary factors of moral evo- 
lution ; or, to place the subject on its true bearings, as necessary 
factors of cosmical evolution in general; and, as such, those feel- 
ings must be declared good. 

It may, perhaps, be thought that the foregoing remarks are 
too far-fetched, and that they come from a misapprehension, or 
even a perversion, of the theory I am criticising; for it is repeatedly 
stated by Dr. Carus that the elevation of the soul is the test of 
progress, and he says very distinctly that the "nature of moral 
goodness" "must be sought in the quality of our ideas and mo- 
tives."^ I shall, therefore, endeavor to present with all candor the 
reply that can be made, from his point of view, to the objections 
I have just adduced. 

Human conduct, it will be said, consists in voluntary move- 
ments made in response to impressions received, directly or indi- 
rectly, from the outer world, and aiming at an adaptation of the or- 
ganism to his environment, especially the social environment. The 
interpretation of those impressions and of the necessary conditions 
of adaptation are forms of consciousness we term judgments. Judg- 
ments, then, are the subjective regulators of conduct ; and it is there- 
fore obvious that our actions will be better adapted to their ends 
in proportion as our judgments are more correct, or, as Dr. Carus 

"i^ Ethical Problevt, p. 42. 2 The Monist, L, 4, p. 564. 


says, in proportion as we approach nearer to truth. It follows that 
the first -condition, for a scientific direction of conduct is knowl- 
edge of the objective laws of nature ; and the first thing to be in- 
quired into, when a line of conduct is proposed, is, how it will tally 
with those laws, or what its consequences will be, according to 
those laws, as they have been revealed to us by the attentive exam- 
ination of natural phenomena. In this sense, then, it may be said 
that the standard of ethics must be objective : it must be, and can- 
not but be, found in the immutable order of the outer world. The 
law of evolution being a well ascertained fact, we may take it as an 
ethical guide : of conduct which is moulded so as to conform to 
that law, we may say that it is moral ; and of the man whose motives 
correspond with that law, we may say that he is good. By doing 
this we have not exchanged our objective criterion for a subjective 
criterion ; for, although we judge a man by his motives, those mo- 
tives themselves are judged by the higher standard — the law of 
evolution, which, when applied to man, and viewed on its "spirit- 
ual " side, may with propriety be called the moral law. The con- 
sideration of motives is an indispensable element of moral judg- 
ments, for the simple reason that morality is only predicable of 
thinking beings, the causes of whose actions are motives : were we 
to judge merely by consequences, we should have to speak of 
brutes, trees, and stones, as of moral creatures. Nor is it sufficient 
that a man's motive should be what is ordinarily called a ''good 
intention " ; for herein comes our objective criterion to inquire 
whether that intention, when carried out, will further the evolution 
of the race ; and, unless his intention comply with this condition, 
it cannot be called good. Such examples, then, as that of Jesus's 
persecutors, cannot be justified ; for, although these men may have 
acted in good faith, they were ignorant of the true course of hu- 
man development; they were immoral through their ignorance, or 
at least they were not good men ; they may be excusable, but this 
does not make them moral. Furthermore, it has to be admitted 
that we ourselves are liable to form erroneous judgments as to the 
laws of nature, and that some of our actions may be viewed by our 
descendants as we now view the proceedings of the Inquisitors ; 
but this is a necessary, although unfortunate, consequence of the 
limitations of human knowledge : all we can say is that, for us, 
those actions are morally good to which we are prompted by mo- 
tives that, according to the facts known to us, and to the inter- 
pretation we can give them, we believe to be faithful responses to 
the requirements of the law of human progress. 


The main objection to this reasoning is the same general ob- 
jection I conceive to be applicable to the whole system — inconsist- 
ency. Development is here presented as the end, the ideal, of 
ethics; as an object whose realisation must be the purpose of moral 
conduct. It must, then, be accepted as the most desirable condi- 
tion, or, in the language of other moralists, the sjimmum l?onu?n. If 
we ask why this is a desirable good, we are answered that "we 
have to be pleased with the development of our race according to 
the laws of nature," and that "those who are displeased might 
just as well commit suicide at once, for they will go to the wall, 
they will disappear from the stage of life. Those alone will survive 
who are pleased with what the laws of nature demand." Ethics, it 
is added, formulates general rules, based on facts, to "assist us in 
doing what we shall after all have to do."^ 

Leaving aside the hedonistic spirit of these statements, we 
find them inadequate to explain what they are intended to explain ; 
for, while it is true that, science teaches us what we ''have to'' do 
under certain circumstances, this "have to" refers to an end de- 
termined in advance; it is what we '' have to'' do in order to at- 
iai?i an object in view. The ethical ought is a conditional must; 
the if is the sine qua non of ethics, and for this reason all ethical 
structures have to be erected on an assumption of some kind — on 
an if. The foregoing propositions, therefore, are to be understood 
in the sense that we must adapt our means to human develop- 
ment, considered beforehand as a desirable end : beforehand, for 
experience teaches us that we can follow a different line, whether 
we "go to the wall" or not; and, consequently, we have to follow 
the line of development z/we have accepted the idea of development 
as our guide. As the choice between the two apparently possible 
modes of conduct is a subjective operation — a matter of desire — 
our objective criterion only applies, as I have said above, in the 
hypothesis that we have already chosen one form of conduct or the 
ether. This criterion, then, does not tell us why one conduct is 
more desirable than the other; for, although it assures us that by 
following the wrong line we shall "go to the wall," this is simply 
the statement of a possible fact, which leaves us in absolute ig- 
norance as to what is meant by "going to the wall," seeing that in 
many cases the immoral man attains his end. As to the highly 
praised and so oft repeated criterion of facts and laws of nature 
and the development of the soul in the direction of truth, it may 
be said that it amounts to but a useful and necessary tool, as use- 

1 The Monist, L, 4, pp. 553, 554, and VL, 4, p. 589. 


ful to the malefactor as to the saint — indeed, more useful to the 

Development, then, is to be accepted as an end in and by 
itself, to be striven after for its own sake, and for its sake alone. 
Its desirability cannot be established (even if this were logical) by 
an absolute must, for experience shows that we can, and often do, 
move counter to development; nor justified by reference to any 
other end or standard, for, in this case, that other end would be the 
standard. Such efforts at justification as that immoral conduct 
"will lead to certain ruin,"^ and the like, are either a begging of 
the question or a surrender of the criterion. We arrive thus at an 
ultimate postulate, which must be assumed as a fact not susceptible 
of demonstration ; the postulate, namely, that development is the 
most desirable object, and, as such, the sjimmmn boninn. And here 
we are confronted by a notorious contradiction ; for, while Dr. Carus 
declares that "ethics should not start from any assumptions,"- his 
system cannot be built except on the assumption (assumption, as 
being a matter of subjectivity) that development is desirable in and 
by itself. To say that development consists in agreement with 
facts, or in an approximation to truth, may be a definition of what 
development is, but its desirability remains an ultimate postulate — 
an ultimate assumption. Even the reduction of progress to "soul- 
development " is an implicit substitution of subjectivism for objec- 
tivism, an unconscious return to the judging of nature by the stand- 
ard of our feelings. 

Admitting, then, that development is desirable in and by itself, 
and that, besides being desirable, it is actually desired, I shall 
leave other difficulties aside, and pass to the immediate conse- 
quences of the developmental theory, as thus understood (I almost 
said ?«/i--understood). I shall endeavor' to show how the objective 
sub-standard and the ideal standard can be combined, and what the 
results of the combination must be. 

The first condition of our ideal of development is that it should 
be conceived as something possible or capable, of being realised by 
a due application of the laws of nature with which we are ac- 
quainted ; and when, on the application of these laws, we find that 
our end is not attained, we must at once recognise that our ideal was 
such only in the popular sense of the word — that it was a dream ; 
or, scientifically expressed, that we were in error, and that the ob- 
ject of our pursuit was only a logical possibility, conceived by us 

\ Funda»iental Problems, p. igS ; Ethical Problem, pp. 31-32. 
2 The Monist. I., 4, p. 555. 


as such through ignorance of some unexpected circumstances 
which make the realisation of the desired end an actual impossi- 
bility ; in other words, we have to remodel our ideal so as to make 
it conform to the actual facts of reality, thus constantly modifying 
our subjective standard by our objective sub-standard, the former 
being mostly formal, the latter experimental. A consequence of 
this is that we cannot judge actions or individuals by their motives ; 
at least, that we are not justified in passing any judgment of moral 
disapprobation. For, motives being themselves a part of our ideal, 
we may conceive and desire a special form of development where 
certain motives exist ; but if, by actual observation, we discover 
that those motives do not exist, or that the contrary motives exist, 
and that, furthermore, these are not capable of being changed by any 
means at our disposal, we must conclude that we were reckoning 
without the host; that development does not, as a matter of actual 
fact, take account of our supposed motives; and, as we ^^ have to be 
pleased" with what really exists, we cannot disapprove of any exist- 
ing motives, whatever they may be. The only feeling we can con- 
sistently experience is one of disappointment at the erroneous- 
ness of our judgments and the frustration of our expectations; but 
all verdict of immorality is out of the question, as the form of de- 
velopment with which we finally ^' have to be pleased " is that form 
which actually takes place, not the form we have in our minds. ^ 
We may, no doubt, cling to our definition, and say that a moral 
man is one whose motives correspond to our ideal of development ; 
but this definition is nothing but the statement of a logically possi- 
ble fact, and, being stripped of all feeling of praise and blame, 
entirely loses its ethical importance. And it is further evident that,^ 
with regard to the realisation of our ideal, although we think that 
the ideal can (that is, fnay^ be realised in a certain manner, yet if 
the event — the actual fact — prove that the ideal is realised in a dif- 
ferent manner, we must again confess that our conception of the 
means was inadequate, that the means that nature has employed 
are the ofily possible means, and that, unless we give up the reali- 
sation of the ideal, those means must be regarded with approba- 

IThe words of Antoninus the Philosopher (quoted by Dr. Carus himself) are a very clear state- 
ment of the monistic and deterniinist views (although the Stoics were not determinists in the 
modern sense of the term) : "All is suitable to me, O Cosmos, that is suitable to thee ! Nothing 
that for thee is in due time is for me too early or too late." And again : " There is hardly any- 
thing foreign to any other thing. For things have been co-ordinated, and they combine to form 
one and the same cosmos." Remember also the words of Epictetus : " If any one go to the bath 
too early, say not that he does wrong, but that he bathes before time. If any one drinks too much 
wine, say not that he does wrong to drink, but that he drinks too much. For, before thou know- 
est what moves him to act, how knowest thou whether he do wrong ? " 


tion, or, at least, not with disapprobation. Thus I do not believe 
I have been illogical in my application of the developmental prin- 
ciples (even in the above distorted form) to the actions and men 
connected with the life and death of Jesus. To say that we can 
further or retard the progress of mankind are metaphorical expres- 
sions,^ and, if literally taken, they betray an absolute ignorance of 
the difference between the logically possible, based on assmnpiions, 
and the actually possible, based on reality. There is only one pro- 
cess of evolution, only one direction and one speed of progress, all 
predetermined from eternity, i. e., contained in the universe as po- 
tentialities that are actualised at definite times and in definite places. 
This is scientific and philosophical fatalism, but not practical fatal- 
ism ; for we are never absolutely certain of what will take place, 
and, in that uncertainty, we act as if to accomplish what we believe 
may happen ; but, should the event disappoint our expectation, 
all we can say is that the event could not be what we believed it 
would be. 

Before closing this part of my discussion, I would call atten- 
tion to some features of the law of development, which, I think, 
will farther strengthen my position. 

The universe, mechanically considered, is an immense (proba- 
bly infinite) system, the fundamental law of whose operations is 
the law of action and reaction. Whatever our ideas of force may 
be, every phenomenon can be described as a reaction, in the sense 
that it is the response of a mode of existence to the action of an- 
other mode of existence. This law, also known as the law of caus- 
ation, operates with equal rigidity (at least we believe so) in the 
region of the intellect and of the emotions, — in the world of knowl- 
edge and in the world of morality; and, just as in the physical 
world it would be unreasonable, nay irrational, to expect an effect 
where the cause was wanting, it would be in the same degree un- 
reasonable and irrational to expect, in the moral world, the rise of 
higher conditions, which can only originate as reactions on lower 
conditions, without the existence of those lower conditions. The 
features of our civilisation of which we so often boast as our glo- 
rious achievements have originated in the antagonism between op- 
posite social forces, opposite tendencies and ideals : liberty has 
been born in oppression, toleration in political and religious des- 
potism ; and, while we may deplore that such should be the law of 

1 Thus Dr. Carus says that, although the soul-development of the race " is of a spontaneous 
nature, man can, to a great extent, make or mar his own fate and that of his race." {Ethical 
Problem, p. 41.) Such expressions, however, coming from so strong a necessitarian as Dr. 
Carus, must be taken in a figurative sense. 


nature, we must either ''be pleased" with it, or blame nature for 
being what it is. Are we, then, to brand the Russian autocrat as 
a perverse fiend, the enemy of his subjects and of mankind ? Leav- 
ing aside the fact that his actions are the immutable laws of the 
cosmos, we must remember that from his tyranny the freedom of 
the Russians will probably be the inevitable consequence, and that, 
without the action of despotism, the reaction of liberty could not 
take effect. And, should it be said that he would be a better man 
if he, of his own free will, granted more rights and gave more se- 
curity to his subjects, and that freedom may exist without previous 
oppression, the answer simply is, that this could not be so, for the 
all-convincing and unanswerable reason that it is not so ; and that, 
as said before, we must not confuse in our judgments the logically 
possible with the actually possible, the actually possible being 
what exists, and what does not exist being impossible.^ 

Having presented and discussed what I conceive to be the 
most salient inconsistencies of the ethics of development, I shall 
now attempt to trace them to their main psychological sources ; 
sources from which, as will be apparent, all ethical systems have 
sprung, and from which thej^ draw their very life. 

The first source is to be found in the law of conflict between 
feeling and judgment. The nature of this law will be readily seen 
by an illustration. A nervous woman may take the five cartridges 
out of the five chambers of a pistol, count them and hold them in 
her hand; and yet, if the weapon be pointed at her, she will scream 
with fright, and not improbably faint away. Her judgment, it is 
evident, tells her, beyond all doubt, that it is impossible that any 
harm should come to her from the unloaded weapon; but her 
deeply rooted feelings, organised by heredity, or by association, or 
both, unavoidably impel her to act in opposition to her correct 
judgment. This is a very simple, and, I think, a very plain in- 
stance of the law of conflict. In the higher and more complicated 
forms of conduct a similar phenomenon takes place, which, al- 
though of a more complex character, is 5'et of the same identical 
nature. Through the combined agencies of heredity and educa- 

IThis view of the possible and impossible was very strongly held by Wyckliffe. According to 
him '• that only is possible which is actual, though men may conceive of many things as possible 
which in fact are not possible." " Whatever is possible is actual," and therefore God's power 
and God's action are identical. This doctrine, as can be easily seen, logically leads, as in fact it 
led Wyckliffe, to absolute fatalism and predestination. (See Neander's History of the Church, 
Vol. v., pp. 166-8, Torrey's translation, Boston, 1871.) 


tion we find ourselves possessed of certain feelings (what the orig- 
inal source of those feelings was matters not for our present pur- 
pose), which, invariably aroused whenever certain circumstances 
concur, prompt us to follow, or at least approve, certain lines of 
conduct, and to shun, or at least disapprove, certain other lines of 
conduct. When, however, we endeavor to rationalise our conduct, 
to give a reason for our actions, one of two things will happen : — 
either we take our feelings as our starting-point and criterion, in 
which case our theory may finally come in conflict with ascertained 
truths or other accepted theories, but not, if logically developed, 
with the given feelings themselves ; or we may start from other 
phenomena, both objective and subjective, and in this case it may 
happen that the logical consequences of our theory will come in 
conflict with the feelings in question, by establishing facts which, 
according to our experience, must give rise to opposite feelings. In 
the latter case we find ourselves involved in the perplexities of con- 
tradiction ; for, while it was our purpose to give a reason for our 
conduct, which we take for granted is reasonable (not being able, 
owing to the complexity of the case, to detect our error as easily 
as in the example of the woman given above), we arrive at the op- 
posite conduct, or at the opposite feeling, as the only one that is 
really reasonable, or rational ; and as we still persist in believing 
that our habitual feelings are defensible on rational grounds, simply 
because we cannot help feeling and obeying them, we undertake to 
frame a theory of reconciliation, which cannot fail to be character- 
ised by its inconsistency. 

This, I should venture to say, accounts for the lack of logic 
discoverable in naturalistic systems of ethics. For, so long as the 
so-called moral ideals are adhered to, and the feelings of moral ap- 
probation and disapprobation are held to be justifiable on scientific 
principles, the determinist element of monism, and of naturalism 
generally, must be partially surrendered ; the necessary result being 
a crippled and vulnerable system, easily accessible through the 
breaches made by the admissions of its own advocates. There is 
only one logic consistent with determinism — the inflexible and im- 
placable logic of Spinoza ;^ and the only conclusion that that logic 
warrants is, that there are no such things as right and wrong ; or, 
if the word right be permissible, that everything is right. The an- 
tagonism between this conclusion and our inherited feelings ac- 

1 1 am not, however, ignorant of the fact that in Spinoza himself we may often detect serious 
inconsistencies, traceable, I think, to the general source of error in these matters — the law of 
conflict. But, as a rule, he accepts the consequences of his thoroughgoing necessitarianism. 


counts, as I have said, for the conciliatory theory of ethics I have 
been analysing in the course of this essay. The antagonism is so 
great, and even so shocking, that we recoil in horror when con- 
fronted by the bare corollaries of our fundamental propositions ; we 
naturally and unconsciously distort the rules of logic, and finally 
convince ourselves that there is no such antagonism, but that, on 
the contrary, the postulates of determinism are the most solid foun- 
dation on which the current, subjective morality can rest. Qf our 
feelings, VNrhich are only one part of our general interests, it may be 
said what Bentham says of personal interest in general : they do 
not "attack men's integrity in front, but undermine it," by strongly 
directing attention to whatever conforms to them, and diverting it 
from whatever conflicts with them. They form an unconscious bias 
(unconscious, as it is not apprehended as such) which it is difficult 
to eradicate.^ 

The second source of error is of kindred nature with the first, 
and consists in the habit (due, no doubt, to the limitations of the 
human understanding) of conceiving phenomena as related to their 
iimnediate causes only ; whereby we disconnect these causes from 
their necessary accompaniments and antecedents, and regard them, 
in a certain measure, as independent facts and first causes, instead 
of secondary and component causes, in themselves dependent upon 
other causes and determinant circumstances. This mode of con- 
ception is indeed valid, under certain limitations, and even un- 
avoidable for practical purposes, provided we do not fall into the 
error of extending it beyond its proper boundaries. Thus Spinoza 
says that we may with propriety speak of some things as depending 
upon man's pleasure, although man's will is not free; because, in 
the first place, man is a part of nature, and whatever he does is 
done by nature through him ; and, in the second place, because 
"we must define and explain things by their immediate causes. "^ 
In the impossibility of embracing in consciousness, by an intellect- 
ual act, the infinite series of causes and effects constituting cos- 
mical existence, we are compelled to abstract the subjects of our 
inquiry from the total integral of which they are but differential 

1 Bentham, Deontology, Vol, IL, Chap, iii., p. 139 (Bowring's edit., 1S34). It is a well-known 
fact that, as Mr. Lecky remarks, we always gravitate towards that intellectual system which is 
more in accordance with our emotional nature. " Every moral disposition brings with it an in- 
tellectual bias which exercises a great and often a controlling influence upon the most earnest 
inquirer." {European Morals, Vol. II., Chap, iv., p. 192, Appleton, 18S9). I may, perhaps, be 
allowed to refer to an essay in The Philosophical Revieiv (V., 4, July, 1896), where I have discussed 
this subject at somewhat greater length. 

2 Spinoza, Traite theologico-politique, Chap, vi, {in QLuvres, translated by Saisset, t. II., pp. 



terms ; and by thus breaking the continuity of nature, or rather, by 
thus studying nature in a discontinuous manner (what we inevit- 
ably have to do), we are liable to commit the error, unfortunately 
so common, of objectifying our subjective states, and believing that 
discontinuity exists not in our conceptions only, but in nature as 
well. Moreover, where the connexion between one of the second- 
ary or immediate causes with which we have to deal and the rest 
of natural phenomena is not easily or accurately discoverable, the 
tendency to make of the disconnexion an objective reality grows in 
proportion, and this again engenders the belief (we might say the 
feeling) that those immediate causes are independent causes, which 
may either agree or disagree with the rest of reality we designate 
by the name of nature. For obvious reasons, this erroneous habit 
is particularly exhibited in our judgments relating to human con- 
duct, whose springs are to us generally unknown (an ignorance 
lying, as shov/ed by Spinoza, at the root of the illusory belief in the 
freedom and autonomy of the will) ; and, although we may correct 
our judgments and plainly recognise our error, the error, having 
been organised as a habit, continues, as in the case of the moral 
feelings, to be our unconscious guide, and to vitiate our argu- 
ments ; it makes us forget, in our usual ratiocinations, that we have 
changed our premises, our fundamental principles, and leads us 
into the belief that the old conclusions and ideas are still legit- 
imate. It is, indeed, a curious fact to notice that, as a general 
rule, it does not occur to our philosophers that, the whole founda- 
tion of philosophy having been relaid, all human conceptions must 
be radically changed : they prefer to accept the current concep- 
tions, accusing our predecessors of having been poor logicians, who 
had the most wonderful gift of deriving right conclusions from 
wrong premises. 

A very striking illustration of the habit referred to in the pre- 
ceding paragraph is presented by the writings of Dr. Carus. I 
have already called attention (indeed, attention has been called to 
this for several hundred years) to the inconsistency and incongruity 
in saying that we are natural phenomena, and affirming, at the 
same time, that we can, or may, oppose or follow, disagree with or 
conform to, natural phenomena. Expressions of this kind may, no 
doubt, be used metaphorically ; but Dr. Carus seems to take them 
in a literal sense, and make of such propositions the very founda- 
tions of his ethics. One of the most important definitions with 
which he sets forth ; one which he constantly reasserts, in one form 
or another, is, as 1 have had occasion to notice, that ''individuals 


are moral in so far as they conform with the cosmos, in so far as 
they become one with the All," and immoral in so far ''as their con- 
duct does not agree" with the laws of the universe.^ And, in order 
to exculpate his ''God" (i. e., the "cosmos ") from the everlasting 
accusation of being responsible for the evil existing in the world, 
Dr. Carus (although he might have given an irrefutable answer by 
saying that an unconscious cosmos can be neither responsible nor 
irresponsible) says : "The constitution of the universe is such that 
we reap as we have sown. When we say 'we' it is understood 
that it means not our present individualised existence only, but our 
entire Karma, past, present, and future. It includes all the causes 
of our being. . . . Thus it becomes apparent that not God is guilty 
of the evil conditions of our state of being, but we ourselves."^ 

I need not insist on the contradictory nature of such state- 
ments, when compared with the first principles of the monistic phi- 
losophy ; on the presentation of man as different from nature, or, 
in the words of Spinoza, as an empire within another empire. The 
contradiction itself is, I think, sufficiently obvious ; while the cause 
of it, its psychological source, I hope to have made clear. I can- 
not, however, abstain from referring to the candid answer given to 
the embarrassing question of the origin of evil by one of the great- 
est expounders of monism — Spinoza him.self. 

Good and evil, perfection and imperfection, he says, are not 
external conditions inhering in the objects of nature : they are 
modes of thought, abstractions used for the purpose of comparison. 
Of a work of human art we say it is more or less perfect according 
as it is more or less adapted to the purposes for which it was de- 
signed by man. Through our repeated experiences we arrive at the 
conception of certain conditions that must be fulfilled in order to 
accomplish a proposed end in the best possible manner ; and this 
end, as represented in consciousness before it is realised, is an ideal 
to which the object to be attained must conform, and a deviation 
from which we consider an imperfection. This, hov/ever, always 
presupposes an end in view, a purpose; but of an object which is 
made for no end or purpose we cannot say that it is either perfect 
or imperfect, there being no term of comparison. Once, therefore, 
we have discarded the idea that there is an intelligent design in 
universal phenomena, the problem of whether things be perfect or 
imperfect, in their relations to the whole cosmos, becomes entirely 
unm.eaning ; and our endeavors to give it a meaning are based 

1 Fundamental Problems, pp. 20S, 315, 321. The italics are mine. 

2 The Monist, Vol. IV., 3, p. 413 : " Ethics and Cosmic Order." 



''rather on a prejudice than on a true knowledge of nature"; on 
the prejudice, namely, that nature aims at the attainment of special 
ends.^ As to the origin of good and evil, they have, no doubt, as 
all else, their source, their cause, in the very essence of God ; they 
are, however, subjective states existing only in our minds, but 
which, considered in relation to God, have no significance, in the 
sense of antagonistic realities. Right and wrong are equally indif- 
ferent to God, since they represent emotional conditions of joy and 
grief, of which God is not capable ; and it is only in a figurative 
sense that we can say we disagree with God or sin against God.^ 

Among the causes to which the inconsistency of developmental 
ethics is traceable might also be mentioned the belief in the free- 
dom of the will, which, although rejected in principle, has left pro- 
found marks even in the minds of the most thorough-going deter- 
minists. This important subject, however, would compel me to 
extend this article beyond the space at my command. The reader, 
I think, will have no difficulty in applying the principles of the last 
paragraphs to the unconscious survival of the free-will philosophy. 

1 Spinoza, Ethics, Pt. IV., Introduction; also, Lettre a Blyenbergh (in Qiuvres, t. III., pp 

'^Lettre ct Blyenbergh (in CEuvres, t. III., pp. 395-397). 




ANTONIO LLANO, a philosopher of very outspoken vievv^s, 
has made his mark both as an author and an editor. His 
monthly magazine, El Pensamiento Contemporcijieo, which was de- 
voted to philosophy, history, and science, contained Spanish trans- 
lations of articles by the most noted men of our time, Tyndall, 
Maudsley, Huxley, Sayce, Wallace, G. J. Romanes, Spencer, 
Crispi, Andrew D. White, John Stallo, F. Max Miiller, Mivart, 
Prince Kropotkin, Ingersoll, and others ; and Mr. Llano's own 
books deal with philosophical, ethical, and religio-philosophical 
problems.^ I am glad that a man of Mr. Llano's calibre takes an 
interest in the philosophj^ of The Open Coicrt and The Monist, but 
regret to see that in his attempts at being consistent, he becomes 
one-sided, and that through following his one-sided line of thought 
he is not aware of the inconsistencies to which his aspiration of 
being rigidly logical leads him. 

Mr. Llano claims to be a consistent Spinozist, and his Spino- 
zism is more Spinozistic than that of Spinoza himself. He be- 
lieves in absolute determinism which, in his opinion, is identical 
with fatalism, involving a surrender of both the freedom of will 
and of morality. In his philosophy there is no room for "the 
possible." Logical possibility is based upon assumptions and ac- 
tual possibility is limited to reality. Everything not real is impos- 
sible, for the course of the world's evolution is predetermined in 
its minutest details. Ethics is therefore built upon a fallacy : the 
ought presupposes the can, but there is only the must. ''A scoun- 
drel is as necessarily a scoundrel as a horse is a horse." From 

"^El Cristianismo ante La Filosofia, La Moral y La Historia. 



this standpoint, which is a most rigid fatalism, Mr. Llano charges 
me with inconsistency, which, as he declares, is due to a conflict be- 
tween feeling and judgment. If I were not biassed by heredity and 
tradition, I should see that there are no such things as right and 
wrong and that my system of ethics is built upon an assumption. 
In reply I shall briefly state my reasons for believing in ethics and 
in the reality of the moral ought. 

Let us first recapitulate the problem of free will, for here the 
root of our difference lies. 

Freedom of will is a condition in which a man can do as he 
pleases, and it is a matter of course that in such a case he will ne- 
cessarily act according to his character. Is that incompatible with 
determinism ? Not at all ! If the wills of certain people are free, 
an honest man will unhesitatingly resist temptation, while a thief 
under the very same conditions will steal. All actions, which result 
from the specific character of a man, are actions of his own and of 
his free will ; and yet they are performed with necessity according 
to the irrefragable law of cause and effect. 

It may be that Mr. Llano will object to this definition of free 
will, because he defines free will as a will that is not determined at 
all. To Vvfhich objection I reply that I, too, reject that kind of free 
will ; but I submit that a will which is not determined at all, not 
even by its own nature, is not a free will, but pure haphazard. 
Such a conception of free will is nonsensical; and, in addition, 
such a kind of free will, if it existed, far from being an indispensa- 
ble condition of ethics, would make all ethics futile. What would 
be the use of trying to influence men by preaching ethics and by 
building up character if a man's decisions were not determined by 
his character? 

Mr. Llano has the right to propose for his own philosophy any 
definition of free will he likes ; but if he wishes to understand me, 
he must at least for the time being accept my definition, which re- 
gards that will as free which enjoys the liberty of acting according 
to its own nature. 

If this definition of free will be granted, it will be readily seen 
that freedom permeates nature in all its domains. When zinc is 
dissolved in hydrochloric acid (HCl), the acid is decomposed, its 
chlorine unites with the zinc, forming chloride of zinc (ZnCl), 
whilst its hydrogen escapes in a gaseous form. The elements 
act in strict agreement with their nature, but not because there 
is a power that forces them to combine and separate. If the zinc 
were endowed with consciousness and speech, it would say, " I like 


to join the chlorine"; and the chlorine would avow, "Zinc is pre- 
ferable to hydrogen." It is possible that the hydrogen would feel 
the smart of a jilted lover ; but, then, it mixes with the air and is 
quickly comforted, for it will soon find another consort. 

While it is a stretch of imagination to impute human senti- 
ments to the chemical elements, there are, nevertheless, certain 
analogies between psychical and non-psychical phenomena, and 
the most obvious resemblance consists in the difference of primary 
and secondary movements. Primary movements have their ground 
in a quality of the moving thing, as the falling stone and the com- 
bination of oxygen with carbon into carbonic acid in the flame, etc. 
Secondary movements are due to push or pull, which is an exter- 
nal influence or impulse, as the stone thrown up and the cart drawn 
by a horse. Primary movements are acts of liberty, secondary 
movements are acts performed under constraint against the nature 
of the moving bodies. The needle of a magnet points toward the 
north spontaneously, for it is the nature of magnetised iron to ad- 
just its position in conformity to the magnetic currents of the earth ; 
but if the needle be pushed aside and is turned toward the south 
it suffers violence ; and if it could feel its condition and express it 
in words, it would complain of compulsion. 

So long as the character of a thing remains the same its pri- 
mary motions will be the same under the same conditions ; and if 
the character be changed, as for instance by magnetising a piece of 
iron, its behavior will change accordingly. 

Mr. Llano is apparently under the illusion, which is very com- 
mon among philosophers, that the laws of nature are m.etaphysical 
entities, and he believes that to them is given dominion over all 
things in heaven and on earth. Thus the cosmic order which is con- 
stituted by their harmony does not appear to him grand and beau- 
tiful, but awful and oppressive. He says : 

"In whatever direction we turn, the austere and implacable monster of Neces- 
sity rises before us, proclaiming, by his very silence, that he is the eternal and, 
therefore, the irrevocable. He cannot be moved, for he has no heart ; nor con- 
vinced, for he has no brain ; he is an automaton made of inflexible material ; and 
if we recognise him as our master, we must be satisfied to watch in submissive res- 
ignation the everlasting motions of the wonderful and awful mechanism." 

Natural laws are not tyrants ; they are not powers which dom- 
inate over things and creatures ; the laws of nature are formulas 
which describe the actions of objects according to their nature so 
as to make it possible to foredetermine the results of given condi- 
tions. Determinism does not mean that the various things are com- 



pelled by an external force ; it means that there is stability and reg- 
ularity in nature. Thus the law of gravitation is only a compre- 
hensive statement of the actions of gravitating bodies. The stone 
does not fall to the ground at the bidding of Newton's formula, but 
on account of its own gravity. 

Mr. Llano's monster of Necessity is the child of an antiquated 
metaphysicism ; it is bred in the close air of the philosopher's 
study, and will never be believed by those who feel the thrill of 
real life in their hearts. But suppose he could infuse this idea into 
the artist, the inventor, the poet, the man who dares to do and to 
achieve, would it not quench the fire of their youth? Would they 
not turn away in submissive resignation from their own aspirations 
at the thought that whatever happens takes place according to irre- 
vocable laws : that Moloch Necessity is everything ; we are noth- 
ing but tools in his hands ? 

Necessity has two meanings : (i) inevitableness or determin- 
ableness, meaning that which unfailingly will be,^ and (2) compul- 
sion, a condition by which something is forced or compelled to 
act in a certain way by somae external power. If necessity is to 
be identified with compulsion we had better abandon determin- 
ism as a superstition which is as untrue in theory as it is baneful 
in practical life, and speak simply of the describableness of the 
course of future events in the measure of our knowledge of the na- 
ture of things. 

That every single particle of the world is ensouled with free- 
dom, that it acts differently under different conditions, but always ac- 
cording to its nature, is an important truth which we should never 
lose sight of; but its true significance increases with the unfoldment 
of organised life. With the appearance of consciousness the pow- 
ers of nature reach a higher stage of freedom having new poten- 
tialities ; and, choice having been made possible, right and wrong, 
goodness and badness, virtue and vice are introduced. That in- 
difference of all actions of which Mr. Llano speaks does not exist 
in the world of conscious life. With cognition, necessarily the pos- 
sibility of error originates, and thus when the blind impulses of in- 
organic nature rise into the realm of conscious aspiration we have 
sin and righteousness. 

Mr. Llano is under a radical misapprehension of facts when he 
claims that between the action of Jesus and Judas Iscariot there is 
no difference of kind but "only of degree," because the immoral is 

iThe word is composed of ne, the negation, and of a derivative from cedere, to go away, signi- 
fying that which will not disappear, that which will stay. 


in his opinion merely "a state of relative undevelopment. " We 
might as well say that there is no error in the world, for error is 
merely a state of less developed truth ; that there is no missing an 
aim, for missing is simply a state of not yet having reached a place. 
Failures and mistakes, however, do not originate by mere differ- 
ences of degree ; they are instances of following a wrong direc- 
tion. Evil, error, vice, sin, are not merely negative quantities ; 
they are positive factors as much as virtues, knowledge, and noble 
achievements. If I say 2 + 2^5 and act accordingly, it is not merely 
a not-yet-completed but a wrong computation. 

While it is quite true that a criminal is the product of condi- 
tions and can to that extent as little help being a criminal as a 
horse can help being a horse, it is not true that for that reason the 
distinction between badness and goodness ceases. A diamond can 
help being a diamond as little as glass can help being glass, but for 
that reason a piece of glass is not of the same value as a diamond. 

To understand how a criminal has become a criminal will no 
doubt make those who judge his deeds considerate and compas- 
sionate, but it will be no argument for looking upon him as a 
saint or letting his crimes go unrebuked. On the other hand, a 
genius has no reason for boasting. He, too, is the product of con- 
ditions. The doctrine that we are by God's grace what we are has 
acquired a new sense in the light of scientific considerations.^ 

The scientific view taken of crime and virtue is the begin- 
ning of a new era in mankind, which was anticipated in the East 
by Buddha and in the West by Christ. Our judiciary is not as 
yet administered from the Buddhist-Christian point of view, but 
follows the principle of retaliation. Instead of treating crime as a 
disease, we punish crime. Instead of educating the criminal and 
creating conditions under which the disease of immorality will be 
cured we torture him, well knowing that this method has the ten- 
dency of ruining him altogether. The times, however, are chang- 
ing now. Our penal code is slowly being adapted to the new 
world-conception, and the criminal condemned to die is no longer 
tortured as in former centuries, but executed with as little pain as 

1 Buddhism speaks of the time of grace in somewhat the same sense as Christianity. When 
we receive instruction that is beneficial and leads us on the path of salvation to Nirvana it is 
no merit of ours, but a grace that is offered us, as we read in the Jataka tales : 

" If in this present time of Grace 
You fail to reach the happy state, 
Long will you suffer deep remorse." 

—Trans, by T. W. Rhys Davids, p. 157. 



It is true, as Mr. Llano says, that ''we are natural phenom- 
ena"; but we are not blind or unconscious things; we are sentient 
beings. Sentiency and corporeal objectivity are two abstractions 
representing different qualities of the same reality. As such they 
are radically distinct but not separate. Every subjective feeling is 
the psychical aspect of a cerebral commotion ; and as every cere- 
bral commotion possesses a definite form, so every feeling is dis- 
tinct in kind. The objectivity of the world can thus, according to 
the varying forms of objects, be impressed upon the subjectivity of 
sentient organisms, and a sight-sensation of a definite form grows 
by repetition to represent the object that causes it. The sub- 
jectivity of the human soul is practically a comprehensive inven- 
tory of the surrounding world and its relations, serving as a guide 
through life or as a means of adaptation to conditions. In other 
words, the form of subjectivity is the product of objective influ- 

The things of the inorganic world act according to their nature 
and so do living animal organisms. But the nature of living animal 
organisms does not consist of purely mechanical or chemical prop- 
erties ; they exhibit a new feature, which is called mentality or the 
representative value of feelings. The animal mind is determined 
in its actions by ideas and not by pull or push or chemical affinity. 

Now it is the appearance of consciousness in the cosmic evo- 
lution which renders ethics possible. A thinking being is not like 
a stone; it does not follow the first impulse; a thinking being de- 
liberates before it acts, and comes at last to a decision which is ex- 
ecuted. This is a higher phase of freedom, for it adds the possi- 
bility of choice, and man, the animal of abstract thought, can form 
ideals of a state of things, not as it is, but as it ought to be. 

Mr. Llano will make an objection here. He will say that in 
the realm of the soul the same determinism obtains that rules in 
the domain of purely physical phenomena. Now I grant that psy- 
chical phenomena are as much determined as physical phenomena ; 
but here as there we are confronted with freedom. There is only 
this difference, that that which determines the decision of a man is 
his character. Ideas are the factors and the responsiveness of ideas 
consists of other qualities than mechanical push and chemical affin- 
ity. It is true that the strongest idea will prevail over weaker ideas, 
but the strength of ideas cannot be measured in foot-pounds. The 
strength of ideas depends upon various other factors, among which 
the conviction of their truth is perhaps the most important one. 

The appearance of the soul is not a break in nature, but the 


product of a natural evolution. That the continuity from the form- 
ation of crystals to the aspirations of huxTian beings is uninterrupted 
is not an evidence of man's degradation, but on the contrary it 
proves that the world as a whole is more than a haphazard con- 
glomeration of matter in motion. There is a teleoarchy^ of some 
kind — a cosmic order which prompts aspirations in a definite direc- 
tion. This teleoarchy works blindly in the lower spheres of nature 
and acquires consciousness in man. Man is himself a natural phe- 
nomenon ; but he is a phenomenon in which the eternal conditions 
of being can be reflected. Thus the transient can become a mirror 
that pictures the immutable; the particular can comprehend the 
universal; that which is conditional can grasp its own conditions 
and trace them back to the unconditioned order of existence. 

The old supernaturalism which assumes that some extramun- 
dane personality, power, or entity enters into the natural world by 
a break of the cosmic order, has become untenable; but for that 
reason we need not deny the existence of the moral tendencies that 
manifest themselves in the world-process. We propose a new su- 
pernaturalism, which believes that the potentialities of a stwsum, 
of an aspiration to rise higher, are contained in the natural. Man 
forms a higher empire in nature which is above the physical. It is 
true that obedience to the law that conditions man's evolution con- 
stitutes morality, but the highest morality imaginable is a state of 
mind in which man's sentiments have become an incarnation of 
the world-order. The man who is obedient to the laws of morality 
still feels himself the subject or slave of a power which he appre- 
hends to be stronger than himself. But he can so love justice, 
righteousness, kindness, charity, that his v/hole nature is deter- 
mined by these qualities. He can become an incarnation of these 
aspirations, so as to be identified with them. That is the state of 
heait which characterised the Buddha ideal of the Buddhists, and 
that is the gist of the ethics preached by Christ, There is no longer 
any need of requesting obedience to the moral law of a man whose 
sentiments are aglow with it and whose will is bent on realising it. 

According to Mr. Llano, every man is the product of condi- 
tions, and we are what we are by necessity; therefore, the must 
governs us, and there is no sense in speaking of the ought. The 
premise is true, the conclusion is wrong. Mr. Llano forgets that 

IThe old teleology, whose workings are extraneous, is wrong; the world has not been de- 
signed like a watch ; there is not a demiurge who in. the fashion of a human artifex constructed 
the universe. But there is an intrinsic teleoarchy, an orderly arrangement of the actions that 
take place in the world, the nature of which is most obviously apparent in the harmony of math- 



the ought, the ideal, by which a man allows himself to be guided, 
is also a factor and, indeed, a most important factor among the de- 
termining causes. One of the conditions that make a man is his 
own thought. A man who cherishes the idea of his responsibility 
will act differently from the man who imagines that he is irrespon- 
sible. The idea that we are unfree, that we are products of chance 
and helplessly doomed to be determined by conditions, is oppres- 
sive (as Mr. Llano's case proves), while the thought of our respon- 
sibility gives strength and rouses us to vigorous action. The man 
inspired with the idea of responsibility will investigate and try to 
learn, the man who thinks he is unfree will be indifferent and pas- 
sive. Considering the importance of ideas, as the determining fac- 
tors of man's actions, is it not necessary to devote a special study 
to the subject for the sake of distinguishing between wholesome 
and injurious ideas? 

In ethics we ask which ideas are wholesome and which injuri- 
ous, and the answer in brief is that the truth is wholesome and un- 
truth injurious. There is no need here of entering into details, for 
the question has been discussed repeatedly, and we shall emphasise 
the fact only that truth does not mean mere correctness of knowl- 
edge but also and mainly truthfulness of heart. 

Ethics would be futile if man's action did not depend upon his 
beliefs and habits. Since his beliefs and habits are the main deter- 
minant factors of his fate for his own personal good as well as that 
of the whole race, ethics is as necessary for human conduct in gen- 
eral as mechanics is indispensable for mechanical engineering. 
Indeed, ethics belongs to the necessities of life, it is the bread of 
life, and a wrong ethics is not less injurious than poison that is 
used for food. 

Mr. Llano declares that ''the ethical ought is erected on an 
assum.ption of some kind, — on an //". " Ethics has sense only for 
him who desires to attain the aim and end of ethical aspirations, 
not for him who has other ends, or no end at all. 

This same objection was made to ethics as a science years ago 
from another standpoint. Mr. Salter in defence of intuitionist 
ethics granted that a scientific inquiry into facts may teach moral- 
ity to him who longs for truth and for a life of truth, "but," says 
he, "the fact is that we may desire other things." 

My answer to Mr. Llano is the same as it was to Mr. Salter. 
"The ultimate question of ethics is not, what we desii-e but what is 
desired of us.''^ 

When we want to have truth, we must drop our personal likes 


and dislikes. Exact science eliminates the subjective and aims at 
a purely objective statement of facts. He who wants to think cor- 
rectly must leave aside the I's and the me's. It is no exaggeration 
to say that the intrusion of self is always the main source of error. 

While it is wise to drop all I's and pie's, we grant that the 
world is full of them, and we must take their presence into consid- 
eration. And who can deny that the thwarted endeavors of self- 
willed men teach us a most impressive lesson? 

The man who desires pleasures and does not stop to think 
what is desired of him, may have, for a time at least, pleasures ; but 
then he must take all the consequences of his actions. The man 
who delights in crime may actually commit crime, but the evils that 
result from crime will come not only upon those against whom he 
trespasses, but finally upon himself also. A truly scientific ethics 
knows of no assumptions ; it gives information as to the conse- 
quences of deeds; and the sufferings of life, including the final dis- 
solution of ourselves in death, set us to thinking how we can es- 
cape evil. Here the answers may be many, but there is one only 
which I deem to be right, it is the answer of Buddha and of Christ, 
both being practically the same, and these injunctions are substan- 
tially the same that are taught by the ethics of science. According 
to Buddha it is the eightfold noble path of righteousness that leads 
to salvation, implying an extermination of all selfishness, hatred, 
and passion, which are the three roots of all evil. And Christ says : 

"A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another" (John, 13, 
34), and, "Love your enemies, bless them that curse you" (Matth., 5, 44, and 
Luke, 6, 35). 

There is a time in the cosmic evolution when consciousness 
originates; and there is again a time when the idea of self in its 
full contrast to the not-self dav/ns upon consciousness. But then 
again comes a time when the relation of the self to the whole be- 
gins to be understood. That is the origin of ethics, and that is the 
meaning when people become anxious about themselves, about 
their soul, about their fate and the destiny of their lifework after 
death. Then such questions are asked, What shall I do to enter 
life eternal? These aspirations are a transition which lead from 
the question, "What do I desire?" to the other question, "What 
is desired of me? " There is no assumption whatever in scientific 
ethics. He who does not ask the question, "What is desired of 
me?" will remain stagnant at a certain phase of his evolution and 
will reap the consequences of his thoughtlessness. He is compar- 
able to the anthropoid who does not want to become man. He will 



either remain what he is, if that be possible, or share the fate of 
the unprogressive anthropoid : his name will be blotted out from 
the book of life. 

There is this peculiarity about ethics, that there are many 
roads leading to it. The man who longs for happiness will find 
that there is no absolute happiness possible, and the best thing he 
can do is to drop altogether his hankering after pleasures and 
lead a moral life. On this basis a hedonistic ethics is possible. A 
man v/ho is egotistic and ambitious will find that there is no success 
in life possible except he surrender his vanity. And on this basis 
an ethics of egotism can be erected. All these different methods, 
insufficient though they may be, lead practically to the same con- 
clusion, pointing beyond the self of man and teaching him to seek 
a purpose higher than his limited life and individuality. 

The new solution of the problem of self (which in detail has 
been explained elsewhere) brings about a radical change of attitude, 
for upon the proper solution of the psychological problem all other 
problems of philosoph)^ religion, and ethics depend. The new 
conception of self destroys the illusion of the limitedness and nar- 
rowness of self as held by the psychologists of the old school, and 
shows us the human soul as the divine incarnation of the eternal 
prototype of rationality and moral endeavor, revealing both its 
whence in the past and its whither in the future. 

The self in the old sense is destroyed and with it the vanit)^ of 
all selfishness. But there is a new self which takes the place of the 
old limited self; and the new self is infinite in its potentialitj^, for 
the new self identifies itself with the eternal conditions of exist- 
ence. Our eyes are opened, and we discern those subtle influences 
which build up the structure of our soul and are as invisible to the 
uninitiated as for instance the geometrical proportions of the barn 
or the meadow are nonentities to the sheep. 

If it is true, as Master Eckhart says, that man is what he lov- 
eth, the new self is truth incarnate, for it loveth truth above every- 
thing, and consists in the endeavor of living out the truth, realising 
it more and more in comprehension as well as in practical applica- 
tion. The old Adam must go, and the new Adam is a higher man, 
no longer a particular ego but divinity incarnate, no longer an iso- 
lated individual but the universal realised, the ideal that has be- 
come flesh. 

The main ideas underlying the ethics of Christianity are true, 
but the commonly accepted church-dogmas and their interpreta- 
tions are wrong. As useful inventions generally precede scientific 


comprehension, so the precepts of practical morality were discov- 
ered long before our sages could explain the psychological basis of 
these apparent paradoxes. The Religion of Science is needed be- 
cause science is sufficiently advanced to day to catch up with re- 
ligion. Religion (practically applied religion, as taught by Lao- 
Tsze, the Buddha, the Prophets, and Christ) was in advance of 
science by more than two millenniums, and it is the science of re- 
ligion or theology that is unprogressive. Not that theology is wrong 
in principle, but it is slow in accomplishing its task. Not that we 
must have less theology or science in religion, but more. Not that 
we must abolish science in religion, but we must perfect it. For 
science (i. e., genuine science, not the one-sided productions of the 
average sciolist) is the comforter that illumines the world and 
brings about the fulfilment, the 7i\i]pd)6i'S, so dearly longed for by 
St. John and the early Christians. 

* * 

Mr. Llano discovers the source of what he is pleased to call 
the inconsistencies of Developmental Ethics in "the law of the 
conflict between feeling and judgment." He says: 

"The nature of this law will be readily seen by an illustration. A nervous 
woman may take the five cartridges out of the five chambers of a pistol, count them 
and hold them in her hand ; and yet, if the weapon be pointed at her, she will 
scream with fright, and not improbably faint away. Her judgment, it is evident, 
tells her, beyond all doubt, that it is impossible that any harm should come to her 
from the unloaded weapon ; but her deeply rooted feelings, organised by heredity 
or by association, or both, unavoidably impel her to act in opposition to her correct 

Mr. Llano forgets that sentiments are very important factors 
in the makeup of man's soul. To disregard our feelings for the 
sake of some logical argument would be as wrong as to be swayed 
by feelings alone without subjecting them to a careful analysis and 
revision. Man's sentiments are the sediment of an immeasurably 
long chain of experiences, partly inherited, partly personal, and 
are of too great importance to be neglected or to be regarded as 
utterly without foundation. Our sentiments are sometimes more 
reliable than our logical deductions in which we are too apt to omit 
an important factor. Thus, for instance, in the illustration which 
Mr. Llano proposes, we should decidedly object to a behavior such 
as he mentions, and far from blaming the woman who screams 
when an unloaded revolver is pointed at her, we blame the man 
who handles the revolver carelessly. Almost all the accidents that 
happen are due to toying with weapons which were supposed not 



to be loaded. I know of a case in which two brothers, who have 
great experience with guns, had unloaded a revolver the construc- 
tion of which they investigated, and one pointed it at the other, 
when all of a sudden the revolver went off, and the ball went right 
through the head of the other boy, entering near the nose and com- 
ing out near the ear. The young man, an officer of the militia, as- 
sured me that he could conscientiously declare on oath that to his 
knowledge there could not have been a shot in the revolver. He 
added, "It was a lesson that I shall never forget." Fortunately, 
the bullet did not kill his brother, and after several weeks of suffer- 
ing he recovered without any serious injury, leaving only a small 
mark on his face. But not all cases end so happily, and it is advis- 
able for every one to mind sentiments, because they sometimes 
represent the influence of factors overlooked in so-called scientific 
expositions which are seemingly faultless, and, so far as pure logic 
is concerned, unquestionably correct. 


And now in conclusion I may be allowed to discuss briefly a 
point not mentioned by Mr. Llano, which, however, is closely con- 
nected with the subject. 

We, understand that ethics as a science is the product of a con- 
tinuous evolution; we know that the religious leaders in the world 
have found the right solution instinctively. As a genius makes an 
important invention, or as a poet finds by inspiration the word that 
thrills thousands of hearts, so the moral teachers of mankind taught 
lessons of highest morality at a time when their truth was so far 
from being scientifically comprehensible that it appeared paradox- 
ical — naturally so, for it is paradoxical from the old standpoint. 

The great unknown inventor of the wheel was not familiar with 
the science of applied mechanics as it is developed in our tim.e, but 
he is one of those that laid the basis of it, and his invention is still 
the corner-stone in that grand edifice. The same is true in ethics of 
him who first proclaimed the law of love and charity. The souls 
of these men are with us to-day, constituting the kingdom that is 
within us. We are the continuance of aspirations that began long 
before we were born. 

Considering the close connexion of the present with the past, 
we prefer reform to rescission and deem a purification of the tradi- 
tional religious conceptions better than abandoning them. It is 
true that the words God, soul, immortality, and religion have be- 
come new ; they have become more definite, more exact and less 
mythological, but that is exactly what must be expected. History 


is a change and a growth. He that sat upon the throne said : 
<'.... But behold, I make all things new ! " 

I know that at present both the conservatives and the liberals 
look with suspicion upon this method of pouring new wine into old 
bottles, but the time will come when they will understand it. The 
situation may be briefly explained by a simile. There were in for- 
mer times people who believed in mathematics as if it consisted of 
lines and circles and other figures that v/ere living in heaven and 
came down from time to time upon earth in a miraculous way for 
the sake of helping poor mortal man, calculating distances, erect- 
ing buildings, constructing bridges, tunnelling mountains, and other 
feats of engineering. But a schism arose : there were men who de- 
clared that mathematics did not exist at all and that every belief in 
mathematics was a superstition. There was one among them who 
said that mathematical truths (if they deserve the name at all), so 
far from being true, are actually wrong ; they are ''purely mental " 
and refer to "purely imaginary objects." He claimed "there ex- 
"ist no points without magnitudes; no lines without breadth, nor 
"perfectly straight ; no circles with all their radii exactly equal, nor 
"squares with all their angles perfectly right." Believing that 
"the points, lines, circles, and squares" which the mathematician 
"has in his mind are simple copies of the points, lines, circles, and 
"squares which he has known in his experience," he claimed that 
the science of mathematics consists of "assumptions" which are 
not only faulty but even "inconceivable." This viev/ was actually 
defended by Mr. John Stuart Mill,^ and it characterises most drastic- 
ally and consistently the attitude of all negativism, drawing the ulti- 
mate conclusions of the main tenets of the nominalistic philosophy. 

Such is also the contrast between the parties of the conser- 
vatives and freethinkers. The conservatives believe that God is 
a being; some freethinkers declare that God does not exist at all. 
There is on the one hand a literal belief in a traditional mythology, 
and on the other hand a flat denial of the truths of religion. Now I 
take the liberty to differ from Mr. John Stuart Mill. I believe in 
mathematics, and I believe that the definitions of and theorems 
concerning mathematical lines designate truths which are not only 
real but super-real. I do not believe that they are beings of any 
kind who lead a life of bliss somev.^here in heaven ; they are not 
corporeal, nor do they possess astral bodies; still less can they be 
said to be metaphysical entities. Nevertheless they are not non- 
existent, for they are the eternal relations that apply to any possi- 

1 See John Stuart Mill's System of Logic, 8th edition, Chapter V., pp. 168, et seq. 


ble world ; they are absolute truths whose being is indestructible 
and whose existence is the law that conditions the formation of 
every particular existence. 

The same is true of God. The believer in the letter of his 
mythology looks upon the views editorially upheld in T/ie Open 
Court, as atheistic ; and the freethinker criticises them for making 
compromises with superstition. Nevertheless, we are serious in 
saying that the average atheist is wrong in flatly denying the ex- 
istence of God, while the old-fashioned believer is a pagan — that 
is to say, a man who believes in the letter of a myth and has no 
idea of its significance ; he surrenders the substance for the vessel 
in which it is contained ; he loses the reality by holding on to its 

This position is a reconciliation of two contrasts, but it is not a 
compromise. It gives to science what belongs to science, and to 
ethics what belongs to ethics. By making ethics a science applied 
to practical life, it shows us the truth of the old religious ideals in 
a new light ; it renders it possible for us to grasp with scientific 
comprehension what our fathers were feeling after, groping in the 
dark for. And this is what we call The Religion of Science. 



We publish in this number, as our frontispiece, a photogravure of Schopen- 
hauer's bust made by Elisabet Ney, a disciple of Rauch, and one of our most prom- 
inent American artists, who, before she came to the United States, acquired an en- 
viable European fame. She has modelled from life the busts of many famous men 
of science, among whom were Humboldt, Jacob Grimm, and Liebig ; of statesmen 
and heroes, among them Bismarck and Garibaldi ; of artists, among these Kaul- 
bach and Joachim ; of kings, among these George of Hanover, and a statue of Lud- 
wig II. of Bavaria, now at the celebrated castle of Linderhoff, etc,, etc. While she 
lived at Frankfort in 1859, Schopenhauer had not yet attained to the fame of his 
later years, but Elisabet Ney was interested in the great prophet of pessimism. 
She was well acquainted with his works, and foresaw the influence which the 
grumbling misanthrope would wield over all generations to come. She knew very 
well that he was a woman hater who thought that women could never accomplish 
anything either in science or in the arts. But this only made her find it the more 
attractive and humorous to converse with him and prove to him what women could 
do. Schopenhauer was very much impressed with the young sculptress, and con- 
fessed to friends of his, as seen in many of his printed letters, that she was an ex- 
ception to the rule. While he was sitting to have his bust taken, he was as a rule 
animated and full of interesting gossip, mostly of a philosophical nature. In a copy 
of his works presented to Elisabet Ney he wrote : "To my most talented and 
amiable young friend. Miss Elisabet Ney, I donate this copy of a profound and seri- 
ous work." The signature which he attached to these words has been photograph- 
ically reproduced, and appears under the frontispiece to this number of TJie Ofeyi 
Court. The great pessimist was more vain than might be suspected in such an 
old grumbler, and he did not care to appear before posterity with a sullen counten- 
ance. Once when a photographer took his picture, it seemed to him a failure on 
account of its grim expression. This might have been very appropriate for a man 
who proclaimed the philosophy of the miserableness of all life, but he objected to 
going down to posterity in that shape. He at once called for a bottle of wine and 
drank it all before having his picture taken a second time. Elisabet Ney is still in 
possession of both these photographs, which are in the shape of daguerreotypes. 
They have faded and are on the verge of disappearing, but Mr. Copelin, and the 
Franklin Engraving Company of Chicago, have, by enlarging and retouching them, 
succeeded in restoring the original forms, from which they have been reduced again 
to their original size. They appear on page 261. 


The two other pictures on page 261 are taken from photographs in the posses- 
sion of Dr. Lindorme, of Chicago. 

Schopenhauer writes to Assessor von Doss, Munich, March i. i860 ; 

"The sculptress, Elisabet Ney, a grand-niece of Marshal Ney, arrived here 
from Berlin during October, in order to make my bust. She is twenty-four years 
old, very beautiful, and indescribably amiable. She works by herself in a room 
that belongs to my present residence, which is much larger and prettier than the 
old one. Almost every day for several weeks she had her dinner ordered from a res- 
taurant which is situated in my house, and joined me in the afternoon at my cof- 
fee when I returned home. Several times she has gone with me on a walk along 
the Main. We harmonise wonderfully. My bust has been exhibited for fourteen 
days, and everybody thinks that it is extremely like me and beautifully chiselled. 
It is intended to be taken to Berlin, where copies of it are to be made and sold. 
At Christmas Miss Ney intended to be in Berlin, whither she goes via Hanover, 
where she is engaged to make the king's bust in marble. My bust has been ordered 
sent to her, and I have heard nothing of it since. She has been seen in Miinster, 
where her father lives. The bust will probably be heard of." 

Schopenhauer frequently mentions Elisabet Ney's name in his correspond- 
ence, and, in a letter to Dr. Ernst Otto Lindner, of Berlin, dated November 21, 
1859, he says : 

"Are you acquainted with the artist Miss Ney ? If not, you have lost much. I 
did not believe that such an amiable girl could exist." 

Elisabet Ney is now living in Austin, Texas, where she has a beautiful studio 
at Hyde Park. She is president of the Texas Art Academy, and has been repeat- 
edly engaged by the State of Texas to model busts and statues of Texas governors. 


It is with profound regret that we record the death of Prof. E. D. Cope of 
Philadelphia. In him we not only mourn with the world at large the loss of an 
accomplished scientist from whom great and valuable achievements were yet ex- 
pected, but we also experience the personal bereavement of a valued contributor 
who has from the first greatly aided in the promotion of the work of T/ie Open 
Court and The Monist. Prof. Edward Drinker Cope was born in Philadelphia, 
July 28, 1840, and received his education at the University of Pennsylvania, the 
Smithsonian Institute, and in Europe. He held the chair of Natural Sciences at 
Haverford College from 1864-1867, and subsequently became paleontologist to 
the United States Geological Survey. He was for many years Professor of Zo- 
ology and Comparative Anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania, a post which 
he occupied with signal success to the day of his death. Professor Cope was an 
indefatigable worker ; he was the editor-in-chief of \h& Ame7-ican Naturalist, to 
which he constantly contributed, and a prolific writer in the other scientific jour- 
nals. His chief work was in the paleontology of the United States, with which his 
name as an organiser and original investigator is indissolubly associated. Besides 
his systematic treatises, he is the author of not less than three hundred and fifty 
memoirs and scientific papers on zoology, anatomy, and paleontology. At the time 
of his death he was President of the American Association for the Advancement of 


Professor Cope's contributions to The Open Court began early and were ex- 
tremely varied, showing him to be a man who was interested not only in the special 
problems of science, but in their application to the graver questions of philosophy 
and life. His article on "Evolution and Idealism" in Volume I. of The Open 
Court, his later articles on " What is Mind," and on "Ethical Evolution," his dis- 
cussions of vexed social questions, such as marriage and divorce, the negro-ques- 
tion, strikes, etc., and the instance which is perhaps freshest in the minds of recent 
readers, his discussion of the Monroe Doctrine during the late Venezuelan troubles, 
prove his breadth of interest. He was determined in his convictions and bold and 
impulsive in their expression, qualities which gave vigor and cogency to his exposi- 
tions and which rarely failed to involve him in controversies which displayed to 
the best his polemical abilities. His articles in The Monist as well as his book on 
The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution, which we recently published, show, 
for a special scientist, unusual philosophical endowment and are of permanent 
value. The work on Orga7jic Evolution is an extremely concise yet lucid and com- 
plete exposition of the theory of development as drawn from the evidence of pale- 
ontology and based on the Lamarckian factors, and is designed to supply the lacu7ia 
which the failure to consider the causes of variations had left in the theories of 
Darwin and Weismann. Professor Cope has gathered in this book the results of 
all his own researches and those of the American Neo-Lamarckian school generally 
on the subject of evolution, and has raised points which will stimulate not only 
evolutionists but psychologists and philosophers for some time to come. His work 
is on a level with that of the foremost European inquirers, and his name is a bril- 
liant refutation of the idea which is quite current in some circles that America can- 
not produce scientists of the first rank. 


In a recently published pamphlet Count Hoenbroecht states his reasons for 
severing his connexion with the Jesuit order, in whose service he had been for 
sixteen years, defending its position and policy and wielding a pen that was not 
without great influence within the circles for which he wrote. 

Count Hoenbroecht's statements have excited a great sensation in Germany, 
and sixteen or more editions of the pamphlet were quickly exhausted. Yet the per- 
son who expects to find in it revelations of slander that would throw discredit on 
the order or support popular prejudices of a lower kind, will be greatly disap- 
pointed. In fact, the self-vindications of Count Hoenbroecht, which reveal him to 
be a man of upright character and earnest Christian endeavor, are in some re- 
spects a vindication of the Jesuit order. 

Count Hoenbroecht exhibits in his very complaints, which are mainly directed 
against the suppression of personality, a peculiar respect for the moral earnestness 
of the order which we cannot help thinking is in many respects nothing but the 
principle of Catholic Christianity carried to its extreme. He still stands upon 
the ground of his Roman Catholic faith. He regards confession, in all the rigor 
in which it is maintained by strict Catholics, as a divine institution, but he resents 
the slavery to which the Jesuitic mode of confession reduces its members, without 
at the same time imposing upon the father-confessor the restrictions of inviolable 
privacy which the Church imposes upon him. At the same time his liberty-loving 
mind rebels against the straitjacket of Jesuitic education, which, far from fos- 



tering an independent spirit, impresses upon every one of its members the pecu- 
liar type of Ignatius Loyola's piety, showing an unconcealed contempt for other 
forms of religious devotion, such as find expression in other Roman Catholic or- 
ders. According to the side-lights which incidentally his expressions throw upon 
the order, the main tendency of Jesuitic institutions is to prevent by well-calculated 
methods that which American institutions wish to favor most — character-building 
and self-reliance. 

We believe that the ethical maxims of the order, especially of its liberty- 
destroying tendency, are radically wrong, but at the same time we cannot join in 
the denunciations which are so commonly held as to be accepted by many as 
gospel truth. The movement which was inaugurated by Ignatius Loyola may be 
briefly characterised as a counter-reformation. Its tendency is, as a matter of prin- 
ciple, directed against the spirit of independence that pervaded the Reformation 
and found expression in the civilisation of the Protestant nations, especially Ger- 
many, England, and North America. But while Ignatius Loyola's counter-refor- 
mation sets itself against all free development of character that would venture out- 
side or beyond the narrow lines prescribed by Roman Catholic Christianity, it is 
pure in its motive, honest in its aim, ascetically rigid in its ethics. In a word, 
the Jesuit system is wrong, but it is not dishonest. 


We received a poem from one of our readers entitled "An Evening Prayer" 
which is accompanied by a letter expressing the sentiment through which it origin- 
ated. Our correspondent (who is otherwise unkown to us) writes : 

' ' All the world is looking for a short creed that shall yet contain all essentials 
and I think that "Trust in Truth" is the best, perhaps the only, formula to 
satisfy the demand. 

"The harmony between Science and Religion will become apparent to the 
world through the lives and teachings of those who have first reconciled scientific 
thinking with religious feeling in their own personal experience, and I rejoice as 
the number of such increases. 

" But I also sympathise with those who feel the inevitable pangs of transition 
from one mode of religious thought to another, for I have suffered them all. 

' ' There are many who doubt that the Religion of Science can be truly a reli- 
gion at all, and afford consolation in trial ; I can testify that it not only satisfies my 
reason but it has given me — in the words of a Christian hymn — 'peace I never knew 

" I enclose some lines which record a recent experience of the comfort derived 
from trusting in truth. 

" I send them, not as deserving your attention for poetic merit, but as a tribute 
to the devotional side of the Religion of Science. 

" I hardly suppose you would care to publish them, still you are at liberty to 
do so if you think they might be of any help to others." 

The enclosed evening prayer reads as follows : 

"Thou Highest Good confessed, 
I hail thee, blessed Truth I 
The while my heart oppressed 
Doth healing crave and ruth. 


" Oh ! may I clearly see, 
As day by day I strive, 
What laws must honored be. 
Would I at joy arrive. 

" Why need I sadly miss 

The blessings close at hand, 
Unsharing others' bliss, 
Exiled in native land ? 

" Three guides, already mine, 
I'll trust to lead me on 
Where sun of peace doth shine, 
A cloudless benizon. 

"And one is Faith — that trust 
In Nature's tireless power. 
That can in darkness thrust 
A seed— then wait its flower. 

" And next there doth abide 

Swt,-et Hope — of Life the twin. 
It cannot be denied ; 
It dwells the heart within. 

" The trio is complete 

With Love — the force divine 

That melts our dross with heat. 

Till hearts like gold are fine. 

" O good and loyal guides 1 
My wayward footsteps turn, 
Where'er the path divides, 
Let me the right discern. 

"Behold ! my prayer hath wings 
To lift my soul from pain. 
Self-answering, joy it brings. 
None worship Truth in vain." 

Emilie H. Darrow. 

Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture. By E. P. Evans. New 
York: Henry Holt & Co. 1896. Pages, xii, 315, Price, $2.00. 

Students of the architecture of the Middle Ages are often puzzled to know the 
meaning of the sculptural figures which are found in such profusion in almost all 
the ecclesiastical structures of that period. The angels which hover about the al- 
tar, the saints peering out from the corners, the Apostles ranged about the arched 
doorway, the figure of the crucified Christ held aloft, — all these are comprehensible. 
But what shall be said of the " Execution of the Cat " which is pictured on a col- 
umn of the cathedral of Tarragona, Spain, or of the "Burial of the Fox " as delin- 
eated in the choir of the Strassburg Minster, or of the " Lay of Aristotle" depicted 
in the church of Saint-Jean in Lyons? 

The present volume, entitled Afiimal Symbolisju in Ecclesiastical Architecture, 
is an attempt to explain some of these apparent absurdities. Indeed, its scope is 
much larger, for it extends to the work of the missal painter and even to that of 
the theologian. It is the work of an American long resident in Europe, where he 



has had the best of opportunities for studying the subject. As a contribution to 
American scholarship it will take high rank ; and for most Americans it will be an 
introduction to a new field of study and thought. Heretofore knowledge of this sub- 
ject must be sought in many a ponderous tome difficult to find and even more diffi- 
cult to understand. This handsome volume, amply illustrated, will save much 
wearisome research, and will add materially to the interest already felt in the sculp- 
tural figures adorning the cathedrals. 

The key to the whole matter lies in the fact that, according to the patristic con- 
ception, the visible world was the image or symbol of the invisible world. This 
applied especially to the animal creation. In the words of Origen, "As God made 
man in His own image and after His own likeness, so He created the lower animals 
after the likeness of heavenly prototypes." It is natural, therefore, to find ecclesi- 
astical structures adorned with the figures of those animals to which some spiritual 
significance was attached. The oldest, most systematic, and most complete treatise 
on the spiritual significance of the animal and vegetable world is the Physiologtis. 
This was probably the work of an Alexandrian Greek, and embodies much of the 
priestly lore of ancient Egypt. Its popularity led to its translation into many 
tongues, and there is evidence of the existence of versions of it in Latin, Ethiopic, 
Arabic, Armenian, Syriac, Icelandic, German, Saxon, Spanish, and Provengal. 
"Perhaps no book, except the Bible, " says Professor Evans, "has ever been so 
widely diffused among so many peoples and for so many centuries as the Physio- 
logus." It served as a convenient manual of instruction in zoology and botany, but 
in the hands of Christian teachers it became merely a treatise on theology inter- 
spersed with pious exhortation. At an early period in the history of the Church, 
the book fell into disfavor and was condemned as heretical ; but it was not long 
until it found a powerful patron in Gregory the Great, who used it freely in ex- 
pounding the Scriptures. From the seventh century to the twelfth it was highly 
esteemed as an orthodox compendium of natural history, and it was during this 
period that most of the translations of it were made. The invention of printing 
diffused it even more widely, and its translation into the vulgar tongues embodied 
it in the general literature of Christendom, where it has become the source of many 
quaint and striking, though often forced, figures of speech. Its scientific value as 
well as the pious use to which it was put by the theologians are well illustrated by 
the account which it gives of the lion. " First, when he perceives that the hunters 
' ' are pursuing him, he erases his foot-prints with his tail, so that he cannot be traced 
" to his lair. In like manner, our Saviour, the lion of the tribe of Judah, concealed 
" all traces of His Godhead, when he descended to the earth and entered into the 
" womb of the Virgin Mary. Secondly, the lion always sleeps with his eyes open ; 
" so our Lord slept with His body on the Cross, but awoke at the right hand of His 
" Father. Thirdly, the lioness brings forth her whelps dead and watches over them 
" until, after three days, the lion comes and howls over them and vivifies them by 
"his breath; so the Almighty Father recalled to life His only begotten Son, our 
" Lord Jesus Christ, who on the third day was thus raised from the dead, and will 
"likewise raise us all up to eternal life." 

In the eleventh and twelfth centuries animal symbolism was carried to excess, 
and the opposition of many ecclesiastics was aroused. About the year 1125 St. 
Bernard of Clairvaux wrote a letter to William, Abbot of St. Thierry, sharply cen- 
suring the practice. " What business," he says, " have those ridiculous monstros- 
ities, those creatures of wonderfully deformed beauty and beautiful deformity be- 
fore the eyes of studious friars in the courts of cloisters ? . . . O God ! if one is not 


ashamed of these puerilities, why does not one at least spare the expense? " His 
protest was unavailing. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the transfer of 
building operations from the hands of the monks to secular companies of masons 
led to the introduction of a new element. Beast-symbolism was replaced by beast- 
satire, and as the spirit which resulted in the Reformation grew more aggressive, 
this satirical tendency increased. A good example of this sort of ornamentation is 
found in a wood-carving in Ely Cathedral which represents a fox arrayed in a 
bishop's vestments, preaching to an audience of geese from the text, "God is my 
witness how I long for you all in my bowels." In the next scene he exemplifies his 
text by throwing off his holy vestments and hurrying away with a goose. The ob- 
scenity of many of these delineations was the natural and inevitable result of the 
obscenity of the subjects which they satirised. 

The final chapter of this work, entitled Whimseys of Ecclesiology and Symbol- 
ogy, throws much light upon mediaeval ideas and modes of thought. At the same 
time the extracts from the paper on Vestiges of the Blessed Trinity in the Material 
Creation, published by the Rev. John S. Vaughn in the Djiblin Reviezcj for January, 
1893, suggest that we are not yet entirely out of the woods. When it is sought to 
maintain the truth of a dogma, because every object has three dimensions ; because 
every plant consists of seed, stalk, and flower ; because life is ' ' vegetative, sensi- 
tive, and rational ; " because matter is solid, fluid, and gaseous, and time is past, 
present, and future : — when all this is seriously attempted by a learned ecclesiastic, 
it may be questioned whether some of our thinking is not as mediaeval as that which 
lay back of Tertullian's famous criterion. Credo quia absttnhwi. 

The value of this volume is much enhanced by the illustrations which accom- 
pany the text, and by the appended bibliography which will serve as a guide for 
those who wish to pursue the subject further. Carl Evans Boyd. 


Hegel as Educator. By Frederic Ludlozv Ltiqueer, Ph. D. Columbia University 
Contributions to Philosophy, Psychology, and Education. New York : Mac- 
millan & Co. May, 1896. Pages, 185. Price, $1.00. 

The Hegelian cult is steadily on the increase in this and other countries pro- 
portionately to its wane in Germany. The fascination which circles about Hegel's 
indefinite and dazzling profundity, and the wideness of interpretation which may 
be placed upon his thoughts, are destined to insure his popularity and power even 
more than the nucleus of truth which resides in his works. In one of the most 
eloquent passages of the present work, we have a brilliant testimony of the spell 
which he has cast : 

" It needs but little faith to believe that, in the parts [of his thought] not as 
" yet understood, riches are hidden which will repay search. The parts compre- 
" hended are but messengers telling of the sleeping princess that lies within, wait- 
" ing for the kiss of him who loves and dares aright. The strange words and break- 
" brain passages are but the thorny hedge and rough entrance-ways to the beauty, 
'' which here as elsewhere answers but to the brave." 

And from the experience of one of the students closest to Hegel, the young 
Russian Baron Boris d'Yxkull, we joyfully learn that Hegel was as difficult to un- 
derstand when alive as he is now when dead. The Baron writes : 

" After the Professor's lecture, I went to the nearest book store, bought all the 
''works of Hegel that had been printed, and in the evening settled myself com- 
''fortably in my sofa-corner to read them. But the more I read, and the more at- 
'' tention I tried to fasten on the reading, the less I understood of it ; so that after 



" struggling for two hours with a proposition without nearing its comprehension, I 
" laid aside the book. But out of curiosity I kept on attending the lectures. I 
"must confess, however, that I did not understand tny own notes, and that I zvas 
" lacking in needed prefatory knowledge for this science.'" 

Having acquired this prefatory knowledge the Baron mastered the great phi- 
losopher, and never afterwards travelled without a copy of his Logic in his pocket. 

And again, we have the following vivid description of Hegel's oral delivery from 
the pen of Hotho : 

"He began haltingly, struggled on, began once more, paused, spoke, reflected 
" — the fitting word seemed ever lacking, but in a moment was given unerringly ; 
" it seemed too common, but was inimitably adequate. . . . Now one had seized the 
"clear meaning of a proposition, and hoped for a further step — in vain. The 
"thought, instead of proceeding, circled with similar wording about the same 
" point. But if the attention strayed for a moment and was then duteously turned 
"back, it was punished by seeing that it had lost the connexion. For impercep- 
" tibly almost, proceeding by apparently insignificant steps, the full thought had 
"been shown to be limited, to be one-sided; its differences had been developed 
" into contradictions, the victorious solution of which was seen only in the final re- 
"unitement [reconciliation on nobler terms] of what before had been opposed. 
"And so, ever carefully taking up the preceding, in order to unfold its implicate 
"antitheses and then to blend them in richer harmony, the wonderful thought- 
" stream pressed and fought its way along, now dividing, now uniting, hesitating 
"sometimes, then leaping on, and always advancing. But he who could follow 
" with complete understanding, without swerving right or left, felt himself thrilled 
" with adventurous excitement. To what depths were his thoughts taken — ever at 
" the point of losing all that had been won, the toil all in vain, the utmost might 
"of the intellect forced to halt. But in just these depths that powerful spirit moved 
"and worked with calm confidence. Then only did the voice raise itself, the eye. 
"sent a gleam over what had been gathered together, and glowed with the still fire 
" of assurance, while with never-lacking words he touched all the heights and depths 
" of the soul. His speech in these moments was so clear and full, so simply truth- 
"ful, that every one who could grasp it felt as if he himself had been discovering 
" the thought it unfolded." 

Throughout the whole of the book of Luqueer, we obtain such delightful 
glimpses into Hegel's life. The first part of the work is in fact a biography, quite 
sufficient for the general reader's purpose, although giving an eulogistic as distin- 
guished from a critical, sketch of Hegel's career, and mainly seeking to portray the 
interests of his life not identified with his philosophy. As its title indicates, it 
studies Hegel as a student and teacher. The second part contains the thoughts of 
Hegel on Education systematically arranged. This part is mainly a translation 
from Thaulow. ///cp/c. 

La Teoria Sociologica dei Partiti Politici. Reprinted from the Rassegna dt 
Scie7iza SociaU e Politici. 'Qy Lorenzo Ratio. Florence, 1893. Pages, 31. 

Rapporto tra I Partiti Politici e la Rappresentanza. Reprinted from Antolo- 
gia Giiiridica. By Lorenzo Ratio. Catania, 1894. Pages, 24. 

La Responsabilita dei Padroni per gli Infortuni del Lavoeo, Reprinted 

from Lcgge, 1896, Vol. II., p. 603. By Lorenzo Ratio. Rome. Pages, 30. 

In these pamphlets we have an illustration of what is going on over the whole 

field of the social sciences, namely, the examination of old questions from the so- 


ciological point of view. Much light has thus been shed upon a great variety of 
subjects, among which are those usually treated under political science and consti- 
tutional law. Such a subject is that of political parties, their origin, development, 
function, etc., and its sociological discussion by the eminent Italian, Dr. Ratto, af- 
fords a successful example of this method of treatment. 

According to Dr. Ratto neither political science nor constitutional law is able 
to give us a true theory of the nature, genesis and functions of political parties. 
This is a task, he thinks, which belongs essentially to sociology (p. 3). He pro- 
ceeds, therefore, to develop and establish a sociological theory which may be 
briefly indicated as follows : Modern parties are quite different from parties in an- 
cient times. Then there was a struggle for equality, but now, the typical constitu- 
tional state being based upon juridico-political equality, the struggle is for the de- 
termination of the social will. Then the conflict was between superior and inferior 
classes, now it is between conservatives and progressionists, between order and 
progress, between natura fatta and natura si fa. Again, parties are not a social 
manifestation of the struggle which is going on in all the fields of individual activ- 
ity ; they are a sociological phenomenon. The theory of Gumplowicz and others 
that the struggle for power is the fundamental law of social life is, therefore, de- 
nied. The social group has its own laws which neutralise the action of biological 
1 iws to which the individuals were originally subject (p. 11). Finally, and as a re- 
sult of the preceding, we have the proposition that government ought never to be in 
the hands of political parties (p. 8). They represent public sentiment only in part. 
They are to assist in the determination of the social will ; its execution should be 
left to an independent authority above them. 

Having expounded his theory of political parties, Dr. Ratto considers their re- 
lation to representation, or, rather, the relation of representation to government on 
the one hand and to parties on the other. The representative, he maintains, is 
neither the agent of a single party nor a counsellor of the government, but a person 
chosen to represent public opinion and to assist in synthetising its various currents 
into practical programmes. He represents not a party, but the nation. The legis- 
lative body, therefore, is not the field on which should be fought out the battles of 
the parties, but the council chamber in which the ideas contended for by the vari- 
ous parties outside should be combined into the best possible scheme of action. As 
to the relation of representation to the government, it has already been indicated. 
Government, which should never be actuated by party spirit, should receive from 
the hands of the representatives the programmes which it is to carry out for the 
well-being of all. 

It is obvious that this theory of political parties and their relation to represen- 
tation is not fully illustrated in any modern state. Germany, Dr. Ratto thinks, ap- 
proaches most nearly the sociological ideal (second pamphlet, p. 23). Here there 
is a strong government distinct from representation, a cabinet which does not at- 
tempt to realise the desires of a single party, but which is supported by all those 
who are favorable to its programme. This condition of things, it is maintained 
(p. 24), better than any other existing example, corresponds to the sociocratic ideal, 
because the government, being above parties, is transformed in accordance with the 
exigencies of the state, and is spontaneously inclined to regard all the movements 
of public opinion and all the aspirations of the country. 

It is to be feared that this selected illustration of Dr. Ratto's theory will mili- 
tate against its acceptance. Many are indisposed to look to Germany for ideals in 
regard to government, and this is especially true in America. We in this country 



are firmly convinced that we are at least on the right track, and we cannot agree 
with Dr. Ratto that the kingdom is the most excellent form of government in the 
constitutional state (p. 14). Although we must admit that there is a measure of 
truth in his characterisation of American government as personal and very corrupt, 
and of our citizens as animated solely by the mercantile spirit, it does not follow 
that our condition would be bettered by the rule of a sovereign whose programmes 
would more likely be drawn from his own consciousness than accepted from the 
hands of the legislative body. We cannot see that more is to be hoped for from 
government by a wilful emperor than by a president who takes his cue from the 
party representing the majority. 

Although we cannot agree with some of his conclusions, we take pleasure iu 
acknowledging the ability and learning with which Dr. Ratto has carried on his in- 
vestigation. It would be difficult to find in any language a better short treatment of 
the subject considered. 

In the third pamphlet mentioned above Dr. Ratto considers the question 
whether an action for damages against an employer engaged in trade has a com- 
mercial character, and also the question whether the obligation of compensation for 
damages due to misfortunes are contractual or legal. In discussing these important 
questions he brings to bear an apparently wide knowledge of Italian jurisprudence, 
but his conclusions are of local rather than general interest. 


A Note on the Ancient Geography of Asia. Compiled from Valmiki-Ramayana. 
With Map and Index. By Nobin Chandra Das, M. A. Price, i rupee. 
Buddhist Text Society of India. 1896. Pages, 68. 

Sir Nobin Chandra Das, of Chittagong, Bengal, a prominent Sanskrit scholar, 
and brother of Sarat Chandra Das, of Darjeeling, is the only traveller who has 
been in the interior of Tibet. Many Europeans and Hindoos have been in little 
Tibet, which is the Western Tibet, and not Tibet proper, but none except Sarat 
Chandra Das was admitted to the inaccessible Eastern Tibet, which is the real 
Tibet, the country of Lamanistic Buddhism. 

The Tibetans object to the intrusion of any foreign influence, and are more se- 
cluded than the Chinese ever have been, but no objection was raised against Mr. 
Das because he is a Buddhist and his fame as a pandit has spread over Tibet. 

The present pamphlet and map are an important contribution to the literature 
of the Ramayana, the ancient epic of the Aryan Hindus. Mr. Das has located all 
the geographical sites, and thus renders it possible for us to have a better compre- 
hension of Rama's wanderings in search of his faithful wife, Sita, who has been 
captured by the island king Ravana. 

We need not call attention to the importance of the Ramayana, which to the 
Hindu, even to-day, is scarcely less than the Iliad and the Odyssey were to the 
Greek, or the Nibelungen saga and Gudrun to the Teutons. Says Mr. Das : "The 
" names of Rama and his faithful Sita are still bywords for the model king and the 
" model wife, the two most important factors in the social and domestic life of a na- 
" tion throughout the length and breadth of this country." (Preface, vii.) 

Mr. Das accepts (against Professor Weber ^) Signer Gorresio's opinion that the 
Ramayana is based upon historical facts ; and he may be right, for there are rea- 
sons to believe that both the Greek and Teutonic sagas, too, are based upon real 
events which once took place in prehistoric times. But the more remarkable are 

1 See Websr, Uebcr das Raniayanani. 1870. 


the similarities among the ancient legends of the three nations. Sita, (Like Gud- 
run) is abducted, and Rama (like Herasig) pursues the robber and regains his faith- 
ful wife. In his search Rama (like Odysseus) wanders about and visits almost all 
the places of the earth known to the poet. Like Helena, Sita is well treated by 
her abductor while Rama wages war for her recover3^ The allies of Rama are 
enumerated as minutely in the Ramayana as the allies of Menelausin Homer ; and 
there are several other noteworthy similarities which caused Professor Weber to 
think that Valmiki, the author of the best version of the Ramayana, must have 
been familiar vnth the epics of Homer — a view which is not very probable. The- 
problem of these coincidences has not as yet found its solution, but we believe that 
the epics of all the nations are a mixture of myth and history. There are events 
which actually happen again and again. An Indian chief sent the same reply to the 
President of the United States that Aristovus sent to Csesar. Both declared, " If I 
want something of you, I v^ill go to you, but as you want something of me, you may 
please come to me ! " Must we conclude that the American Indian had read Cssar ? 
In an early stage of civilisation the abduction of wives was probably an event that 
happened in the north, in Greece and in India, and the search for a lost wife was 
probably compared to the wanderings of the sun over the whole earth by more 
than one poet. 

But we cannot discuss the subject in a book review and conclude our remarks 
by mentioning that Nobin Chandra Das endeavors to explain the mythological 
elements of the story, the z'(?;zrt;- or monkey chiefs, "the dwellers of the forest," 
who assist Rama in his warfare as the aboriginal non-Aryan tribes, whom the Ar- 
yans call va-nara (vd-Uke; and ficwa-man), i. e., those creatures who are only sim- 
ilar to, but not of, the kind and race of the real men or Aryans. p. c. 

Mr. H. Dharmapala, the Buddhist monk now traveling and lecturing in Amer- 
ica, writes us from Cambridge that the anniversary of the Buddha's birth will fall 
on the i6th of May, the day of the full moon. In the Maha-Bodhi Journal for 
March will be found an article on the discovery of the birthplace of Prince Sid- 
dhartha Buddha Gautama. The discovery was made by Dr. Fiihrer and its de- 
tails first announced by the distinguished Vienna scholar, Dr. G. Biihler. In the 
place that now bears the name of Konagamma is a monument called Buddha's Nir- 
vana stupa, which is supposed to mark the place where Buddha died. About fif- 
teen miles northeast of Konagamma the archaeologists discovered another stupa. 
Here they found fourteen feet deep in the ground an inscription which, as is stated, 
declares itself to be made by Emperor Ashoka in the twentieth year of his reign 
(that is to say, in the year 229 B. C). It declares that the Emperor had been in 
the garden of Lumbini to do homage to the Buddha, and that, having erected va- 
rious other stupas, he built also this stupa for the purpose of honoring the birth- 
place of Buddha. About eighteen miles northwest of this stupa, marking the site 
of the garden of Lumbini, are ruins of monasteries and other buildings, which are 
now densely covered with forest trees. They must have been an important centre 
of religious life, for they form quite a large city, extending over about five miles in 
length between the villages Amuli and Tilaura Kot. They are supposed to be the 
site of Kapilavastu, the capital of the Shakyas, which is at present in the same neg- 
lected condition in which the pilgrims Fa-Hian and Hinen-T'sang found it when' 
they visited India between the years 629-645 A. D. The excavations are contin- 
ued and great results are expected, which will either corroborate or correct the 
tradition of the sacred literature of the Buddhists ; and we have good reasons to- 



hope that we shall within one or two years know much more about the history of 
early Buddhism. 

Readers of The Monist and The Open Court will remember the Triangular De- 
bate on Christian Missions, which took place in the fall of 1894 before the Nine- 
teenth Century Club of New York, under the chairmanship of its President, who, 
at the time, was Walter H. Page, the former editor of the New York Forum. 

The Rt. Rev. J. M. Thoburn, missionary bishop to India and Malaysia, on 
that occasion was challenged by Mr. Gandhi's bitter denunciation of Christian mis- 
sions for inventing a story of the prevalence of infanticide in India. The latter 
even denied that the criminal law of India contained a prohibition against throw- 
in" babies into the Ganges, while the Bishop contended for its truth. Bishop 
Thoburn announces in a letter to the Christian Advocate that Dr. K. S. McDonald, 
a missionary of the Free Church of Scotland, has taken up the question and pub- 
lished a statement in the Indian Evangelical Review in which he offers overwhelm- 
ing proof to justify Bishop Thoburn's statement. In his letter to the Christian 
Advocate Bishop Thoburn quotes enough of it to leave no doubt about it. While it 
is true that infanticide from religious motives does not prevail now in India, it evi- 
dently existed in the years 1798-1820, and Brahmans of higher education — such 
men as the Pundit Hara Prasad Shastri — rejoice at the abolition of this terrible 
superstition, saying; "This cruel custom (of vowing to cast the first born child 
into the Ganges) was a frightful source of infanticide among the Hindus, and Lord 
Wellesley put a stop to it." No one will deny that there is in India, and always 
has been, a Brahmanism of philosophical depth and moral purity, but at the same 
time it must be conceded by the most ardent admirer of Indian wisdom that there 
are many various forms of idolatry prevalent in India, and it would be strange if 
here alone a custom which was all but universal all over the whole world should 
never have existed. 

Modern French Literature. By Benjamin W. Wells, Ph. D. (Harvard Uni- 
versity.) Boston: Roberts Brothers. 1896. Pp., xii, 510. 
This book is more fully up to date than the present notice. Ten of the thirteen 
chapters are given to the nineteenth century ; two of the ten pay well deserved 
honor and with due discrimination, to Victor Hugo ; Taine, Renan, Sardou, Zola, and 
Daudet are criticised at some length ; and mention is made of many recent writers 
not yet generally known, for instance of Verlaine, Barres, and Margueritte. Dr. 
Wells shows intimate personal acquaintance with the authors taken up. and his 
work may be very useful to those who wish to know what to choose, either among 
famous old books, or among very new ones. He can at least do his readers the 
good service of proving that there really are French poets. There is no truth any 
onger, if there ever was any, in Emerson's line about 

" France, where poet never grew," 

F. M. H 

The German edition of Professor Mach's Popular Scientific Lectu7-es, which 
was not published until after the American edition, and which appeared only in last 
January, is now in its second edition. A third edition of the Mecha)iics is also an- 
nounced. The success with which Professor Mach's ideas are meeting in Germany 
is encouraging for the philosophy of science. 



Devoted to the Philosophy of Science. 

Editor: Dr. Paul Carus . • / i Edward C. Hegeler 

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Contents, April, 1897. 

Hegel To-Day. By Prof . Rudolf Euckeji. 

Tke Genesis of Social "Interests." By Prof. J. Mark Baldivin. 

Some Points in Intracranial Physics. By Dr, James Caffiie. 

The Conflict of Races, Classes, and Societies. By Prof. G. Fiamingo. 

The Mythology of Buddhism. Illustrated. By Dr. Paid Carus. 

The Theory of Mathematical Form. By A. B. Keyn^e, F. R. S. 

Literary Correspondence — France. By Lticien Arreat. 

Book Reviews. 

Contents, January, 1897. 

The Logic of Relatives. By Charles S. Peirce. 

Man as a Member of Society. Introduction. By Dr. P. Topitiard. 

The Philosophy of Buddhism. By Dr. Paul Ca?-tis. 

Panlogism. By £. Douglas Faivcett. 

The International Scientific Catalogue, and the Decimal System of Classification. By Thos. 

J. McCormack. 
Literary Correspondence — France. By Lucie7i Arreat. 
!3ook Reviews. 

Contents, October, 1896. 

Animal Automatism and Consciousness. By Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan. 

The Regenerated Logic. By Charles S. Peirce. 

From Berkeley to Hegel. By Edzvard Douglas Faivcett. 

Panlogism. By Dr. Paul Carus. 

Subconscious Pangeometry. By Prof. George Bruce Halsted. 

Hegel's Monism and Christianity. By Emilia Digby. 

India — Religious, Political, Social — of 1895. By Virchand R. Gandhi. 

Literary Correspondence — France. By Lucien Arreat. 

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RESEARCHES in primitive history have shed a flood of light 
on the genesis of human knowledge. Not only has it been 
shown that rudiments of art and science which ordinarily are 
ascribed to later epochs may be traced back to dimmest antiquity, 
but more important still the origin of many inventions has been 
proved to be far less simple and sudden than tradition would have 
us believe. Particularly is this so of mathematics, which in its the- 
oretical no less than in its applied forms, sprang up in widely dif- 
ferent localities, making it upon the whole exceedingly difficult 
to determine whether its results are of independent contemporane- 
ous origin, or were handed over from nation to nation. 

That the latter happened is scarcely open to doubt in the case 
of a man who sojourned long years at many of these cradles of 
primitive culture and who tarried there largely with the express 
purpose of acquiring the knowledge they offered. It is not chance 
if the substance of what he acquired abroad was embodied in his 
system ; on the contrary, we have reason to believe that it was de- 
sign and necessity. And it would be inexplicable were the experi- 
ences so acquired to skirt without impression his mind, or the flood 
of new ideas which inundated his admiring soul to have passed 
away without leaving behind them some fertile deposit. 

Men of such stamp — men who scatter everywhither the culture 
which they have absorbed by founding at all points schools and by 
leaving upon all whom they meet the impression of their genius, 

1 Translated from Cantor's Mathematische Beitrage zum Kulturleben der Volker, by T. J. Mc- 
Cormack. Inasmuch as the present article was written a long time ago, a few alterations and 
omissions have been made at the suggestion of the author, so as to keep the treatment of the sub- 
ject up to date. 



not unlike, though the reverse in their effects, to a travelling bale 
of cotton which spreads epidemics — such men, forming the intellec- 
tual vinculum of races and nations, have existed in all ages. There 
has never been a time but some man or other, aweary of the con- 
strained quarters of his study and forsaking the crouching attitude 
at his desk, has donned his " sandal-shoon and scallop-shell," to 
seek in the wide world fresh sceneries and new knowledge. As jour- 
neys of this character gradually became more frequent, the novel 
prizes awaiting the searcher grew less and less, and so, as the means 
of communication increased in magnitude, the personal influence of 
the individual traveller waned. 

Pythagoras, if not the first to travel for study and information, 
was yet one of the earliest, and certain it is that he extended his 
tours farther than any one before him. I will attempt to portray 
the life of this intrepid man whose character was distinguished not 
less by thirst for knowledge and readiness for self-sacrifice than by 
eminent talents, reflecting his picture as it lives in the traditions of 
Grecian authors, whether true or not.^ 

Pythagoras's birthplace was the Island of Samos, where his 
parents, who were held in high esteem, resided at the time the elder 
despot Polycrates was gathering into his hands the reins of govern- 
ment. His father, Mnesarchus, came originally from the Island of 
Lemnos, but having succored the Samians during a famine with 
supplies of grain, had been made the recipient by the latter of the 
rights of citizenship, and henceforward led in his adopted country 
a life principally devoted to the furthering of art, but frequently in- 
terrupted by commercial voyages to all the harbors of the then 
known world, on which journeys his wife Pythais was his constant 
companion, as is the custom to-day among the inhabitants of the 
Greek Mediterranean isles. On one of these voyages, in the year 
569, B. C, at Tyre, Pythagoras was born; and on subsequent voy- 
ages to Southern Italy, the boy himself is mentioned as companion 
of his father. Thus his mind was early nourished by impressions 
of roving, which foreshadowed the bent of his entire subsequent 
career. It is not surprising, therefore, that in his eighteenth year 
and while scarcely more than a school-boy, Pythagoras should have 
formed the resolve to seek abroad that higher education which had 
now become the paramount interest of his life. 

But the execution of the resolve was not so simple as its con- 
ception. Tyrants are ever suspicious, and even then it was sought 
to prevent the departure of young men from important families, by 

1 See Eduard Roth, Ceschichte unserer abendlCindischen Philosophie. 


associating with such attempts rumors of treason, and it was only 
by clandestine flight at night that Pythagoras in 551 was able to 
reach in safety the shores of Lesbos, where he met with a hospit- 
able reception at the house of his uncle Zoilos. 

He also found in Lesbos Pherecydes, the youngest but not the 
least of the teachers of the day, who shared with the two Milesians 
Anaximander and Thales, the world's fame for philosophic wis- 
dom. And yet Pherecydes, so far as appears from the writings 
transmitted to posterity, was not an original thinker. He was 
merely the interpreter of Egyptian science, which he had acquired 
in Egypt itself, as before him his intellectual superior, Thales, had 

The scientific journeys to Egypt, which at this juncture and 
by a rather sudden turn in affairs were becoming the vogue with 
Grecian scholars, are explained by the political situation of the 
latter country. Psammetichus, having overthrown the Dodecarchs, 
had consolidated his power by the assistance of Ionic auxiliaries, 
and as a token of a gratitude to his old allies had granted them 
many privileges. He even went so far, in fact, after 630 B. C, as 
to cede to them permanent places of settlement in Egypt, whereby 
this country, formerly so hostile to foreigners, was opened up to 
traffic and commerce, a circumstance which before long was turned 
to the profit of science, when individuals who had gone thither for 
mercantile purposes began to study the superior learning and civil- 
isation of Egypt. 

Pythagoras enjoyed the personal instruction of Pherecydes for 
tv/o years, during which time he applied himself more particularly 
to the latter's religious doctrines. Afterwards, in 549 B. C, he be- 
took himself to Miletus in quest of Anaximander and Thales, The 
fact that the latter sage, now a nonagenarian, admitted the young 
student to his confidence, is striking proof of the promise which 
Pythagoras gave of future greatness and of the excellent soil upon 
which the seeds of exact science fell, as hitherto cultivated by An- 
aximander and Thales. 

We are concerned here with the beginnings of cosmical physics. 
Whilst Thales conceived the earth as a sphere floating in an im- 
mense body of water which was forced up in the form of oceans by 
the pressure between the walls of the earth and the vaults of heaven, 
Anaximander, in developing Thales's doctrine, reverted in a meas- 
ure to the ancient Grecian view which conceived the earth as a flat 
disc. According to Anaximander's conception, the earth was a 
short, broad cylinder, the upper transverse section of which was 



inhabited by living beings. On the other hand, Anaximander took 
a decided step forward in enunciating the doctrine that the earth 
hung suspended and at rest in the centre of the celestial sphere, 
because there was no reason why a body situated in the centre of a 
hollow ball should move towards either one side or the other. 

Further, history has associated certain astronomical and math- 
ematical theorems with the names of these two sages. It is known 
that Thales brought from Egypt the knowledge of the solar year, 
that he predicted eclipses of the sun and moon, that he calculated 
the heights of pyramids by the length of their shadows, and finally 
that he enunciated geometrical theorems of wide theoretical im- 
port, such as that of angles in semi-circles being right-angles, and 
of the equality of the angles at the base of equilateral triangles. It 
is related of Anaximander that he was the first to construct celestial 
globes and to draw upon them great circles for determining celes- 
tial phenomena, that he was acquainted with the properties of the 
gnomon, which is not of Egyptian but of Babylonian origin, that 
he employed the same for determining the altitude of the sun, that 
he even made use of it as a sun-dial for subdividing time, that he 
was the first to teach geography as a science, and the first to draw 
on metal geographical maps. 

Of general interest, further, is the fact that Anaximander was 
the first prose writer. Prior to his time the custom was universal 
among the Greeks, as it was among the Indians, of writing scien- 
tific works in verse. Even Thales conformed to this onerous prac- 
tice in composing his didactic poem upon the solstices and equi- 

The subjects of instruction which Pythagoras naturally enjoyed 
in Miletus, therefore, were astronomical and physical in character, 
supplemented by other, more purely philosophical and theological 
studies, for which he had been amply prepared by Pherecydes. 
Before long Thales directed the eyes of the aspiring young ge- 
nius towards Egypt, and the sage's advice was eagerly acted upon. 
The Phoenician sacerdotal academy at Sidon was chosen as a fit- 
ting place for the young philosopher's sojourn of transition, and 
Pythagoras accordingly repaired thither in 548. He passed an en- 
tire year at Sidon, engaged in studying the sacred rites of the 
priestcraft, and not until he had fully mastered these, and so was 
fittingly prepared, did he place foot in 547 on Egyptian soil, prob- 
ably at the port of Naucratis. 

The political attitude of Egypt at this time was, as regards 
foreigners, scarcely different from what it had been toward the 


close of the reign of Psammetichus, when Thales was visiting this 
country. Psammetichus had been followed by Necho, the circum- 
navigator of Africa (616-601), by Psammis (600-595), and Apries 
(594-570), and during the reigns of these monarchs Egyptian civil- 
isation had reached the acme of its grandeur, although outwardly 
the power of the country, shattered by Nebuchadnezzar's defeat of 
Necho, was on a swift decline. Finally, an unfortunate campaign 
conducted by Apries against Cyrene gave rise to an insurrection 
which cost the king his life and placed Amasis, a man of plebeian 
extraction, upon the throne. Necessity compelled the upstart — it 
was the second time the thing happened in Egyptian history — to 
secure his unlawful dominion by foreign arms and alliances. He 
filled his capital, Memphis, with Ionic mercenaries, concluded by 
the seal of marriage a peace with Cyrene, and entered the sacred 
relation of hospitality with Polycrates of Samos. 

It lay in the immediate interest of Pythagoras, therefore, to 
seek a reconciliation with the ruler of his native isle. And it ap- 
pears that the reputation of the young man, now only in his twenty- 
second year, had, since his sojourn in Miletus and Sidon, already 
risen to such a pitch that the political scruples aroused by his 
early flight vanished before his scientific fame. Polycrates recom- 
mended the young scholar to King Amasis in an autograph epistle. 
Even with his powerful support, however, trying obstacles were to be 
overcome before Pythagoras could accomplish his aim of being ad- 
mitted among the esoteric students of the Egyptian sacerdotal phi- 
losophy. For he was not satisfied, as his teachers Pherecydes and 
Thales had been, with the superficial knowledge of Egyptian civili- 
sation that came from polite intercourse and the occasional com- 
munications of the priesthood. He already knew this in great 
part. What he longed for was to be admitted as a foreigner, as a 
person unclean, into the innermost, profoundest secrets of sacer- 
dotal science, to conquer the prejudices of a caste which in all ages 
was the most jealous defender of its privileges, and which concealed 
its sanctities even from the born Egyptian when not of its tribe. 

To this end the mightiest engines had to be set in motion, and 
King Amasis himself was obliged to present the stranger as a can- 
didate for priestly honors. The application was made at the eccles- 
iastical college in Heliopolis. To reject outright an applicant bear- 
ing a mandate from the King would have been impossible; so 
recourse was had to a subterfuge, which seems to have been as 
widely practised then as now. A plea of insufficient jurisdiction 
was made, and the suitor was referred to a more ancient college at 



Memphis. Here the same trick was again resorted to, and Pythag- 
oras was obliged to repair to Thebes, where a still older college 
existed. Further reference being impossible, it was decided out of 
regard to the mandate of the King to allow the aspirant conditional 
admittance to the order. But extremely trying conditions were im- 
posed upon the knowledge-seeking youth, — conditions that would 
have intimidated any ordinary mortal. Ablutions, shaving of the 
entire body, and particularly an operation practised by all Oriental 
nations, including the Jews, which is as painful as it was regarded 
indecent by Hellenic peoples. 

And yet Pythagoras submitted to all these indignities. His 
courage and perseverance triumphed over the narrow exclusiveness 
of the Egyptian priests, and his instruction began under the direc- 
tion of the arch-prophet Sonchis. It appears his powerful intellect 
soon mastered the difficulties of the curriculum, and the sacerdotal 
caste speedily came to esteem him as highly as before it had con- 
temned him. His sojourn in Egypt was, as a result of these suc- 
cesses, prolonged from year to year, and it is possible his great 
knowledge might have been lost forever to Europe had not oppor- 
tune political events intervened which were in every respect sig- 
nificant for his career. 

During the twenty-one years that Amasis ruled subsequently 
to the arrival of our philosopher, Pythagoras assimilated not only 
all of Egyptian science, but he had by his assiduity wrested from 
the sacerdotal class its highest honors and was now counted among 
its high priests. In 527 Amasis died, and his son Psammenitus 
ascended the throne, only to lose it with his life shortly thereafter. 
Cambyses in 526 threw his conquering hosts into Egypt, com- 
pletely subjugated the country, and vented with truculent sagacity 
the full weight of his wrath upon the priesthood from whose power- 
ful caste he expected the stubbornest resistance. Nearly all the 
members of the priesthood were transported to remote regions of 
Asia, and the report goes that Pythagoras also now suddenly found 
himself a prisoner in the walls of Babylon. 

Sorrowful as was this change of affairs for the philosopher 
personally, thus wrested from the serenity and contemplativeness 
of priestly life, it was yet of incalculable advantage to science, for 
Pythagoras was now virtually compelled to master the knowledge 
of the Chaldeans. That there was sufficient material there needs 
no special emphasis. Babylon had long since been the centre of a 
world-wide traffic, the common mart of Bactrians, Indians, and 
Chinese. And it quite accords with these facts that Pythagoras 


met at Babylon, Jews, Brahmans, and Calatians, and became ac- 
quainted with priests of the Persian religion Mazdaism. 

The sceptic may justly doubt whether Pythagoras, as a prisoner 
of war, could ever have had the opportunity of occupying himself 
with Chaldean science. We have only to think of the mural sculp- 
tures and terra cotta paintings which have been unearthed from the 
wondrous rubbish-heaps of Nineveh and Babylon, to appreciate the 
force of such a scruple. We see on these the wretched prisoners of 
war dragging, under the goading whips of native masters, stones, 
statues, and building material of all kinds, which can hardly be de- 
scribed as occupations of an intellectual character. But it is ques- 
tionable whether the priestly prisoners were forced to perform such 
menial tasks, especially in a country which itself possessed a mys- 
tic ritual. In such a country the priestly order has always great 
influence and is always held in great esteem — distinctions which in 
a certain measure are transferred to the priestly representatives of 
other religions. These either die as martyrs of their religion, or 
they are highly venerated. Furthermore, the captivity of Pythago- 
ras was of long duration, and it is scarcely possible that his mighty 
genius should not have risen from any position however low. Of 
his twelve years' compulsory sojourn in Babylon we know next to 
nothing, and we are only told of the romantic manner in which in 
the year 513 he regained his liberty. 

At the court of Darius, who came to the Persian throne in 521 
after the brief interregnum of the Pretender Smerdes, the successor 
of Cambyses, there lived a physician, a native of Croton, by the 
name of Demokedes, who, himself originally a captive, had by his 
art not only risen to the post of body-physician to the king, but 
had so insinuated himself into the confidence of Darius that the 
latter, upon a promise to return, had placed him at the head of a 
reconnoitering expedition to Greece. In violation of his pledge, 
Demokedes bent his course for the Southern coasts of Italy, where 
he landed at Tarentum and placed himself under the protection of 
its ruler. The Persians were compelled to depart without their 
leader, suffered shipwreck, and, having been taken captive, be- 
came the property of a certain Gillos of Tarentum, who restored 
them to Darius on certain conditions, among which one of the most 
important was the liberation of Pythagoras. And now, at the age 
of fifty-six, and for the first time since boyhood, the exiled philos- 
opher revisits his native land, arriving just in time, during a brief 
sojourn in Delos, to close the eyes of his old teacher, Pherecydes. 
But he was far from desiring to enjoy his well-earned rest. On 


the contrary, he at once set out on a six months' tour through 
Greece, whose estranged religious, scientific, and political condi- 
tions he was desirous of restudying before making his appearance 
as an independent teacher. 

We here reach the turning-point in Pythagoras's life, for from 
here on the hero of romantic adventures disappears and the philos- 
opher, the lover of wisdom, as he modestly yet proudly was wont 
to style himself, steps into the foreground. 

The beginning of this second period of his life was far from 
encouraging. At Samos, where he made his first attempt at instruc- 
tion, his efforts were so unsuccessful that, for fear of being utterly 
deserted, he was obliged to resort to bribery to win the attendance 
of the only scholar left him after his first lectures, a cousin and 
namesake, Pythagoras, son of Eratocles. Such a trying existence, 
compared with which the lot of a young lecturer in elective branches 
at German universities is an enviable one, was unendurable to 
Pythagoras. It is no cause for wonder, therefore, that he forsook 
his ungrateful paternal city and in 510 set out in search of a new 
home in the highly cultivated municipalities of Magna Graecia or 
Southern Italy. 

He betook himself to Croton, and the choice he made was an 
exceptionally happy one. For he found in this city a state which 
had already passed the tyrannic stage of government, a state in 
which neither the despotism of a single ruler nor the tyranny of the 
mob impeded intellectual advancement and in which neither wealth 
nor luxury had as yet exerted their baneful and enervating influ- 
ence, as had been so markedly exemplified in the case of the neigh- 
boring town of Sybaris. Not only were the inhabitants of Croton 
physically sound and athletic, but a healthy scientific activity pre- 
vailed in the place. The frequent victories which the Crotonites 
won at the Olympian games were proof of this, as was also its far- 
famed academy of physicians, who had gathered about the selfsame 
Demokedes with whom Pythagoras had become acquainted during 
his Persian captivity and who had so strangely assisted in his lib- 

The year in which Pythagoras took up his abode in Croton, 
the year 510 B. C, was a year of revolutions. Almost on the same 
day Tarquin fled from Rome and Hippias was driven from Athens, 
whilst in Sybaris unsuccessful insurrections were on foot aiming 
at the overthrow of the tyrant Telys, who, as was the wont in 
Southern Italian states, based his power on the plebeians. The 
contemplation of contemporary history, which alone discloses the 


right points of view in such matters, everywhere betrays symp- 
toms of the same movement which at this time was universally 
affecting Italo-Grecian civilisation. Even localities whose polit- 
ical stability admitted of no possible disturbance of the govern- 
mental fabric, were set intellectually agog, and the impulse so 
given could not help making strongly for ideal ends, and may even 
have directly tended to the religious mysticism which was politic- 
ally in store for them. At any rate, the trend of affairs was such 
that pure science was not likely to appeal to the ruling minds, and 
Pythagoras, if he desired to gain a hearing, was perforce obliged 
to adopt methods harmonising with either one of the tendencies 

In the light of these facts his conduct during the first weeks 
succeeding his arrival in Croton becomes intelligible. He appar- 
ently waives the realisation of his real object, the founding of a 
rigorous scientific school, in order the more surely to accomplish it. 
His very first appearance is a public oration to the young men 
of the city, in which he expounded so gravely and attractively the 
duties of youth that the fathers of the city besought him to deliver 
an address to them. And when in his second oration he emphasised 
obedience to law and purity of morals as the solid foundations of 
state and family, and when, as the consequence of his persistent 
exhortations, the senate resolved to abolish the growing evil of con- 
cubinage, his goal was virtually won, and the two following orations 
to the boys, and lastly to the women, only served to complete his 
triumph. His oration to the boys treated pretty much the same 
theme as that which he had sought to instil in the youth, but was 
clothed in a form which made it more readily intelligible to juve- 
nile minds. His address to the women is less perfectly preserved, 
"perhaps," as Roth says, "from being less coherently remembered, 
as might have been expected from women." Yet we know the out- 
come of it, for thousands and thousands of costly garments were 
donated to the Temple of Here because no woman longer ventured 
to be seen in ornate attire. Even from the meagre relation of the 
results of his addresses as here recorded one can comprehend the 
lightning-like power with which he blasted long-standing prejudices 
and frivolous vice. Stupendous as the sudden reform in morals 
was, no less universal was the enthusiasm. There was no longer 
the weary hunting for disciples ; a flood of listeners of all ranks and 
capacities streamed to his lectures. Besides the youths who listened 
all day to his teachings, nearly six hundred of the most prominent 
men of the city and many matrons and girls attended his evening 



lectures, and among the latter was the young, beautiful, and intel- 
lectual Theano, who had the good fortune to become Pythagoras's 

The natural result was as already indicated a division of the 
listeners into scholars proper, forming a narrower esoteric school, 
and into simple hearers (the Acoustici), forming a less exclusive 
exoteric school. The first mentioned, the mathematicians as they 
were called, consisted of those students to whom the doctrines of 
Pythagoras were taught in all their formal rigor as a rounded scien- 
tific whole and in their systematic logical connexion from the most 
elementary mathematics to the subtler speculations of philosophy 
and theology. At the same time they were taught that only a knowl- 
edge of the whole is productive of fruits, that fragmentary knowl- 
edge, on the contrary, owing to the miscomprehensions it gives rise 
to, is frequently dangerous, nay, even fatal ; and hence the secrecy 
and extreme reserve which the Pythagoricians as they were styled 
in later times manifested towards the public at large, and which 
they so jealously preserved that their writings were unknown even 
to antiquity until the time of the Ptolemies. The Acoustici, or simple 
hearers, from whom the Pythagoreans afterwards proceeded, are to 
be sharply distinguished from the Mathematici, or mathematicians. 
The former attended only the popular evening lectures where exact 
science was not considered. Carefully selected themes from ethics, 
morals, the doctrine of immortality and the transmigration of the 
soul constituted the principal content of these lectures, and the 
listeners took with them to their homes, mingled and confounded 
with the information which they had derived elsewhere on the 
same subjects, such knowledge as their several capacities enabled 
them to assimilate. The majority belonged to the school of physi- 
cians above mentioned, and the enigma of the confounded charac- 
ter of their doctrines and conceptions, which are quite dissimilar 
and plainly have their origin in contradictory spheres of thought, 
can only be explained on some such hypothesis. 

But the political agitation which we mentioned above had not 
yet passed away. Its undulations still swept the petty States of 
Southern Italy, and they carried Pythagoras and his school to the 
loftiest pinnacle of glory. In Sybaris, as we have already learned, 
the aristocracy had been crushingly defeated by Telys and his sup- 
porters. The fugitive and exiled nobles repaired forthwith to Cro- 
ton, where they were hospitably received, and negotiations in their 
behalf set on foot. But when the Crotonian ambassadors to Sybaris 
were treacherously murdered by the Sybarites, what was at first 


mere sympathy on the part of the hosts was immediately converted 
into active espousal of the defeated party's cause. War was de- 
clared, and the army sent against the mighty Sybarites was victo- 
rious. The hostile city was completely destroyed, 509, and in the 
allotment of the confiscated territory, a piece of property fell to 
the share of Pythagoras, whither he retreated with his esoteric 
school of mathematicians. 

It is difficult for persons who have played a conspicuous part 
in the whirl of politics suddenly to sever themselves absolutely 
from public life without giving rise to this or that conjecture which 
is speedily transformed into a suspicion. Such was to be the fate of 
Pythagoras, and it cannot be gainsaid that appearances were against 
him. Roth may be right in denying that no scientific doctrine 
militating against existing political constitutions formed the ulti- 
mate keystone and secret of his powerful school ; nevertheless, the 
sharply-marked aristocratic division of his scholars into classes, 
the monarchical ascendency of their teacher, combined with the 
haughty reserve of the entire school towards the uninitiated, were 
ail that was needed to foster the development of such a political 
doctrine, and it was but a necessary result that in the lapse of time 
contempt of existing institutions should become the prevailing atti- 
tude of the school and suspicion of the future the dominant state 
of mind of the citizens. As yet the crisis was not reached, for, 
as subsequently to all times of ferment and revolution, so here too 
there followed a period of quiet and inaction which was not dis- 
turbed until the appearance of a new factor of unrest from the 

In 493 began the formidable onslaughts of the Persian kings 
on Athens and the allied States of the Grecian peninsula, and the 
shock spread with irresistible momentum. Sicily and Carthage felt 
it, and were implicated in the struggle. Nor could the States of 
Southern Italy escape its influence. Not being drawn immediately 
into the maelstrom of the war, they vented their agitated feelings 
in embittered internecine and civil strife. So it was in Croton when 
Hippasos, who had been ejected from the school as an unworthy 
aspirant to its honors, placed himself in 490 at the head of the 
democratic party and appeared with a public and formal accusation 
against his former associates. The school was dispersed, Pytha- 
goras was exiled, his property confiscated, and he himself again 
compelled to grasp the wandering scholar's staff. He passed the 
succeeding sixteen years in comparative quiet at Tarentum, al- 
though still the object of persecution. But here, too, in 474, the 


populace overthrew the reigning aristocracy, and Pythagoras now 
in his ninety-fifth year, chose as his last haven of refuge, Metapon- 
tum, where he still managed to eke out for four years a miserable 
existence. When in 471 democracy also gained the upper hand in 
Metapontum, the house in which the meetings of the school were 
held was surrounded, set on fire, and most of its inmates burned. 
Pythagoras himself escaped the flames, but died shortly afterwards 
in his ninety-ninth year. 

Such were the life and fortunes of one of the greatest men of 
all times, as they have been preserved in the memory of his coun- 
trymen. That they are in the main fabulous is contended by many. 
Nevertheless, two facts remain unshaken — Pythagoras's sojourn in 
Egypt and his activity as a teacher in Southern Italy. At the same 
time we must bear in mind that the beliefs of the ancients, whether 
in themselves correct or not, are also facts. While it is true that 
Hercules never lived, the ideal of Hercules was an important real- 
ity in the mental evolution of Greece. In the same way, the life of 
Pythagoras, as remembered by his disciples, is intimately asso- 
ciated with his philosophy, and it will, therefore, even though a 
pure fiction, remain forever an essential part of history. 



THE CITY OF CHICAGO has taken the initiative steps in a 
work of relief that undoubtedly will be followed by other 
cities, and I wish to give briefly an account of the work done dur- 
ing the cold spell of last winter. 

The relief of the poor of the city has for many years past been 
handled by the county; but, as the appropriation for this year was 
small, it was impossible to cover the ground thoroughly; so when 
our extreme cold spell came on in January, his Honor, Mayor 
Swift, realised that something must be done, and at once. He felt 
satisfied that the citizens would gladly respond to his request for 
cash contributions, if they were assured that the contributions 
would be properly used. He therefore called the heads of the 
Police Department together on Monday, January 25, and a hurried 
consultation was held and plans made for quick service. It was 
decided that the Department should be utilised for ascertaining 
information of destitute cases, and for the immediate relief of all 
such cases. 

It was further decided that the Mayor should issue a procla- 
mation asking the citizens for contributions to be sent to him. This 
proclamation was published in the afternoon papers, and the morn- 
ing papers of the next day, and immediately cash commenced to 
flow in to him, until we had a bank account of over $61,000 to 
draw on. 

The plan of action adopted was that an immediate order 
should be sent to all police stations notifying all officers to investi- 
gate along their posts, and wherever a case of actual destitution 
was found to telephone the particulars at once to the nearest police 
station. On receipt of the report at the station the commanding 



officer was to load up in the patrol wagon sufficient supplies to 
provide for a week's sustenance for a family, and have it delivered 
at once. 

By ten o'clock on Monday, January 25, I had started out to 
order the goods for the relief. We decided to give to each family 
of four or less, five pounds of fresh beef, five pounds of corn meal, 
five pounds of beans, five pounds of peas, one loaf of bread for 
each member of the family, and two hundred pounds of coal; and 
double that amount for a large family. I visited the best whole- 
sale houses, and was able to secure a very low price on all goods 
that we v/ould want, and I ordered large quantities of the above 
articles sent to each police station ; so that by the evening of the 
first day the stations were all equipped with enough supplies to 
last them twenty-four hours. 

During the first week we were not very particular in investi- 
gating the cases reported. We simply wanted to know that the 
persons were in destitute circumstances, and that they were with- 
out means to provide sustenance and fuel. The cold weather con- 
tinued all through that week; the mercury going as low as twenty 
degrees below zero, and never higher than zero, and during that 
time there was not a case reported to our department that did 
not receive relief within one hour after the report was received ; 
and I am well satisfied that only for our prompt action there would 
have been a great many persons either starved or frozen to death. 

After the first week we were able to investigate all cases, and 
wherever we found a deserving family, they were given a relief 
card which entitled them to the amount of provisions named above 
every five days, and arrangements were made for delivering the 
coal in half-ton lots direct from the coal yards. We continued this 
work until the 20th of February, when the amount of money de- 
posited to our credit in the bank was exhausted. 

During the time we were engaged in this work, our supplies 
cost $61,855.81. Our meat amounted to 546,232 pounds at an 
average cost of 4.22 cents per pound, making a total of $23,084.76. 
Our orders for bread amounted to 470,736 pounds, a total of 
$13,296.90, an average price of 2.82 cents per pound. Our orders 
for meal, beans, and peas amounted to $9,750.48, an average cost 
of about I cent per pound. Our coal orders amounted to 6,004^ 
tons, or an average of $2.28|^ per ton, costing $13,720.72. 

We furnished food and coal to 65,557 families; an average of 
2,731^ families a day, or a total of 304,802 persons; being an aver- 
age of 12,700 persons a day. 


Every cent that was contributed to this fund was used in the 
purchase of supplies. There was not one cent paid out for clerk- 
hire, rent, extra time, or other expenses. In addition to the above 
purchases by our department, there were a great many thousand 
dollars' worth of goods donated in the way of coal, clothing, coffee, 
meat, fish, bread, blankets, shoes, and other goods, all of which 
was disbursed by this department. 

The officers of the department entered into the work with a 
zeal and devotion that will be long remembered by those who were 
familiar with the work ; and in addition to performing the duty of 
distributing the food, a voluntary subscription of $i,6oo was sub- 
scribed by the men of the department and added to the Mayor's 

One notable fact that will be of interest to persons interested 
in the study of crime was the great reduction in the number of 
crimes committed while the relief work was going on. The records 
of the department will bear me out in this statement that the 
crimes of robbery, larceny, and ''hold-ups" fell off fully 33 per 
cent. I draw an inference from this, that if our people are pro- 
vided with work, so that no one would be idle who is willing to 
work, that crimes of the above nature would fall to a very low 
figure, as there is no doubt a great amount of stealing done during 
the winter by persons who are forced to it simply to secure means 
to sustain life. 

In the poorer districts of the city our officers now are held 
with a great deal more respect than they were ever before. Thou- 
sands of people who heretofore have looked on a patrolman on the 
beat as an enemy, now salute the same officer as a friend. We 
found a large number of families who were actually destitute, who 
had never in their lives received charitable contributions, some of 
them would have suffered long in silence, and probably starved to 
death rather than ask for assistance, and a few cases we found of 
persons who had not a bit of fuel or provision in the house and no 
money to procure any with, but who, when told that their pro- 
visions would be brought in a patrol wagon, exhibited a degree of 
modesty that was surprising, and refused to be helped. Where a 
case of that kind was found, we arranged to supply them by send- 
ing the goods with an officer in citizen's clothing, and while we 
afforded them bodily relief, we also refrained from hurting their 
sensitive natures. 

As in almost all other work, there was a humorous side to this. 
I remember an instance of a portly colored women who was sup- 


plied at a station with a large basket containing five pounds of 
fresh beef, four loaves of bread, and other articles to fill her basket, 
and who walked from the station to headquarters, a distance of 
about two miles, and complained that she had not been given food 
enough. She expected to be supplied with fish and jelly cake. 

Among the contributions received at one of our stations was a 
pair of chromos, called "Wide Awake and Fast Asleep," which 
some of your older readers will remember as having been offered 
years ago as a premium with a certain religious paper; the donor 
no doubt thinking that they would be of great benefit to some suf- 
fering family. 

I submit the above facts for the benefit of those who make a 
study of charity, that they may see what can be done in a short 
space of time, by using a thorough organisation that is familiar 
with all parts of the city and the location of the poor. 





IN SPAIN the Jews must have settled at a very early time, for the 
Council of Elvira, assembled in 305, made enactments against 
them, which proves that they had already become numerous there. 
Under Reccared, the first Catholic sovereign of the Gothic race, 
the long-continued and relentless work of persecution began. His 
successor, Sisebut (612-617), ordered all his Jewish subjects to re- 
nounce their faith or quit his dominions. Under Sisenard the 
fourth council of Toledo, in the year 631, mitigated these measures 
of compulsion without rescinding any of the penalties which had 
been previously enacted. Chintilla, in 638, exiled the Jews, but 
they still remained in great numbers under Wamba (672). In 6g8 
Erwig persecuted them, while Egiza banished them upon the accu- 
sation of having entered into league with the Saracens of Africa. 
Witzia (in 710) recalled them. Under his successor, Rodrigo, the 
Saracens invaded Spain after the famous battle of Xeres de la 
Frontera in 711. The Jews greeted the Arabs as their deliverers, 
who again treated them kindly. In the reign of Abderahman III. 
(912-961) Cordova became eminent for industry and learning, and 
the Jews shared largely in the splendor and prosperity of the 
Arabs. Less peaceful times, however, the Jews enjoyed in the 
Christian states of the peninsula. 

From the southern part of Spain the Jews had emigrated to 
Castile in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, where they soon be- 
. came very prosperous. Their synagogues and schools increased, 
and, as formerly in the east by the resA galutha or head of the 
captivity, so were they now governed by the rabbino mayor, a Jew, 
usually in favor at court, and appointed by the^king. Every kind 





of office was open to them, and they often served in the army. But 
soon the populace, stirred up by the inferior clergy, gave vent to 
their envy, which manifested itself first by the usual accusations of 
sacrilege and the murder of Christian children, but soon broke out 
into open rage and acts of violence. Amid the general prosperity 
of the Jewish nation a massacre took place at Toledo in 12 12, and 
in 1213 the Council of Zamora, in Leon, vehemently demanded 
the revival and enforcement of the ancient laws against the Jews. 
In general, we may say that the kings of Castile and Aragon, with 
very few exceptions, stoutly befriended the Jews during the four 

The Master of the House Dividing the Apple on the New Year. 

centuries which elapsed between the reign of Ferdinand I. and the 
Catholic sovereigns Ferdinand and Isabella. Ferdinand I. was 
almost the only one who showed enmity to the Jews. Alfonso VI. 
(who conquered Toledo from the Saracens) granted many valuable 
privileges to the Jews. Alphonso IX. of Castile (i 158-1196) showed 
them still greater favor because of his love for the fair Jewess Ra- 
chel. The prosperity of the Jews in Castile and their influence 
reached the greatest height in the reigns of Alphonso XI. (1312- 
1350) and his son, Peter the Cruel (1350-1369). All this grandeur 
and these privileges were, nevertheless, not infrequently accompa- 
nied by violent acts on the part of the populace, and complaints 



and protestations from the councils and the Cortes, which had lit- 
tle or no effect upon the king. 

More perilous times, however, commenced for the Jews of 
Castile and the rest of Spain under John I. (i 379-1380). This king 
found occasion to deprive them of the immunities they had hith- 
erto possessed. Under Henry III. tumults took place at Seville 
in 1390 and 1391, and the Jewish quarter was attacked and burned 
to ashes. This fearful example spread, as by contagion, to Cor- 
dova, Madrid, Toledo, over the whole of Catalonia, and over the 

Feast of Pentecost in Prussia. 

isle of Majorca. In the first years of the reign of John II. a royal 
mandate, dated Valladolid, 1412, was issued, which contained the 
most oppressive measures that had ever been promulgated against 
the Jews since the time of the later Visigothic kings. Among other 
enactments, they were ordered to wear a peculiar dress. In con- 
sequence of these severe enactments, many joined the church, who 
were styled Conversos, or "New Christians." 

The glorious period during which Isabella, the sister of Henry 
IV,, with her husband, Don Ferdinand of Aragon, governed Cas- 
tile, brought a complete change over the whole face of the coun- 



try, and became to the Jews and also to the New Christians the 
time of a most striking crisis. 

But before speaking of this period, let us glance at some of 
the most famous literary men of the Jews during their residence in 
that country, before the close of the Middle Ages. We mention 
Menahem ben Saruk (d. 970), author of a biblical dictionary ; 
Jehuda ibn Chajug (in Arabic Abulwalid), the chief of Hebrew 

Reading in the Succah or Book on the Feast of Tabernacles. 

grammarians (about 1050) ; Ibn Ganath (d. 1050), the gramma- 
rian ; Ibn Gabirol (the Avicebron among the schoolmen), philos- 
opher, grammarian, commentator and poet (d. 1070) ; Ibn Pakuda 
the moralist (1050-1100); Ibn Giath, cosmographer, astronomer, 
and philosopher; Ibn Gikatilla, the grammarian (1070-1100); Ibn 
Balaam, commentator and philosopher (d. iioo); Moses ibn Ezra, 
the hymnist (d. 11 39); Jehuda ha-Levi, the philosopher and poet 
(d. 1 141); Abraham ibn Ezra, commentator, philosopher, and 



poet (d. 1 167); Jehuda al-Charizi, the Horace of Jewish poetry in 
Spain (d. 1230); Benjamin of Tudela, the traveler; Jehuda Tib- 
bon, the prince of translators (d. 1190); Isaac Alfasi, (d. 1089); 
Moses Maimonides, the greatest of all mediaeval rabbis (d. 1204); 
Moses Gerundensis or Nachmanides (d. 1270) ; Abraham Abu- 
lafia, the cabbalist (d. 1292); Moses ben Shem-Tob de Leon, 
the author of the Sohar (d. 1305); Jedaja Bedarshi or Penini 
(d. 1340); Abner of Burgos, better known by his Christian name, 
Alfonso Burgensis de Valladolid (d. 1340); Jacob ben Asheri ; 
Ibn Caspi (d. 1340); Gersonides or Ralbag, among the Jews 

II , iij av n-stx*^ 


1',. % '"'k^V./w //;[/. .;;, 

Palm Procession on the Feast of Tabernacles 

famous as a philosopher and commentator (d. 1345); Solomon 
Levi, of Burgos, better known by his Christian name, Paulus Bur- 
gensis, or de Santa Maria, bishop of Burgos (d. 1435) ; Joseph 
Albo, (d. 1444); Simeon Duran, the polemic (d. 1444); Ibn 
Verga, the historian, who died in the dungeon of the Inquisition; 
Abarbanel, the theologian and commentator, who was exiled with 
his co-religionists from Spain (d. 1515). 

The great prosperity of the Jews in Spain proved their ruin. 
The ignorant populace, instigated by the priests, could not brook 
the happy condition of the Jews, and wherever they were to be 
found they were from time to time pounced upon ; numbers of 



them were slain, while others, to save their lives, submitted to 
baptism. Thus the Spanish Church contained, besides a body of 
real Jewish converts, whose names are known by their excellent 
writings, a large number of nominal Christians who, by sentiment, 
remained Jews. Soon popular suspicion was aroused against these 
latter, the so-called New Christians, and at last the Inquisition was 
set in motion to find out those who, while outwardly conforming to 
the Church, secretly lived according to the rules of the synagogue. 
Horrible are the details of what the Inquisition wrought at that 
time in Spain; but, curiously enough, all to no purpose. Cruel as 
was the old Inquisition, it was to be surpassed by the new, estab- 
lished by Ferdinand and Isabella, and which cast so dark a shadow 

Procession With the Scrolls on the Feast of Tabernacles. 

over their reign. While the old Inquisition was of a limited power, 
and its influence of little importance, the powers of the "New In- 
quisition," or " Holy Tribunal," were enlarged and extended ; and 
under Torquemada, the first inquisitor-general, it became one of 
the most formidable engines of destruction which ever existed. Isa- 
bella at first felt great repugnance to the establishment of this in- 
stitution, and some of the most eminent men opposed it. But the 
Dominicans had set their heart upon it and were determined to ob- 
tain it. What finally determined the queen to adopt it was a vow 
she had made when a young infanta in the presence of Thomas of 
Torquemada, then her confessor, that if ever she came to the 
throne she would maintain the Catholic faith with all her power 



and extirpate heresy to the very root ; and thus it was that she be- 
came instrumental in the perpetration of the most horrible cruelties 
that blacken and deform the history of man. The New Inquisi- 
tion reached its climax in the year 1492, when an edict was pub- 
lished ordering all Jews who would not embrace Christianity to 
leave the country within four months. The news of the edict came 
upon the Jews like a thunder-clap. Every appeal to the compas- 
sion of the king and queen was defeated by the opposition of Tor- 
quemada. The Jews offered immense sums of money as a price 
for remaining in a country where they had already been established 

Smiting of the Desk on the Feast of Tabernacles. 

for centuries. But the merciless Torquemada presented himself 
before the king with a crucifix in his hand, and asked for how 
many pieces of silver more than Judas he would sell his Saviour 
to the Jews? Over 300,000 Jews left Spain and emigrated to 
Africa, Italy, and Turkey. Most of them went to Portugal, where 
they enjoyed a few years of rest. In 1497, however, they were 
again given the choice either to receive baptism or leave the 
country forever. Many abandoned forever the soil of Portugal; 
others, not few in number, embraced or feigned to embrace the Ro- 
man Catholic faith. Under Don Emanuel and his son, John III., 



the New Christians enioyed the protection of the state in every 
way in Portugal. 

Following the Spanish exiles, a short time after the edicts of 
1492 and 1497 Jews and New Christians were to be met with in the 
newly-discovered territories of America and in Brazil. In Africa, 
Asia, and the Turkish Empire their families and synagogues have 
been established and have continued to this day. In great num- 
bers the exiled Jews settled in the western parts of Africa, espe- 
cially in the states of Morocco. At Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, Oran, 

The Reading of the Law on the Feast of Tabernacles. 

and Fez, Jews soon felt themselves at home. In the Turkish Em- 
pire, soon after the taking of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, 
the Jews became a prominent part of the population, and when the 
Spanish exiles came there they found numerous synagogues and 
schools of learning. And although they belonged to one nation, 
yet they kept distinct from their co-religionists, preserving not only 
their own liturgy, but also their language, and were distinguished 
here, as everywhere, from the others, by the name of Sephardini, 
or Spaniards. In Italy, also, they were welcomed, with the ex- 
ception of Naples, where they were not allowed to remain. In 



the ecclesiastical states, especially at Rome, the exiles were but 
little persecuted, and the New Christians lived in far greater se- 
curity in the papal states than in Spain and Portugal. The Jews 
established printing establishments in Italy. The most celebrated 
was that at Ferrara, where the famous Spanish version of the Old 
Testament was printed. Italy was also the home of such learned 

Descendants of Aaron the Priest Blessing the People in a Synagogue in England. 

Jews as Nathan ben-Jechiel, author of the famous lexicon entitled 
Aruch; Solomon Parchon, another lexicographer; Immanuel of 
Rome (1320), a famous poet; Moses Rieti (1388), the Jewish 
Dante; Messer Leon (1480), philosopher and grammarian ; Isaac 
Nathan, author of a Hebrew concordance, etc. 

Shortly after the passing of the edicts in 1492 and 1497 many 

Historical sketch of the jews. 


Jewish emigrants sought refuge on the northern side of the Pyre- 
nees, where they enjoyed many privileges. Early in the seven- 
teenth century Portuguese Jews were settled and flourishing in the 
Danish states. At Hamburg, which was soon honored with the 
appellation of "Little Jerusalem," the Jews enjoyed a very great 
social prosperity. The country, however, which has shown the 
greatest favor and afforded the warmest hospitality to the exiled 
Spanish Jews, since the close of the sixteenth century, was the 
low countries of the Netherlands. When the first Jews, or New 
Christians from Spain, made their appearance in the low countries 

Sacrifice of the Cock on the Eve of the Day of Atonement in Russia and Poland. 

there was not a vestige of those French and German Jews whose 
troubles we have before related. The first indication of the re-es- 
tablishment of the Jews in the southern part of the United Prov- 
inces is found in the year 1516. At that time some refugees from 
Spain petitioned Charles V. to be allowed to reside in his domin- 
ions. Their appeal was unheeded, and severe edicts entirely ex- 
cluded New Christians from Holland. And yet, notwithstanding 
these edicts, many Jews were to be found in these provinces be- 
fore and after their separation from Spain. Their religion had long 
ceased to be tolerated, but they practised it with the greatest se- 



crecy and lived and prospered under Spanish names. At Antwerp, 
also, the concealed Jews were very numerous, and had established 
academies for the study of Hebrew and Spanish literature. Most 
of these Spanish and Portuguese Jewish families established them- 
selves shortly afterward in the Protestant low countries, to seek 
there complete freedom for the exercise of their religion. Their 
first settlement at Amsterdam was made on the side of East 
Friesland. It was from Embden that, in the year 1594, ten indi- 
viduals of the Portuguese families of Lopes, Homen, and Pereira, 

The Eve of the Sabbath. Lighting the Sabbath Lamp in a French-Jewish Family. 

came to Amsterdam, where they soon resumed their original Jew- 
ish name of Abendana, and in the year 1596 the day of atonement 
was celebrated by a small community of Portuguese Jews at Am- 
sterdam. In 1598 the first synagogue was built in that capital, and 
in 1618 the third. In 1639 the three were united to form, from that 
time onward, one single and inseparable community of Spanish 
and Portuguese Jews, and in 1675 a handsome synagogue was 
built by them. In the meantime the German and Polish Jews had 
also established their synagogues at Amsterdam, which, like Ham- 
burg, was a "Little Jerusalem." 



Of the authors and learned men brought up in the synagogues 
of Holland, we mention Manasseh ben Israel (1604-1657), who 
pleaded the cause of his brethren before Oliver Cromwell ; Uriel 
Acosta (1594-1640); Baruch, or Benedict Spinoza (1632-1677), 
a. o. At the Hague, too, the Portuguese Jews enjoyed great pros- 
perity and esteem, and their synagogue is situated in one of the 
finest quarters of the town. 

Almost immediately after the discovery of the New World, 
the Jews from the Peninsula established themselves in America. 
The first Jewish colony was established in Brazil, in 1624, when 

Preparing for the Burial, in Belgium. 

the Dutch took possession of the country. The nucleus formed 
by the Jewish settlers from Holland was greatly strengthened by 
the progress of the Dutch in Brazil, under William of Nassau, 
about 1640, when some 600 Jews sailed from Amsterdam to Brazil 
in 1641, but were obliged to leave again in consequence of the 
downfall of the Dutch rule in Brazil in 1654. In the meantime, 
the settlement founded in French Guiana increased at a rapid rate, 
the Jews enjoying special privileges here. During the wars be- 
tween France and England in the reign of Louis XIV., the Jews in 
Eastern Guiana [suffered severely, in consequence of which they 



settled at Surinam. Their privileges were confirmed under King 
Charles II., by Lord Willoughby (1662) and the Dutch and West 
Indian Company. Of those parts of the West Indies where Jewish 
settlements are to be found, the British colony of Jamaica deserves 


< I. ' 

A Jewish Wedding in Poland. 

special mention. Here a large Hebrew congregation has been in 
existence since the middle of the seventeenth century. As regards 
the Jews in the United States and North America at large, the late 
Professor Cassel disposes of those in North America in the follow- 
ing pithy words : "To the Jews emigrated to America, especially 


"to the United States, that continent represents the land of the in- 
" dependence the settler obtains by the very fact of setting his foot 
" on its shore. The Jews of North America have no history of their 
"own; theirs is the history of the freedom of that continent. 
"American Jews there are none, but only Jews from all parts of 
"Europe who emigrated there, formed congregations and were free 
"and independent. In the seventeenth century, Jews went to 
"North and South America with the English and Portuguese; in 
"the eighteenth century they joined in the struggle of the American 
"colonies for their independence; and in the nineteenth America 
" is the great commonwealth, where the Jewish portion of the pop- 
" ulation of Europe, being sick of Europe — some impelled by the 
"spirit of adventure, others by rank despair — seek and find a har- 
" bor of refuge."^ 

In England, as we have seen, Manasseh ben Israel, of Amster- 
dam, pleaded the cause of his co-religionists before Cromwell. Al- 
though this effort was then in vain, yet in 1666, under Charles II., 
permission to reside and practise their religion was granted to the 
Jews. Since that time Jews have become very numerous in Eng- 
land, which was and is to them a real home. 

The Reformation opened a new and better era to the Jews. 
Not that the reformers personally were much more tolerant to them 
than the Romish hierarchy, but the very fact that the boasted 
unity of the Church had received a serious blow, made people more 
inclined to toleration. Besides, since the invention of the printing 
machine, the Jews had been engaged in publishing beautiful copies 
of the Hebrew Bible and of the Talmud. This brought their learn- 
ing into prominence, and some of the leaders of public opinion 
were more friendly to them. Reuchlin, for instance, stood man- 
fully up for the preservation of the Talmud. Luther, too, owed 
much to the Jews ; for it was chiefly with the help of a Latin com- 
mentary to the Old Testament made by Nicolas de Lyra, which 
embodied the sober-spirited and ingenious explanation of Rashi, 
that he was enabled better to understand and translate the Old 
Testament from the original Hebrew, hence the couplet of the Re- 
former's enemies : 

" Si Lyra non lyrasset, 
Lutherus non saltasset." 
If Lyra had not harped on profanation, 
Luther would not have planned the Reformation. 

t The fury of persecution formerly directed against the Jews, 
was now directed against heretics in the bosom of Christianity 

1 Art. " Juden " in E^'sch und Gruhcr's Allgeineine Encylclofcidie, 1853, 



itself, and while the Jews were left alone, yet the anathema of pub- 
lic c.nLsa:pc ni'.Tiiiiation, and exclusion from every public or pri- 
vate connexion still lay heavily upon them. Thus the period of 
iwo hundred and seventy years, which intervened between the 
Reformation and the French Revolution, was of a monotonous 
character to the Jews, with the exception of a few instances, which 
attracted public attention. Thus in 1677 the pseudo-Messiah, Sab- 

bathai Zevi (born at Smyrna in 
1625), died at Belgrade as a Mo- 
hammedan. Notwithstanding 
the apostasy of this pretender, 
there were some who upheld his 
claims even after his death, and 
asserted that he was still the true 
Messiah, and that he was trans- 
lated to heaven. Some even of 
his most inveterate foes, while 
living, espoused his cause after 
his death. A few years later this 
heresy appeared under a new 
form, and under the guidance of 
two Polish rabbis, who travelled 
extensively to propagate Sab- 
bathaism, which had its follow- 
ers from Smyrna to .Amsterdam, 
and even in Poland. In 1722 the 
whole sect was solemnly excom- 
municated in all the synagogues 
of Europe. In 1750, Jacob Frank, 
a native of Poland, appeared, 
who caused a schism in the syn- 
agogues of his native country, 
and 1 founded the sect of the 

The most extraordinary movement which occurred among the 
Jews in the eighteenth century was that of the sect termed the 
Chassidim, or hyper-orthodox Jews. In 1740 a certain Rabbi Israel, 
surnamed Baal-Shem, i. e.. Possessor of the Name, i. e., the mys- 
terious name of God, appeared at the head of a small party of 
men, first at Hussti ; and afterward at Medziboze in Podolia, who 
called themselves Chassidim or Saints. Rabbi Israel was most 
probably a man of devotional and enthusiastic spirit, who felt the 

Jewess of Bagdad. 



insufficiency and lifelessness of Rabbinism, and thought he had 
discovered the essence of true piety in the mysticism of the cabal- 
istic system. His fame soon spread, in spite of the opposition of 
the rabbis ; and in a short time his followers were numbered by 
tens of thousands. As long as he lived, the sect formed one great 
whole, of which he was the head. After his death, which took place 
in 1760, it was divided into separate congregations, each of which 
had its own rabbi or Tsaddik or Saint, unreserved devotion to whom 

The Jews' Quarter in Cracow. 

is the most important of all the principles of the'sect. In a word, 
before Pius IX. was declared infallible, the Chassidim had already 
their infallible popes, whose number is still very large in Poland, 
Wallachia, Moldavia, Galicia, and Palestine. Of these popes of the 
Chassidim, a modern Jewish writer, the late D. Cassel says : "To 
the disgrace of Judaism and modern culture the Tsaddikim still go 
on with their disgraceful business, and are thus the most essential 
hindrances to the dissemination of literary progress in Galicia and 
Russia. There are still thousands who behold in the Tsaddik the 



worker of miracles, the prophet, one who is in close communion 
with God and angels, and who present him with rich gifts, and 
promulgate the wonders which they have seen, Covetousness on 
the one hand and spiritual narrowness on the other are the chan- 
nels through which the evil is fed anew." 

Contemporary with the rise and progress of the sect of the 
Chassidim, there lived in Germany the famous Moses Mendelssohn, 
born in 1729 at Dessau, a man whose remarkable talents and writ- 
ings constituted an era in the history of the modern Jews. The 

Jews Bargaining in the Market-Place of Cracow. 

influence produced by the writings of Mendelssohn was to destroy 
all respect for the Talmud and the Rabbinical writings among the 
Jews who approved his opinions, and thus rendered them dissatis- 
fied with their religion, and drove them, on the one hand either to 
the adoption of total infidelity, or of Christianity on the other, as 
is the case of his own children. 

Mendelssohn died in 1786. Six years before Joseph II. ascended 
the throne of Austria, and issued in 1782 his edict of toleration, 
which marked for the Jews the beginning of a new era in the Ger- 
man Empire, as well as in other Austrian countries. In Austria 



proper, from the first establishment of the duchy in 1267, the Jews 
were regarded as belonging to the sovereign of the country. In 
1420 and 1460 persecutions broke out against them in Vienna. In 
1553, Ferdinand I. had granted them the right to reside in the Aus- 
trian capital, but at a little later date expelled them. Maximilian 
II. recalled them, and Ferdinand II. permitted them, about the 
year 1620, to erect a synagogue in Vienna. In 1688 an edict ap- 
peared signifying the wish that they leave Vienna and the Duchy 
of Austria entirely ; but in 1697 we find that the Jews had grad- 
ually returned in large numbers. 
After the accession of the Em- 
press Maria Theresa their con- 
dition improved, and under 
Joseph II. they enjoyed equal 
rights and privileges with other 
subjects. They enjoyed these 
advantages until after the death 
of Joseph II. The reactionary 
spirit then prevailed in Austria, 
and many privileges were with- 

As in Catholic Austria, so in 
Protestant Prussia an amend- 
ment in the condition of the 
Jews began to appear and de- 
velop itself as early as the 
eighteenth century. Under the 
Elector of Brandenburg, Fred- 
erick William (1640-1688), the 
Jews had again an asylum and 
a safe abode in Prussia. Dur- 
ing the reign of King Fred- 
erick I. the synagogue at Berlin was built. Frederick William, 
the father of Frederick the Great, was equally favorable to the 
Jews, although Frederick the Great is thought not to have looked 
favorably upon them. He did not persecute them, but, on the 
whole, they were treated as inferior to the other inhabitants of the 
country, and the whole community was considered responsible for 
the crimes of its individual members. The successor of Frederick 
the Great endeavored by new laws to effect a salutary change for 
the Jews ; the result was, that some of them attained to consider- 
able wealth, but the majority of them retained a degraded and 

A Wealthy Jewess of Warsaw. 


dependent position, which continued till toward the close of the 
eighteenth century. Mendelssohn, it is true, tried to elevate his 
people, and to bring about this task he was assisted by such 
men as Hartwig Wessely (1725-1805), Isaac Euchel (1716-1804), 
David Friedlander (1750-1834) and others. But the effect pro- 
duced by his writings was precisely the same as that occasioned by 
the writings of Maimonides six centuries earlier — to render the 
Jews dissatisfied with their religion, as has already been stated 

The French Revolution marked a new era in the history of the 
Jews. Not only the Jews, but also the Christians, or, more properly 
speaking, the civilised world, had become intoxicated with the idea 
of reforming everything. Several writers, as Dohm and Gr^goire, 
advocated the regeneration of the Jews, and the French revolution 
furnished an opportunity of realising some of their ideas. The 
Jews had been much neglected or cruelly oppressed, but now a 
new system of legislation commenced. On September 27, 1791, 
the French National Assembly declared them citizens of France. 
On September 2, 1796, a similar decree was passed in Holland. 

Napoleon, when in the zenith of his power, perceiving the 
spirit that was stirring in the Jewish mind, conceived the idea of 
turning it to his own advantage. He thought that the Jews, existing 
in considerable numbers in most parts of the world, understanding 
all languages, possessing great wealth and endowed with talents, 
might prove useful allies in his plan of universal empire. He under- 
took the vast project of giving these scattered fragments a centre 
of unity in their long lost, but never forgotten, national council — 
the Sanhedrim. His idea was that all Jews in the world would 
obey the Sanhedrim, and that this body, with its seat at Paris and 
appointed by himself, would be governed by him. He clearly saw 
that with the old-fashioned Jews he could effect nothing. The land 
of their love was Palestine, their hope the Messiah, and God their 
legislator. He knew that to them their religion was everything, 
and his decorations of the Legion of Honor worse than nothing, 
yea, an abomination. To make use of the Jews it was necessary 
to reform them, and he perceived in the nation a large party, ready 
and willing, though upon different principles, to be the agents in 
effecting this reform. And though Napoleon's intention was to 
make the decisions of the Sanhedrim the religious law of all the 
Jews in the world, yet he felt the indecency of legislating for a re- 
ligious body to which he did not belong. He therefore thought it 
necessary, at least to preserve an appearance of permitting this 



body to reform itself. On July 28, 1806 (on a Sabbath-day), the 
French Sanhedrim began to sit, and nominated as president Abra- 
ham Furtado, a distinguished Portuguese of Bordeaux. After the 
meetings were fully constituted, and were prepared for the trans- 
action of business, Napoleon appointed the commissioners — Mol^, 
Portalis, and Pasquier — to wait upon them, and to present to them 
twelve questions, to answer which was to be the first and principal 
occupation of the Sanhedrim. 
The answers given by this body 
were satisfactory to Napoleon, 
who convened another great 
Sanhedrim, February 9, 1807. 
To this assembly the rabbis from 
various other countries, espe- 
cially from Holland, were in- 
vited, in order that the princi- 
ples promulgated by the body 
might acquire general authority 
among the Jews. 

The Jews throughout France 
were at first highly pleased at the 
interest taken by the Emperor in 
their affairs. But their joy was 
soon afterward diminished by an 
edict which he issued in the pro- 
vinces bordering on the Rhine, 
and which restricted the Jews in 
their commercial affairs. Never- 
theless, in Westphalia, Napoleon 
exerted a favorable influence 
by supporting the reformatory 
endeavors of Israel Jacobson 
(1768-1823) who devoted him- 
self to the diffusion of education 
among his brethren by establish- 
ing schools and a seminary for thejproper^[mstruction of -teachers 
among them. The same Jacobson also undertook a reform in the 
public worship. The temple which he built at his own expense at 
Seesen, he furnished with an organ, a choir of school children, 
and commenced regular preaching in German. This was the first 
instance since the destruction of the Temple that instrumental 
music was introduced into Jewish worship. The Rabbinic Jews 

A Jewess of Tangier. 


regarded the playing upon instruments as a labor, and therefore a 
desecration of the Sabbath. But the reformed Jews cared little for 
rabbinic principles, and hailed this change with enthusiasm. Sub- 
sequently temples were built at Berlin, Hamburg, Leipsic, and 
other places. 

Beyond the borders of France, the principles set forth by the 
Sanhedrim found but a faint echo, and soon met with positive op- 
position, especially in Germany and Holland. It is true, that the 
French armies at their invasion of the Netherlands in 1795 were 
successful in effecting by degrees a complete emancipation of the 
Jews. Yet, strange as it may appear, the emancipation was received 
and estimated very differently by the Jews of Holland than by those 
of France. With a few exceptions, the Jews from Spain and Portugal 
who were lovers of monarchy and aristocracy upon principle, and 
devotedly attached to the House of Orange, cared nothing for the 
so-called emancipation, which accorded little with their political 
attachments and their religious opinions. Even the Jews of the 
German and Polish synagogues of Holland, the so-called Ashkena- 
zim in opposition to the Sephardim, were little disposed to ex- 
change their ancient Israelitish nationality, for the new political 
character offered to them by the Revolution. Only a small num- 
ber, following the spirit of the age, formed a kind of political asso- 
ciation under the name of Felix Libertate, which gave rise to a 
schism in the synagogue, that lasted till the reign of William I. 
From this association the Felix Libertate, which had founded an 
independent synagogue, named Adath Jeshurun, three deputies 
were sent to the Sanhedrim at Paris. 

In the new Batavian Republic, founded in 1795, the opinions 
concerning the political equality of the Jews were divided. There 
were many admirers of the Revolution of 1789 in France, and that 
of 1795 in Holland, yet they were restrained by scruples of con- 
science from wishing for a complete naturalisation of the Jews. 
Finally, however, the contrary opinion prevailed, and the change 
was made. Under the government, first of Louis Napoleon, and 
then of the House of Orange, the Jews of Holland became recon- 
ciled by degrees to their new political rights. After the restoration 
of the House of Orange to the government of Holland, the prin- 
ciple of absolute equality among all the inhabitants also remained 

In Belgium, also, the Jews enjoyed equality in the sight of the 
law. In spite of the new political position of the Jews in Europe, 
constituting as it does a new epoch in history, the ancient barriers 



between the Jews and Christians could not be broken down. In 
Germany, for instance, the entire emancipation of the Jews, which 
in France had been established, as it were, in a moment, had to 
struggle for more than thirty years longer. Already before the 
Revolution of 1789, in the principal states of Germany measures 
were taken to secure to the Jews some rights and to amend their 
condition. The French Revolution and the influence of the French 
Imperial Government considerably aided the cause of the Jews 
throughout a great part of Germany, especially in Westphalia and 
Prussia. The reign of King Frederick William III. assured to the 

An Old Jew Of Tangier. 

A Young Jew of Tangier on the Sabbath. 

Jews by the edict published March 11, 181 2, the right and title of 
Prussian citizens, with some restrictions and conditions. 

When the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, settled the affairs of 
Europe, the sixteenth article imposed upon the Diet an obligation 
to take the necessary measures for advancing the social improve- 
ment of the Jews, and to obtain for, and to secure to, them the en- 
joyment of all civil rights, on condition of their fulfilling the duties 
connected with them. This proposal met with intense opposition 
from many quarters. The prejudices against the Jews seemed to 
be intense, varying in their nature and degree according to the 
different circumstances of the thirty-eight states into which the 
Germanic body was divided. In the end the Congress decided to 


leave the decision of the matter to the legislation of the respective 
states representing the confederation. When this subject came up 
subsequently for discussion in the legislative bodies of the several 
states, it was found that three distinct parties existed, who might 
be termed the Conservative, the Historical, and the Revolutionary. 
The conservative party wished to leave things in statu quo, the 
historical appealed to history and insisted upon making progress 
and improvement in harmony with the necessities of the age. The 
revolutionary party, caring for neither history nor religion, insisted 
upon an entire revolution of things, in which, amid the cry of uni- 
versal equality, liberty, and fraternity, the Jew should secure his 
rights. The most famous of the revolutionary party was Bruno 
Bauer who openly declared he did not wish for the emancipation of 
the Jews, but for their entire extinction and destruction in a new 
race of pantheistical humanity. The king of Prussia, Frederick 
William IV., in the spirit of the historical party, published an 
edict, July 23, 1847, according to which equality of rights and du- 
ties was secured to the Jews, with some exceptions. The year 
1848, with its revolutionary principles, effected the full emancipa- 
tion of the Jews in Germany, and ever since they are found in par- 
liament as well as in universities, schools, etc. Of late a reaction 
has taken place against the Jews of Prussia, the so-called "Anti- 
Semitic Movement," the end of which cannot be foreseen. 

In England, Parliament passed in 1753 a bill for the naturali- 
sation of the Jews, but in the following year the bill was rescinded. 
After many fruitless attempts for the political emancipation of the 
Jews, the question was finally settled in 1858, and in that year 
Lionel Rothschild took his seat for the city of London as the first 
Jewish member of the House of Commons. 

In the Scandinavian countries the Jews enjoy many liberties, 
but not their absolute emancipation. In Russia the Jewish popu- 
lation has experienced at different times various kinds of treatment, 
and it seems as if the last emperor of Russia was bent upon their 

As in Russia, the Jews experienced a diversified fate in the 
territories of the pope, varying according to the peculiar disposi- 
tion and prejudices of the successive popes. Under Pius VII. 
(1816-1825) they enjoyed ample protection and equal franchises; 
different, however, it was under Leo XII. who reinforced old and 
obsolete bulls. Under Pius IX. the Ghetto of the Jews at Rome was 
solemnly and publicly opened, and thus the wall of distinction and 
separation between Jews and Christians was removed. The Pope's 


example was followed by Charles Albert of Sardinia, in 1848, who 
proclaimed perfect equality of political rights to the Jews. 

In Mohammedan countries — Asiatic and African — the relation 
between the Jews on the one hand and the government and people 
on the other has progressed in exact proportion to the influence 
that Christianity and the growth of civilisation have exercised on 
those countries. Still great, however, is the contempt in which 
Jews and Christians, and more particularly the former, are held 
by the Mohammedan population. But on the part of the govern- 
ment of the Viceroy of Egypt and of the Sultan of Constantinople, 
a gradually increasing favor has been exhibited to the Jews. At 
one time only, in 1840, an accusation was levelled against the Jews 
in Syria, for having assassinated Father Thomas who for thirty 
years had practised medicine at Damascus, and who, as had been 
reported, was last seen in the Jewish quarters. A persecution 
against the Jews took place, scenes of barbarity occurred, till at 
last the representatives of the European governments made an end 
to the cruelties. 

The number of Jews scattered all over the world may be esti- 
mated at a little over seven millions, and is distributed as follows : 

Europe. Asia. 

Belgium 5,000 Afghanistan 14,000 

Bulgaria 24,000 British India 26,000 

Denmark 4,000 Persia 

Germany 579,000 Russian Asia 40,000 

France 80,000 Turkey in Asia 195,000 

Greece 6,000 


Great Britain 60,000 

Italy 45,800 

Total for Asia 294,000 


Luxemburg 850 Abyssinia 200,000 

Netherlands go, 000 Egypt 8,000 

Austria 1,005,000 Algiers 48,500 

Hungary 641,000 Morocco 200,000 

Bosnia 6,000 Tripoli 6,000 

Portugal 300 Tunis 45,000 

Rumania 400, 000 

Russia 3,236,009 

Sweden 3, 800 

Switzerland 8,800 

Servia 4,400 

Spain 6,900 

Turkey in Europe 94,600 

Total for Europe 6,301,450 

Australia has 13,500, and New Zealand 2,500. 

1 According to the N'e'w York Independent of January 7, 1897, only 139,500. 

Total for Africa 

.. 507,500 


British N. America 


Dutch Possessions 


Central and S. America. . . . 


United States^ 


Total for America . . . 

. . 285,200 



This makes a grand total of 7,404, 150 Jews on the whole globe, 
which figures are doubtless the most complete and accurate. 

The Jews who use the Arabic dialect are called Moghrabim, 
numbering about 160,000 souls, and are found in Northern Africa 
and Palestine. Those who still retain their Spanish dialect are 
styled Sephardim, now scarcely numbering more .than 300,000, 

English Jew, With Talith and Phylacteries. A Praying Jew of Galicia, With Talith. 

and are found chiefly in Italy, Greece, Turkey, Palestine, North 
Africa, but also scattered in small communions in France, Holland, 
Germany, and England. The Ashkenazim, numbering more than 
6,000,000 souls, have their chief seats in Germany, Austria, Russia, 
and Poland, but are found scattered also in the Orient, Italy, 
France, Holland, Scandinavia, England, and North America. They 
constitute the bulk of the Jewish nation, speak the "jargon" or 


Jewish German, to which in Russia and Poland Slavonic elements 
are added. 

All three classes of Jews, as far as their members belong to 
the old faith, follow the rabbinical law as laid down in the Talmud, 
and afterwards codified by Moses Maimonides in his Mishna Thora, 
who also is the author of the Jewish creed, which the orthodox 
Jew repeats every morning. More minutely Talmudic Judaism is 
expounded in the Shulchan Aruch or the arranged table, composed 
and compiled by Rabbi Jacob Karo. 

In religious belief, however, there are Jews of the old faith and 
Jews of the new faith. When towards the close of the eighteenth 
century the Jews began in great numbers to take active part in the 
development of modern civilisation, those concerned in the move- 
ment could not fail to recognise that the rabbinical law contained 
much which is superstitious or inhumane, not compatible with the 
ethical standards of modern culture ; that the divine service needed 
reorganisation, especially by the introduction of sermons in the 
language of the country : that the youth ought to have a fuller 
instruction in the Bible and the elements of doctrine and ethics ; 
and acting on this conviction the natural result was that there 
arose a distinction between the Jews living in Central and Western 
Europe or in the United States, and the Jews settled in or coming 
from Eastern Europe. The latter retained Judaism in its old me- 
diaeval petrified form, the former entered upon a development de- 
manded by the times. 

Among the neo-Judaic party there arose two classes, the so- 
called Orthodox and the Reformed. The former retain the old 
Rabbinical standards, though purged from their extravagancies ; 
they still use the Hebrew language in their services, but from time 
to time permit sermons in the language of the country ; they also 
hope, on the basis of prophetic promises, for the return of Israel 
to Palestine, together with the establishment of an earthly Messi- 
anic kingdom of which Jerusalem shall be the capital and which 
will embrace the whole world. The Reformed Jews without hav- 
ing virtually broken with the past, take an absolutely independent 
standpoint toward the Mosaic law ; they employ throughout the 
language of the land in their public worship ; they consider them- 
selves genuine citizens of the State to which they belong. But 
most of them have given up the faith in a divine revelation ; they 
idealise and rationalise Jewish thought and see in the acknowledg- 
ment and acceptance of this thought by all men the religious 


golden age of the future. Some of them have lost all religious 
conviction, and become absorbed in mere materialism. 

Within the old orthodox branch of Israel two groups have been 
developed, the Perushim or Mithnaggedim, i. e., adherents to the 
Talmud, and the Chassidim or adherents to the younger form of 
the Kabbala, i. e., the mysticism and theosophy of Judaism. They 
revere pious men, whom they believe can, on account of their inti- 
mate connexion with the upper world, assist their devotees with 
infallible counsel and heavenly blessing. Their Tsaddik or Saint 
is as infallible as the pope. 

There is violent war between the different Jewish religious 
classes. The traditionalists condemn the worship of the moderns 
as semi-heathenish. The moderns despise the ignorance and the 
superstition of the traditionalists. Both, however, agree in the re- 
jection of Jesus as the Christ. 

In Europe the synagogue has produced a number of learned 
men, who have enriched oriental literature and other sciences. In 
America, the land of the free, the Jews have been less productive. 
Those who have distinguished themselves were and are foreigners. 
More is to be expected in the future, since the American Jews have 
established schools of learning, which supply the synagogue with 
teachers and preachers. 




LONG BEFORE the vacation began, he came home. His boots 
spattered to the very tops with mud, his hat soaked by rain 
even to the very lining, and an eye flashing nervously and angrily 
as he stood before his father. 

"Who is this, then?" asked the latter, grasping the tip of his 
long beard and rubbing his old eyes with it. "Can this be my 

"Father, that's who it is. I'm sorry to say it is, father." 

"Then the university is burned out," said the old man. 

"No, the university still stands. It is I that am burned out." 

The old man gVasped the youth firmly by both shoulders as 
though to shake him. But as the young man scarcely moved at all, 
he said : "This is not ashes. Not at all. This is one who has a solid 
framework in his body. Perhaps it is in your pocket that things 
have gone wrong?" 

The youth had thrown his soaked hat into a corner, and him- 
self upon the sofa. 

"You may have a calf butchered, papa; I come as a prodigal 
son. That is, — no, have me butchered. I am a prodigal son. I 
shall be one and shall remain one. There is no repentance in me. 
Let the calf live ; but let me have a drink, I am thirsty." 

The old man went up to him and laid his hand upon his brow : 
"Is it possible that anything is out of tune here?" 

"It is out of tune here,'" said the young man, pointing to his 



"O yes, I see, — in love," laughed the old man. "And for that 
the long trip in this beastly weather? Good, my son, that you value 
so highly the blessing of your old father." 

"The blessing will grow stale before I find a sweetheart." 

"Not that, then? An Adonis of twenty, and not in love? 
For shame! A healthy medical student, and not in love? — Boy, 
you're studying anatomy, aren't you?" 

No, father. That is just it. I am no medical student. I am not 
studying anatomy. And that is why I am here destroying your pet 
ambition, poor, dear father!" 

The old man filled his pipe ; it had a stem so long that he 
handed the match to his son: "Be so good as to start the fire." 
When he had taken several whiffs, and the blue rings were waver- 
ing about his grey head, he said : "So not a medical student! Well, 
why not, please? " 

"To make it short : I can't stand the infernal dissecting-room." 

"You can't stand the in — " 

" — fernal dissecting-room. It sickens me." 

" O, you dear baby you, that passes off in a few days." 

"For four weeks I attended. Then again for four weeks. The 
last day was even worse than the first." 

"Do you expect me to believe that?" asked the old man im- 
perturbably. "Why, you have often helped me bravely with surgi- 
cal operations at home. No dread of blood, no blood poisoning. 
Why, a cadaver is nothing in comparison." 

"God forbid that a cadaver should sicken me," cried the youth, 
springing up from the sofa. "It is the infernal frivolity that sick- 
ens me. Say, father, am I sentimental? Was I ever?" 

"Like a golden russet in September! That is about my idea of 
your heart. Sentimental? Not that I know of." 

"Or am I a scoundrel?" snorted the young man, pacing up 
and down the room. "And if everything that goes on in the world 
is done or is said to be done for the sake of mankind, — every call- 
ing, every science, — or isn't it so? — what sort of a physician is that 
that has no respect for mankind! If I am to respect the human be- 
ing in myself and in others, I cannot be entirely irreverent toward 
a dead body. God knows,- 1 cannot! And if I despise the dead 
body like a — like a — I don't know what, then the living body is — 
mere dough! Yes, father, yes! Then I renounce medicine and shall 
become a soldier, or a hermit, or any arabesque in society." 

The old man took a deep pull at his pipe and looked at his son 


with a smile. He even nodded his head a little. "Now I really 
begin to see clearly, Adalbert, that you were born for a physician." 

"I can't scream louder," replied the youth, "if you don't un- 
derstand me now " 

"Ah, how well I do understand you, my son! They write to a 
hospital : Request for three bodies, female if possible, at six florins. 
Good. The boxes come and are opened. The servant loads the stiff 
naked body upon his shoulder as a butcher carries a dead hog. On 
to the ice with it ! The extremities upon the dissecting-table for 
the first-year students, the trunk for — " 

"Please don't, father, it is horrible." 

"It certainly is not poetical, my child. But it is necessary. 
Are young people to study anatomy on manikins? Or is this science 
really unnecessary? Does it only serve to satisfy idle curiosity, or 
at best the perfection of knowledge, and practically has the physi- 
cian, who of course cannot take his patient apart like a clock, no 
use for anatomy? Is it possible that you have been taken by such 
silly phrases as these?" 

"Indeed, I have not! The most thorough study of the human 
body, not in books, but in practice, is the first requisite for a phy- 
sician. Certainly, that is clear." 

"Well, then, young gentleman, what do you want?" 

"Another profession." 

"Since you are so delightfully inspired for the dignity of hu- 
manity, — what profession do you mean, which is so entirely filled 
with respect for others? Politics, perhaps? Or stock-broking? 
Name a calling, please, which demands greater sacrifices on behalf 
of mankind than that of medicine. One of these sacrifices, for in- 
stance, is so great that my young medical student is about to desert 
his colors because of it. Because out of respect for human kind he 
is repelled by the thought of making examinations of human bodies. 
Moreover, my boy," added the old man, laying his pipe on the 
table, "I had precisely the same experience thirty-five years ago 
that you are having to-day. My feeling the first time I entered the 
dissecting-room was one of rebellion. The brutality of the perform- 
ance, and besides many a jest of thoughtless boys with the bodies, 
and the vulgarity of it all! Mere butchery! And these 'subjects,' 
— were they not human beings who a few days before had been 
living and suffering like ourselves, animated like us by the same 
ideals, spurred by the same 'demons' ! This dead man to whom I 
am applying the knife mechanically,— is not some mother-heart 
weeping for him? Or some inconsolable widow, or a deserted or- 


phan? How faithfully this body may have been nursed, how mod- 
estly veiled and guarded! And now! — On every highway the hurry- 
ing crowds bare their heads for a moment when a funeral passes 
along ; the cemetery is a sacred place in all the world, even when 
all that rest in it are strangers to us. Everywhere the dead are re- 
spected, but not in the dissecting-room. A joyful 'ah! ' runs through 
the ranks of physicians and students, if the cadaver reveals an ab- 
normity from which a human being had suffered untold misery and 
finally perished! And when I saw how they burrowed into the vi- 
tals, — Adalbert, I felt their knives in my own breast. And I felt 
for the outstretched dead, thinking : If that were my father, or my 
brother, or my son! So it came about one day that they carried me 
out of the hall in a swoon " 

"And yet you went back?" the youth exclaimed. 

"And yet I went back," replied the old man calmly. "I 
thought : Consider, if you think that there is too little reverence in 
the dissecting-room, you must simply carry some into it. At least 
for your own personal use. Many a calling is sadly vulgar, yet man 
can consecrate it. For coarseness in general, abominable, despic- 
able coarseness, you will never be able to banish from the world. 
There are vulgar creatures everywhere, even in the temple of knowl- 
edge ; and men of refinement, even in workshops and mines. The 
right man consecrates his calling and his work himself. Even if 
the work is only for money and property, for worldly vanities, man 
can by a good thought give it a noble meaning. The miner, as he 
goes down into the earth, says : A happy return! The peasant who 
sets plough to the sod, says: In God's name! The sailor puts out 
to sea with an appeal to Mary! So they all have their phrases and 
their prayers with which they refresh their hearts lest they perish 
and turn to stone. The young physician, of all persons, must not 
let his heart perish and turn to stone ; he needs it too much for the 
suffering brothers and sisters to whose welfare he has consecrated 
himself. And so I, too, devised me a phrase, a prayer, for the dis- 
secting-room. It did me good service." 

"May I know it?" asked the son. 

"You shall know it, Adalbert; you should have hit upon it 
yourself. 'You can interrupt your promenades through the room a 
moment and listen to me quietly. It is a very short lesson. Listen. 
When I entered the room, and before me on the table lay the form 
with the dull, yellow, waxy gleam, stark naked, cold as clay, clean 
shaven, the sunken eye fixed, the features expressionless, robbed 
of all humanity, — then I thought: "Thou dear, fortunate dead man! 


While the most of thy kind must be given over to the earth straight- 
way, thou art chosen to be useful to men even in death! Through 
thy remains, before they turn to ashes, the flames of knowledge 
and intelligence will be kindled, of power and performance for the 
common weal, so that from thee, thou dead body, new life shall 
pass into the limbs of the sick. Thou art chosen to contribute to 
the welfare of humanity. I honor thee ! " — Behold, my son, this 
thought made me strong. Protected by this thought, my heart es- 
caped the danger of growing brutal in the dissecting-room, and 
thus protected, I think I saved for the sick-room what little ideal- 
ism I had." 

"That sounds different," said the student. " Perhaps I will 
change my mind after all. But why doesn't the professor from his 
desk talk of these matters?" 

"Why, there has to be something left for the father to say." 



COMPASSION with the suffering is a virtue; indeed it is that 
virtue which in itself constitutes humaneness and which, 
wherever absent, changes a man into a brute, a wild beast of prey. 
Let us therefore by all means foster this gentlest of all virtues, 
which is the main jewel in the crowns of the two greatest religious 
leaders of the world — Jesus the Nazarene, and Gautama the Sha- 
kyamuni. But compassion should not be allowed to grow rank ; 
compassion is a sentiment, and he who yields to sentiments with- 
out subjecting their exercise to criticism and discrimination, ceases 
to be a man of moral responsibility and degenerates into a creature 
of instinct. Compassion as a blind instinct is unquestionably a 
nobler fault than wrath, but as a passion it is a fault, it is senti- 
mentalism, and its influence can become the more baneful the less 
its deficiencies are anticipated. Thus an untruth in the mouth of 
the erring who honestly believe it to be a truth may be more dan- 
gerous than an ethical falsehood pronounced by a liar. 

The anti-vivisection movement, as it is carried on, is in this 
sense guilty of immorality, and we deem it our duty to state our 
views of the subject openly and frankly. We do not doubt that the 
anti-vivisectionists are noble men and women ensouled with the no- 
blest of all virtues, compassion for the suffering, but they lack upon 
the whole the most essential of all virtues, which is thought, dis- 
crimination, discretion, consideration of consequences, a surveying 
of the situation and a weighing of the implications of the question 
as well as the results to which it leads. 

Not to be misunderstood, the writer of this article states at 
once that he sanctions all those aspirations which tend to alleviate 
suffering of all kinds, in man and in animals, not excluding even 


the insects and the vermin which molest our life. He would con- 
demn all contrivances and traps which involve unnecessary pain 
or produce suffering; but for that reason he would not demand 
that we should not resist those creatures, be they small or great, 
that are pestiferous and obnoxious. There is no merit in sparing 
the life either of a tiger or a louse ; but it is a vice to take delight 
in torturing a wild beast caught, and also in prolonging the death- 
struggle of a fly. It is our moral duty to resist evil, but we should 
not resist evil with evil. Let us combat evil and all the creatures 
representing evil in an honest and square fight, but having con- 
quered them, let us not delight in their destruction, for even the 
meanest and most wretched creatures deserve our compassion; 
they are the products of circumstances and cannot help being such 
as they are. Being evil, they deserve destruction, but he who finds 
pleasure in serving as their executioner becomes vicious in exactly 
the same degree that he yields to the passion of hatred and vin- 

Mark well that whenever a murderer is condemned to die, that 
the law must condemn him and not the judge. The judge only pro- 
nounces the judgment, and the executioner is an instrument of the 
law, not a murderer. A judge who hates the criminal is in his heart 
guilty of an offence similar to that for which the criminal is con- 
demned. A true judge has a sorrowful heart, and great is his re- 

The two greatest religious leaders of mankind, Buddha and 
Christ, have taught us to have compassion, but neither the one nor 
the other prescribed to avoid once and for all the infliction of any 
suffering. On the contrary, they taught that suffering is unavoid- 
able. Buddha did not say that salvation is obtained by yielding 
unreservedly to the sentiment of compassion ; he taught salvation 
by enlightenment. The bodhi, or enlightenment, is higher even 
than compassion which implies that the compassion which we must 
exercise towards all suffering beings is subject to the discrimination 
afforded by the light of the bodhi. And Christ's mission is mainly 
a lesson of sacrifice which means that salvation is obtained through 
suffering. There is no sentimentalism in either case. 

Among the Buddhist Jataka tales is the story of the sacrifice 
which the Bodhisat accomplishes in his incarnation as a hare for 
the sake of keeping by his flesh a starving Brahman alive who was 
engaged in religious contemplations. The story illustrates that it 
is the higher life which must be enhanced, not life in general. Life 
in itself is not sacred ; it becomes sacred only when devoted to the 


acquisition of a nobler, fuller, better phase of life. We therefore 
demur when in another Jataka tale we are informed that a Brah- 
man gave himself up for food to a starving tiger.^ 

Morality consists, religiously speaking, in doing the will of 
God ; or simply, in performing the duties of life ; that is to say, in 
achieving that which according to the nature of the universe in 
which we live raises us higher, renders us nobler, and extends the 
sphere of our power. 

The word "we," in this connexion, does not mean our corpo- 
real individuality ; it means that spiritual part of ourselves which 
constitutes our personal character as it lives and grows in the evo- 
lution of mankind. It means that peculiar form of endeavor in us 
which we have received from the past, both by inheritance and 
acquisition; that part of ourselves which does not die at the disso- 
lution of our body but continues after us, — in a word, it means our 
soul, and morality is what promotes growth of soul. Thus the 
characteristic and most essential feature of morality is not the in- 
crease of the happiness of our fleeting individuality, of our self, 
the temporary abode of our soul; but it is the extension of our good 
will to all that is good, based upon the acquisition of a clearer and 
ever clearer insight — a heartfelt insight — into the nature of the 
interrelations of all things, especially of all living beings. 

If we call the conditions of being to which we must accommo- 
date ourselves, in other words the ultimate authority of conduct 
(of whatever nature it may be) " God," and if we define the recog- 
nition of these conditions of existence as the essence of religious 
" truth," (which are two popular terms that can easily be under- 
stood), then we say that morality is an endeavor to find the truth 
and live according to its behests, or briefly, it is conformity to God. 

Immorality is all that which antagonises morality, and there 
can be no question about it that self-indulgence is the main, — nay, 
the sole cause of going astray. Self-indulgence is yielding to pas- 
sions, and passions are sentiments of high tension. 

Self-indulgence may either be from ignorance, in which case it 
appears excusable without, however, escaping thereby its evil con- 

1 There is, however, a possible interpretation of this Jataka tale, which would justify its 
moral. First, we must recognise that the tigress, according to the story, is starving with her 
cubs ; and the Brahman sees in her the mother sacrificing herself for her children. Secondly, 
the Jatakas are written in the spirit and style of fables. As the lion represents a king, and not a 
beast of prey, so the tigress must be regarded as the widow of a noble Kshatrya family. When 
the Brahman gives himself up for food, the meaning is simply that he sacrifices himself for her; 
he assists her and keeps her starving progeny alive by means that are ruinous to himself, and 
this is expressed in the usual fable style. It we take fables literally, we will find them all non- 
sensical and ridiculous. 


sequences, or it may be consciously willed. All the wild beasts and 
creatures lower than man suffer from ignorance by blindly following 
their appetites, and wherever they exhibit moral qualities, they 
rather happen to strike the right than choose it deliberately. Man 
alone possesses the prerogative of either being a consciously-willed 
evil-doer or becoming a truly ethical man — a morally enlightened 

Now we ought to bear in mind that the moral man should 
never yield without previous deliberation to a sentiment or passion 
of any kind, not even to the gentlest and noblest, such as charity, 
compassion, love. Be full of charity, compassion, and love, but 
do not yield at once to every gentle motion of your heart, for your 
charity may be misplaced and your love may do more harm than 

A noble zeal for truth was the original motive that begot the 
Inquisition ; and a genuinely charitable spirit has pampered pau- 
perism in Italy and other good Christian countries. 

Therefore we must beware of yielding to sentiment, for every 
kind of yielding to sentiment is self-indulgence and will be produc- 
tive of good by haphazard only in the same way that an animal may 
perform a moral deed if his disposition at a certain moment happens 
to be excited in the right way. 

The anti-vivisection movement we cannot help regarding as 
such thoughtless yielding to sentiment. The sentiment is noble 
and evinces a gentle disposition of the heart, but whether it is 
moral, whether it is right, whether it leads mankind upward is an- 
other question ; and it appears to us that it cannot stand a careful 
weighing of all the pros and cons. Before the tribunal of ethics it 
stands condemned as much as all those other sentimental aspira- 
tions, indiscriminate alms-giving, the burning of the bodies of her- 
etics for the sake of saving their souls, and showing mercy to the 
tiger because he ought to have a chance of reforming and might 
learn to eat cabbage and grass like a lamb. 

This life is a struggle and only the courageous will conquer. 
Courageous is he who does not fear to leave his body on the battle- 
field in order that his aspirations, his cause, his soul may be vic- 
torious. But shall we be courageous only so far as our own individ- 
uality is concerned ; must not the leader in battle have courage for 
the whole army. Indeed, he must. Victory is gained only by 
sacrifices, by the wounds of the gallant, by the death of the brave. 

Count Moltke had his own sons in the ranks of the German 
army, and he was a man of the gentlest disposition, kind, compas- 



sionate, and taking pity even upon the sufferings of a dog. Yet for 
a great purpose he was determined to make any sacrifice that was 
necessary to achieve it, and he said that "a whole regiment of sol- 
diers had fulfilled its purpose if at a critical moment they were all 
slaughtered for the sake of delaying the enemy ten minutes." 

Where the fate of a nation is at stake, the individual must be 
ready to lay down his life, and it is the duty of those who are ap- 
pointed to watch over the weal of the nation to stake the lives of 
the present generation for the sake of a nobler and higher unfold- 
ment of the future. 

As to vivisection, we all know that it is not a pleasant duty of 
the physiologist, but it is an indispensable task that must be done 
for the sake of investigation. It falls within the same category 
with all sacrifices. Should science neglect to search for light in 
this most important domain, the domain of life, its representatives 
would be guilty of a gross neglect of duty. They would be like 
generals who would retreat before the enemy, because the enemy's 
bullets endanger the lives of their soldiers. They would be like an 
officer in the fire department who, inspired by the idea of not caus- 
ing pain to anybody, would recall his men from the burning build- 
ing when they ought to rescue its inmates, because the firemen 
might blister their hands. 

Vivisection may truly have, and frequently will have, the tend- 
ency of blunting the sentiments of the vivisector ; but so does dis- 
section. Shall we surrender dissection as an obligatory part of 
medical instruction lest the moral sense of the student be shocked ? 
There are a few quack schools of medicine in this country which 
undertake to educate physicians, but their degrees should not be 
recognised, for they leave their graduates ignorant on one, perhaps 
on several, most important subjects. It is true enough that the 
human body in its wretched nakedness is subjected on the dissec- 
tion-table to most undignified treatment, which is liable to make 
the student vulgar and rude ; but for that reason we cannot abandon 
dissection. The right thing to do is to teach the student the moral 
aspect of dissection and put him on his guard against the demoral- 
ising influence of the dissection table. Do not cut him off from 
one of the best sources of information, but strengthen his moral 
nerve that he can bear the view of the Medusa without having his 
heart petrified by the sight of her terribly ugly features. 

The present number of The Open Court contains an article by 
Peter Rosegger on the subject which ought to be read by every 
medical student in the country. Peter Rosegger proposes as an 


antidote for the demoralising influence of the dissecting-room the 
following prayer, to be spoken by the dissector whenever he begins 
the ghastly work — so indispensable in the study of medicine : 

"Thou dear, fortunate dead man! While the most of thy kind must be given 
over to the earth straightway, thou art chosen to be useful to men even in death! 
Through thy remains, before they turn to ashes, the flames of knowledge and intel- 
ligence will be kindled, of power and performance for the common weal, so that 
from thee, thou dead body, new life shall pass into the limbs of the sick. Thou art 
chosen to contribute to the welfare of humanity. I honor thee! " 

The anti-vivisection movement might be excusable if there 
were any valid arguments to prove that vivisection is useless. But 
the very opposite is the case. Innumerable discoveries of the most 
beneficent kind have been made through experiments on animals. 

An anti-vivisectionist writes that he would rather die than pur- 
chase the prolongation of his life with the sacrifice of an innocent 
animal. That sentiment seems noble and generous. But should we 
not be ready to kill a million rabbits if we can thereby save the life 
of one child attacked with diphtheria? Now the question is not 
one child against a million rabbits ; but many millions of children 
of all the generations to come against a few hundred rabbits ; and 
consider that not man alone but the whole animal creation, too, is 
the gainer by every progress of science. 

It is not our intention to enter here into a detailed discussion of 
the anti-vivisection movement, but suffice it to say that many pub- 
lications of the anti-vivisectionists are guilty of gross exaggerations 
as to the number of the victims of vivisection and the cruelties 
to which the dissected animals are exposed. The truth is that all 
the great scientists who are famous as clever vivisectors are as con- 
siderate as possible and avoid all unnecessary suffering. It is of 
course not exactly impossible that there are among the minor lights 
of science men ruthless enough to delight in the cruelty of their 
work, but it is very improbable. I believe that it is painful to vivi- 
sectors to be reminded of the fact that their subject is a living 
being ; but whenever they think of it, they cannot help being 
touched by a sentiment of compassion. 

Every compassion is a pain. While the anti-vivisectionist 
weakly indulges in his sentiment and thoughtlessly yields to the 
impulse of removing it, the investigator knows that the victim is 
sacrificed for a great purpose, and he can say to the rabbit on the 
table before him : "Blessed art thou, poor creature ; thou art dis- 
tinguished among thy comrades and glorious is the destiny for which 
thou hast been chosen. While most other animals die of direful 


diseases, frequently under terrible pains, thou shalt give thy life 
for science ; for the sake of revealing the mysteries of existence 
and for the purpose of giving us instruction as to how some of the 
ills that flesh is heir to may be cured. Blessed art thou ; for thy 
death helps to build up life, and the preservation of lives of many 
noble men and women will in part be due to thee. In them and 
with them thou wilt gain an immortality of a noble kind, which in 
the same way is otherwise not granted to the brute creation." 

There is a great field for the humane societies^ and they can 
do a noble work by elevating mankind and refining its sentiments, 
and also by protecting the dumb creation against the cruelty of 
savage masters. We are with them in all these worthy endeavors 
with heart and soul. In addition they may set their face against any 
kind of vivisection performed by those not called upon, but when 
they begin to meddle with science and forbid the physiologist to 
investigate life in the living animal, it is time to pronounce the 

Vivisection, if strictly kept within the limits of its important pur- 
pose, is a moral obligation ; and he who would hinder the physiol- 
ogist in the performance of his duties makes himself guilty of im- 
moral conduct; but any cruelty to animals, viz., every lack of 
respect for life, every thoughtless or wilful infliction of pain, every 
delight taken in torturing, injuring, or destroying sentient beings, 
is a crime that should be denounced and reprimanded and, if ne- 
cessary, checked by the power of law. 

1 We Americans are greatly plagued with flies in summer and most houses are protected by 
fly-paper. It^would be a good work if the humane societies, taking pity on the poor little captives 
whose feet are caught in the tanglefoot glue, would provide us with other means to dispose of 
these small^but troublesome and disease-spreading enemies. 

There is a fly-trap used in Germany which is made of glass and looks very much like a broad 
water caraffejWith neck and stopper, standing on three short legs. Its bottom is open at the 
middle, and the walls of the orifice rise so as to form a circular basin, which is filled with alco- 
hol. A little granulated sugar is placed underneath to attract the flies who never fail to come, 
and as theyalways fly upwards after having partaken of their sweet repast, they pass at once into 
the glass trap above where they are slowly but pleasantly affected by the smell of alcohol until in 
a state of perfect intoxication they lose control of their limbs and fall into the liquid at the bot- 
tom in which they drown without struggle. The only objection to this innovation would be the 
indignation ofour temperance societies when they see that we lend our help to make our fellow 
creatures drunk. 



To the Editor of the Open Court : 

I am very much pleased to read the very interesting article on "Mazdaism" 
in The Open Court (March, 1897), and hope that you will kindly permit me to 
make some friendly remarks thereon. 

"Ahura Mazda, the Lord Omniscient," has no form or representation in Zoro- 
astrianism, except, perhaps, the sun, which is the visible symbol of the Invisible 
One. The representation given at the beginning of the article, which is often with- 
out the body, and is sometimes called Scarahceus, represented since antiquity, 
and it still represents, Fravashi or Ferouer. De Mirville, author of Memoires a 
Vacademie, says: "Here we have the two heroes of the Old Testament, the Ver- 
"bum (?) or the second Jehovah, and his /«<:<? ('Presence,' as the Protestants 
"translate) forming both but one, and yet being two, a mystery which seemed to 
' ' us unsolvable before we have studied the doctrine of the Mazdean Ferouers, and 
' ' learned that the Ferouer was the spiritual potency at once image, face, and the 
"guardian of the soul, which finally assimilates the Ferouer." (Vol. V., p. 516.) 
It is the inner immortal man or true Ego which existed before its physical body, 
and survives all such bodies it happens to be clothed in. It is the impersonal and 
true essence of Deity. On account of its oneness with Ahura Mazda, there is a 
probability of taking its representation as that of Ahura Mazda. 

Now about Ahriman. It is generally understood by strangers that Ahriman is 
the adversary of Ahura Mazda, which is not true. There is no duality in Ahura 
and the charge often laid against Zoroastrianism as dualism is the result of a 
lack of understanding about the true essence of that religion. Ahriman is the cor- 
rupted or modified form of Angremainyus, the adversary of Spentamainyus, the 
former evil and the latter good powers in nature, on the plane of relativity, where 
duality begins in nature. The idea of Ahriman is not peculiar to Zoroastrianism 
only. Compare the struggle of Zoroaster with Ahriman in his efforts for union 
with Ahura Mazda [VendidAd, Farg. 19); with Gautama's struggle with Mara 
{Light of Asia. Book the Sixth); also the struggle of Jesus with the Tempter (St. 
Matthew, 4; St. Luke, 4); and again of Nachiketu's with Yama (Upanishad), and 
there one will find perhaps some clue to the problem of this misapprehension. 
Ahura Mazda has no adversary. This hint will be sufficient for your grasping the 
correct idea on this head. 

The sacred but mystic tree referred to in the article is not a botanical plant as 
it is often supposed to be, although certain drinks are consecrated and drank in the 



Hindu and Zoroastrian ceremonies bearing the same name. The mystic tree is 
the ma7i himself, — it is the tree of life. One who drinks the juice of that tree — 
the knowledge divine — can become immortal; it is by practically knowing the di- 
vine nature of man that man becomes immortal, and not by drinking potions of any 
botanical plant, however marvellous that plant may be. The Avesta literature of 
the Parsis is allegorical and mystic, and before it could be deciphered in its true 
light one must become pure like its authors. An article on this mystic tree, which 
is also found in almost all great religious and mystic schools, will be found (con- 
tributed by me) in Lucifer, Vol. XV., p. 491. 

In the ceremony which is performed in connexion with this idea, certain cakes 
{draona) are consecrated, it is true; but not "covered with small pieces of holy (!) 
meat (the myazda)." The last word means fruit, but our people having gradually 
become meat-eaters, the prejudice against meat-eating disappeared in course of 
time, and the "fruit" was transformed into "meat" by the later translators of the 
Avesta. Religion proper will never grant such an abomination ; the whole of the 
Yasna enjoins every Zoroastrian to protect gosli^aiids (kine, goat, sheep, horses, 
etc.). Ha 32, paragraph 12, strictly forbids slaughter of, or injury to, animals, 
even in joke. Here it is one with Buddhism. 

The bird represents a cycle, an eternity, a manuantara ; it also represents the 
human soul. 

If Mazdaism is similar to any religion, it is certainly not Christianity, nor 
Judaism, nor Mohammedanism, its own offspring, but the religion of the Vedas, 
as will be seen from the similarity of their languages, their worship, their philos- 
ophy, their national characteristics, and their one common ethnological source, the 
Aryan. It will take time, perhaps, before we shall be able to decipher correctly 
the symbolic inscriptions and to know the true rationale of religious rituals. 

The portrait of Zoroaster which appeared in your March number is entirely 
new to the followers of that most holy Master. Nasarvanji F. Bilimoria. 

Bombay, April 10, 1897. 

"in nubibus." 

To the Editor of The Of en Court : 

In the March number of The Ofeii Court is an article entitled "In Nubibus," 
in which there is the following statement : 

"Again, all parties, theists and atheists, can agree (since the universe had con- 
fessedly some beginning — ) in saying: I believe in a maker of heaven and earth." 

Who confesses that the universe had a beginning ? No one whose thinking is 
not dominated by the statement, "In the beginning God created the heaven and 
the earth." 

So far from there being agreement that the universe had a beginning, it is not 
possible for an intelligent man of this generation to conceive of a period when the 
universe was not. 

Let any one try to imagine it as springing out of nothing; or of thought, intel- 
ligence, or intellect as existing entirely disassociated from matter. 

We may, indeed, conceive of evolution as moving in a circle ; from nebula to 
man and from man to nebula, but not of the creation of fire mist out of nothing. 

Imagine a period remote as a quadrillion quadrillion centuries ere our earth 
took globular form : we are then no nearer a beginning than now, and are forced 


to admit that even then the universe had existed for more than a decillion decillion 

Nor are we able to conceive of a time when law was not. 

Endeavor to think of on age when there was no law of gravitation, when one 
mass did not attract another, when the laws of nature did not exist or were variant 
from what they are at this time. 

As to generals, there has been no beginning ; the universe, matter, mind, mo- 
tion, law, evolution have always been. As to particulars, myriads come into being 
each instant , there are countless new flowers, songs, birds, and sins ; facts in- 
numerable created every hour. 

Men build houses, and gods may make men and earths. Of what has happened 
in the illimitable past we know very little ; we find ourselves unable to dream of a 
condition when there had not elapsed sufficient time for the evolution from star 
dust of creatures equal to ourselves. 

All philosophy postulated upon a beginning of the universe or its laws is base- 
less. A. N. Waterman. 

Chicago, III. 

To the Editor of The Of en Court. 

In the February number of The Open Court I find that the Rev. G. J. Low, 
writing "In Nubibus, " misunderstands the position and work of Mr. Frederic 
Harrison as the leading Positivist in England. Mr. Harrison is President of the 
English Positivist Committee, and, I am sure, would repudiate the title and func- 
tions of " high priest." 

The February number of The Positiinst Reviezu contains an address by Mr 
Frederic Harrison, entitled "Theological Reaction." On page 59 he says : "We 
"repudiate the name of ' Comtists,' and we have never pretended to be bound by 
" the language of Comte, bound to believe anythmg on his authority, and to prac- 
" tise whatever he chose to preach or to recommend. . . . But whatever may be 
" the truth about the vast religious and social organisation which the genius of 
" Auguste Comte inaugurated for the future, we have never presumed to the folly 
"of trying to set up a working model of it in this place, and we shall never do so. 
"Nor has any such thing been done in Paris by Pierre Laffitte, the successor of 
"Auguste Comte in France. From time to time both he and we have tried to put 
"in force, humbly and tentatively, some illustration or type of what we feel to be 
"involved in a real religion of humanity. But the future must decide the ultimate 
"form and features in which it must be cast. All this to me is a matter subordi- 
"nate and capable of different solutions and issues. The religion of human duty 
"must, in its own good time, evolve such practices, institutions, and expression as 
"will satisfy the reason, the imagination, and the emotions." 

In the same review you will also find an article by Professor Beesly, its editor, 
entitled "Positivism and Comte." Of course the Rev. G. J. Low had no oppor- 
tunity of reading either of these articles before writing to the February number 
of The Open Court. But on many previous occasions both Mr. Harrison and Pro- 
fessor Beesly have clearly expressed themselves to a similar effect in regard to 
Comte, his doctrines, and proposals. 

I hope there is considerable sympathy between the " positivists in England," 
who accept as their leaders Mr. Frederic Harrison, Professor Beesly, and Dr. 
Bridges and the "new positivists," who adopt "the Religion of Science" as 
presented by you. Both adopt the scientific basis. But " Comtean positivism" is 


anthropocentric — all the powers of feeling, thought, and action being devoted to 
the progressive good of man, and natural laws being studied as conditions of im- 
provement. The " new positivism " is monistic, and regards the progressive good 
of man as the product of the operations of a divine power immanent in man and in 
his environment, and whose modes of working are described in laws which are irre- 

Comte's system is indicated in his formula — " love, for principle " (or motive) ; 
"order, for basis" ; and " progress, for end." And this same formula seems to me 
almost equally applicable to your system. Both forms of positivism may be re- 
garded as differing rather in range than in their basis ; for the foundation of each 
is science. Both are forms of a religion of love and truth and duty, and their re- 
spective adherents should therefore be on sympathetic terms. 

Though the "new positivism" is the more satisfactory to me, I must honor 
those whose whole religion is " devotion to humanity," and I much regret the mis- 
apprehension into which the Rev. G. J. Low has fallen regarding "positivism in 
England" as represented by Mr. Frederic Harrison. James Odgers. 

Knutsford, England. 



Recent statistics have given the literary output of France to be more than 
twice that of the United States, including the American duplication of English 
works. This enormous production is almost wholly confined to Paris, and it reflects 
not a little credit upon the intellectual activity of the French capital, besides refut- 
ing a widespread popular impression to the contrary, that a relatively large per- 
centage of French publications is devoted to philosophy, science, and practical edu- 
cation. Especially in the last two departments a high standard has always been 
maintained, and French text-books and expositions have for nearly a century served 
as models of lucidity, conciseness, and pedagogical tact. In philosophy, of late 
years, while nothing startling nor epoch-making has been produced, there has been 
considerable activity, particularly in metaphysics, and a fair level of originality, as 
distinguished from the re-elaboration of old thought, has been sustained. We have 
briefly to note here several of these works which have appeared within the last two 
months or so, and which come from the press of Felix Alcan,' perhaps the largest 
philosophical publishing house in the world. 

M. G. Tarde, jurist and sociologist, now the head of the statistical depart- 
ment of the French government, has achieved an enviable reputation by his recent 
writings. He has successfully developed and applied the theory of Imitation, which 
explains so many social and psychological phenomena, has written several peno- 
logical works, in which he has combated the theories of Lombroso, and also given 
to the world an interesting collection of Sociological Essays. His latest work, of 
which we now speak, L^ Opposition iinivcrsclle, essai d^ itne thcoric des contraires 
(price 7 fr. 50), forms the complement of his book on Imitation. There he con- 
sidered the things of the world and life as they were spontaneously reproduced, 
mimicked, and multiplied ; here he views them under the aspect of their antithesis, 

1 Address: 108 Boulevard St. Germain, Paris. 


opposition, and antagonism, seeking to reconcile the " Manichean, Satanic, and in- 
fernal " features of the universe with the kindness, love, and fraternity that issue 
therefrom. In fine, the book is an attempt to place the two evolutionary factors of 
strife and love, considered in their whole cosmical and social import, in the right 
scientific light. 

An important and profound subject is treated by Prof. Victor Brocard in his 
work De V Erreiir (second edition, 5 francs), originally presented as a thesis for 
the doctorate. After discussing the theories of Plato, Descartes, and Spinoza, he 
examines the nature, psychological causes, and logical conditions of error, showing 
that it is as natural as truth, that if it cannot be avoided it can be corrected, and 
that it springs from intellectual freedom in which it also finds its ultimate annihi- 

Somewhat related in subject but more metaphysical and rigid in character, and 
less easy of perusal, is the book of M. Leon Brunschvig, professor of philosophy 
at the Lyceum of Rouen, entitled La modalite dn jugemcnt (price, 5 francs). Pro- 
fessor Brunschvig sees in " modality of judgment " the central problem of philoso- 
phy and in elucidating its scope attacks some pretty knotty problems. His is cer- 
tainly not a book for "babes and sucklings," but the heavy-weight philosopher, 
skilled in the tossing of metaphysical dumb-bells, will enjoy its reading and draw 
from it considerable profit. 

M. Emile FERRifeRE is the author of many works which draw upon the facts 
of science for resolving the problems of philosophy, and notably of a trilogy of 
books on Matter atid Energy, on Life a?id the Soul, and on The First Cause, ^ 
which aim at demonstrating the substantial identity of energy and matter, the unity 
of animal and vegetable life (the soul is held to be a function of the brain!), and 
the existence of an immanent first cause, — a very thin, spectral, and Platonic first 
cause which need give the opponents of metaphysics little alarm, as it has been 
shorn of all its noxious attributes. M. Ferriere has given good resumes of some 
of the main results of mechanics, physics, physiology, and phylogeny, and has 
some excellent remarks on method, taken from Claude Bernard. We learn for the 
first time from his book that Lavoisier was guillotined not because he was an ex- 
farmer general, but because he refuted the theory of phlogiston of which the truc- 
ulent Marat was a devoted partisan. 

We have a curious plea in behalf of mystical intuition in the Essai sur les 
-^ondements de la coiuiaissance jnystique (5 francs) by Dr. E. Rec^jac, who 
would rescue the "heart" from the obloquy into which it has fallen as an engine 
of knowledge, and reinstate it in its rights along with the intellect. Those who 
have read the argument of Prof. Knight for the existence of God as expounded in 
his beautiful Aspects of Theism, will understand the principles which M. Recejac 
has sought to justify philosophically. 

The impending publication of the great edition of Descartes's works by M. 
Charles Adam has been the innocent cause of a booklet called Je fetisc, do?icje 
suis (price, fr. 2.50), by C. Paul Viallet, which is intended as an introduction to 
the Cartesian method. Descartes's own Discourse on Method should be read by 
every educated person and may be had in many cheap editions. Its simplicity, we 
think, does away with the necessity of commentaries, but as M. Viallet has at- 
tempted nothing original, his book will not be a serious impediment to its under- 

IThis is the most recent of the three and bears in French the title La pre7niire cause, d'nprls 
les donnles expirimentales . Price, fr. 3.50. 


We have, finally, in the didactic and expository line a critical study by Andre 
Cresson, Professor at the Lyceum of Alen5on, on La morale de Kant (price, fr. 
2.50), which was crowned by the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences and 
which simply seeks to facilitate the difficult reading of Kant's ethical work ; and 
further, a more necessary treatise on a subject which is certainly not less difficult. 
La logique de LLegel, by Georges Noel, Professor of Philosophy in the Lyceum 
Lakanal. \iKpK. 


Die Gottesoffenbarung in Jesu Christo nach Wesen, Inhalt und Grenzen, 
unter dem geschichtlichen, psychologischen und dogmatischen Gesichts- 
punkte prinzipiell untersucht von Dr. Paid Schzuartzkofff , Professor in 
Wernigerode. Giessen : S. Ricker'sche Buchhandlung. 1896. 
This booklet, God's Kevelation in Jesus Christ, is the fourth and last part of 
a series of pamphlets which will ultimately lead to nothing less than a reformation 
of Christian dogmatology upon the basis of exact philosophy. Professor Schwartz- 
kopff is a Christian who clings with all his heart to the religion that finds its reali- 
sation in the personality of Jesus Christ, but he is at the same time time a method- 
ical thinker who can probe the problems presented to him by his sentiments, and 
solves them as a chemist determines the nature of an element, by discriminating the 
essential from the accidental and fixing the limits that separate them. This he did 
in a booklet of his, " Could Jesus Err ? " The problem is, of course, no problem to 
unbelievers ; but Paul Schwartzkopff is not an unbeliever. To him it is a problem, 
and by answering the question in the affirmative he is led to distinguish between 
sinlessness and errorlessness. Christ was without sin ; that is essential if ever the 
Christian belief can be upheld that Christ is truly God revealed in the flesh. But 
being at the same time truly a man, he was subject to disease, to pain, to death, as 
well as to error, and Christians must learn to know in what respects Jesus could 
err, and in what other respects it was impossible for him to err. This methodical 
treatment of the Christian problem lays the foundation of a new Christology that 
will quickly recommend itself to Christian scholars. 

We are glad to learn that the importance of Paul Schwartzkopff's investiga- 
tions is appreciated in England. The treatise on the Weissagungeii Jesu has been 
published in an English edition by T. and T. Clark of Edinburgh, but we have not 
as yet seen the translation. p. c. 

Many students will find in the Concise LListory of Religion of Mr. F. J. Gould 
a manual which they have long been wanting. The third volume has just appeared 
and deals with the history of Christian origins and of Jewish and Christian litera- 
ture to the end of the second century. Although issued for the Rationalist Press 
Committee, the author claims to have preserved due impartiality, to have sup- 
pressed his personal beliefs, and "accorded equal respect to Pagans and Christians 
and Jews and Gnostics." "I leave Irenaeus to rail against heresies," he says; 
"my only aim has been to marshall facts." (London : Watts & Co. Pages, 280. 
Price, 5 shillings.) 

Professor Christiansen's Eletnents of Theoretical Physics has earned a de- 
served reputation in Europe. It has been translated from the original Danish into 
German and is extensively used as a text-book in Germany. Now an English ver- 


sion, made by Prof. W. F. Magie and Mrs. W. F. Magie of Princeton University, 
has appeared. The book is predominantly mathematical and can be used by no 
one who is not familiar with the Calculus ; the treatment is concise, formal, and 
rigorous, and for a person sensible to such things, not without its aesthetic quali- 
ties. The rendering has been excellently done, while the typography and letter 
press of the book also merit great commendation. (Macmillan : New York. Pages, 
333. Price, $3.25.) 

The Lowell Lectures On Habit and Instinct, which the distinguished English 
biologist Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan delivered in Boston and in other places in the 
United States last year, have been handsomely published by Edward Arnold, Lon- 
don and New York (pp., 350). All Professor Morgan's works are characterised by 
sound thought and perfection of expression, while at the same time they possess 
the merit, which most works on science lack, of being interesting. The present 
researches On Habit and Instinct are among the most important that have been 
made in recent years, and touch upon a subject that appeals to the experience of 
every one. 

Mr. T. Bailey Saunders has rendered a genuine service to English readers 
by his translation of Schopenhauer's essays. The last of the series are the papers 
on Hionati iVature, which are taken from the "Ethics and Politics" of Schopen- 
hauer's Parerga and have been faithfully and pleasantly rendered. (New York: 
Macmillan. Price, 90 cents.) If a new translation of Schopenhauer's main work 
should ever be undertaken, and in the opinion of some critics this is highly desir- 
able, Mr. Saunders should be entrusted with the task. 

The Uyiiversity Tutorial Scries, issued by the University Correspondence 
College Press of London (American agents, Hines & Noble, 4 Cooper Institute, 
New York), is a useful series of books for self-instruction. They are designed to 
aid students in preparing for the London University examinations and present the 
elements of the subjects of which they treat in a clear and simple manner. We 
have recently received two of the books of this series : (i) The Tutorial Statics, 
by William Briggs and G. H. Bryan (price, $1.00); and (2) The Tutorial Chem- 
istry, Part I., Non-Metals, by G. H. Bailey and William Briggs (price $1.00). 
Little demand is made upon the preparatory knowledge of the student in these vol- 
umes, elementary geometry and trigonometry being all that is required in the case 
of the former and elementary physics in the case of the latter. We can recommend 
both books to the autodidactic seeker of knowledge, who will find in them as much 
as he will in the average manual. 

Mr. Goldwin Smith's Guesses at the Riddle of Existence has provoked con- 
siderable discussion in orthodox religious circles, where his attempt is regarded 
with some suspicion. Mr. Smith is a publicist and scholar of renown, he wields a 
facile pen, and has clothed the arguments against mysticism, miracles, etc., in a 
form which will appeal to people. His philosophy is mild and never wades into 
deep water. But there is common-sense in the book, and the author has a clear 
and direct way of putting things which while never harsh leaves no doubt as to his 
meaning. (Macmillan: New York. Price, $1.50.) 

In Rays of Light, a little Buddhist periodical published in Ceylon, one of the 
contributors compares Buddhism to Christianity in the following quotations, the 


former culled from the Buddhist canon, the latter from the New Testament. Bud- 
dha said : 

" In a corrupt world be a lotus without spot." 

" Sin comes back upon the sinner like dust thrown against the wind." 
" The taint worse than all others is ignorance." 
"The way of salvation is through the practice of the virtues." 
"When the just man goes from this world to another, his good deeds receive 
him as friend greets friend." 

" Proclaim it freely to everybody, — my law is a law of mercy for all." 
"Forsake all evil, bring forth good, practice self-control, such is Buddha's 
path to end all suffering." 

" Not even a god could change into defeat the conquest of oneself." 
"Of all the lamps lighted in Buddha's honor, only one, brought by a poor 
woman, lasted through the night." 

"The four castes are equal, and the path is open for women as well as for 

In the New Testament we read : 

" But I say unto you resist not evil ; but return good for evil." 
"Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate 
you. Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father in Heaven is perfect." 

" Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you do ye even so to them." 
"Now abideth faith, hope, charity — these three, but the greatest of all is 

" God is love, and His tender mercies are over all His works." 
" Have we not all one Father ? Are we not all brethren ? We are all the off- 
spring of God." 

" In my father's house are many mansions." 

The number of such quotations can be greatly increased on both sides. 

Dr. Arthur Pfungst of Frankfort on-the-Main is a German poet who takes a 
great interest in Oriental subjects and especially Buddhism. He has translated 
various Buddhist scriptures, such as the Sutta Nipata, into German, thus making 
accessible to those Germans who are unable to read the English translations of 
the Buddhist sacred books. He is also the author of a long poem entitled Las- 
ka7-is of which the third volume has just now been published. The theme of this 
epic is the problem whether life is worth living. The answer which he gives will, 
in spite of its beautiful poetic solution, not be acceptable to the majority of man- 
kind, as it is not in the affirmative. Pfungst believes that life is not worth living. 
The poem touches also incidentally on other philosophical problems, such as de- 
terminism, ethics, etc. The whole is pervaded by a burning desire for understand- 
ing the truth which is expressed in the name of the hero of the third part, Phila- 
lethes. The pessimism which pervades Dr. Pfungst's solution of the world-problem 
should not discourage those who do not agree with him from studying his works. 



Devoted to the Philosophy of Science. 

Editor: Dr. Paul Carus . ' t s\ Edward C. Hegeler 

Assistant Editor: T. J. McCormack ssocia e -j ^^j^y c^rus 

Contents, April, 1897. 

Hegel To-Day. By Prof . Rudolf Eiicken. 

The Genesis of Social "Interests." By Prof. J. Mark Baldwin. 

Some Points in Intracranial Physics. By Dr. James Cafifie. 

The Conflict of Races, Classes, and Societies. By Prof. G. Fiamingo. 

The Mythology of Buddhism. Illustrated. By Dr. Paul Carus. 

The Theory of Mathematical Form. By A. B. Kempe, F. R. S. 

Literary Correspondence — France. By Lucien Arreat. 

Book Reviews. 

Contents, January, 1897. 

The Logic of Relatives. By Charles S. Peirce. 

Man as a Member of Society. Introduction. By Dr. P. Tofinard. 

The Philosophy of Buddhism. By Dr. Paul Carus. 

Panlogism. By E. Douglas Fazucett. 

The International Scientific Catalogue, and the Decimal System of Classification. By Thos. 

y. McCormack. 
Literary Correspondence — France. By Lucien Arreat. 
Book Reviews. 

Contents, October, 1896. 

Animal Automatism and Consciousness. By Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan. 

The Regenerated Logic. By Charles S. Peirce. 

From Berkeley to Hegel. By Ediuard Douglas Fazucett. 

Panlogism. By Dr. Paul Carus. 

Subconscious Pangeometry. By Prof. George Bruce Halsted. 

Hegel's Monism and Christianity. By Emilia Digby. 

India — Religious, Political, Social — of 1895. By Virchand R. Gandhi. 

Literary Correspondence — France. By Lucien Arreat. 

Book Reviews. — Periodicals. — Notes. 

Price, 50 cts. ; Yearly, $2.00. In England and U. P. U., 2s. 6d. Yearly, 9s. 6d. 


CHICAGO : 324 Dearborn Street. 
LONDON : 17 Johnson's Court, Fleet Street, E. C. 


Valuable Works in Science. 


The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution 

By professor E. D. COPE. 
Cuts, 121. Pages, 550. Tables, Bibliography, Index. Cloth, net, $2.00. 
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"A work of unusual originality. No one can read the book without admiring the intimate knowledge 
of facts and the great powers of generalisation which it discloses."— Prof. J. McK. Cattell. 

The Science of Mechanics 

Critical and Historical. 

By prof. ERNST MACH. 
250 Cuts. 534 Pages. Half Morocco, $2.50. 
"A remarkable work." — Nature. 
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Popular Scientific Lectures 

By prof. ERNST MACH. 
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